Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Book

Toyota Technical Review 2010

2010-08-01
Giving unique insight into Toyota's 2010 technical developments, this book includes 19 papers that chronicle the Japanese OEM's R&D activities in a variety of technologies during that year. This volume takes a special look at the Prius, Toyota's popular hybrid, along with other technical innovations. Title highlights include: Prius Technology • Hybrid Technologies in the 3rd Generation Prius • Chassis Development for the 3rd Generation Prius • Design of the Prius as an Eco-Icon Other Technical Areas • Introduction of the World's First Rear Seat Occupant Restraint System for Rear-End Collisions • Development of Fuel Consumption Estimation Technology Using VHDL-AMS • Development of Electrode Structure for High Performance Fuel Cell Using CAE
Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement of Occupied Car Seats

1999-05-17
1999-01-1690
An overview of model development for seated occupants is presented. Two approaches have been investigated for modeling the vertical response of a seated dummy: finite element and simplified mass-spring-damper methods. The construction and implementation of these models are described, and the various successes and drawbacks of each modeling approach are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the models, emphasis was also placed on producing accurate, repeatable measurements of the static and dynamic characteristics of a seated dummy.
Technical Paper

Compliance Criteria for Side Facing Aircraft Seats

1999-04-20
1999-01-1598
A series of side facing seat impact sled tests were conducted using the SID, EuroSID-1 and BioSID side impact Anthropomorphic Test Dummies (ATDs) at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI). The tests were performed on a side facing sofa fixture with a rigid bulkhead adjacent to the forward end of the seat. The purpose of the research project was to examine the methods utilized by the automobile industry to assess thoracic injuries due to side impact accidents, and to investigate the potential applicability of these methods for side facing seats and sofas in civil aircraft. Tests were conducted with single and double occupants. The test conditions complied with the 16g 44 f/s horizontal impact specified in 14 CFR 25.562. Various side impact injury criteria were evaluated in the tests, including the Thoracic Trauma Index (TTI), Viscous Criteria (VC), rib deflection and pelvis acceleration.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Response Data Measured During Severe Maneuvers

2000-05-15
2000-01-1644
During the past few years, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center has generated a plethora of reliable vehicle test data during their efforts to study vehicle rollover propensity. This paper provides further analyses of a small selection of some of the data. The analyses provided here derive in part from the previous work, trying to answer some of the questions spawned by earlier analyses. The purpose of this paper is to introduce several new concepts to the study of vehicle roll stability and provide case studies using the results available from the NHTSA testing. Results from several severe maneuvers are studied in detail to gain understanding of vehicle response in these cases.
Technical Paper

Friction Induced Rollover from Lift-Off to Launch

2000-05-01
2000-01-1649
A friction induced rollover event generally comprises successive stages of control loss, lift-off, transition from lift-off to launch, and roll to rest. This transition is, of course, not instantaneous due to vehicle inertia. It is analyzed by numerical integration of the equations of motion to determine roll angle and time to launch, plus roll velocity at launch, as well as intermediate values of roll angle, roll velocity and surface force versus time. Representative curves and launch values are presented. The time to launch, which is several times greater than typical vehicle collision contact time, is seen to be dependent on the magnitude of surface friction; while roll angle from over-center at launch and roll velocity at launch do not vary substantially with changes in vehicle and surface conditions. It is also seen that the surface force initially rises above static weight, producing lateral force greater than the friction coefficient times vehicle weight as rotation progresses.
Technical Paper

A Study in Rollover Prevention Using Anti-Rollover Braking

2000-05-01
2000-01-1642
A single vehicle on-road rollover accident of a small van is used to examine the effectiveness of the Anti-Rollover Braking System (ARB). The circumstances of the accident are reviewed, and how the accident was modeled using ADAMS. ARB is then added to the vehicle model to examine what would happen if ARB had been on the vehicle. Two cases are examined. One case uses the same steering as in the accident, and one case uses the same path as the accident. In both of these cases, ARB would have prevented the vehicle from rolling over.
Technical Paper

Review of Parameters Affecting Stability of Partially Filled Heavy-Duty Tankers

1999-11-15
1999-01-3709
Partially filled tanker trucks are susceptible to rollover instabilities due to fluid sloshing. Due to the catastrophic nature of accidents involving the rollover of tanker trucks, several investigations have been conducted on the parameters affecting stability of partially filled heavy-duty tankers. Since stability of heavy-duty tankers undergoing on-road maneuvers such as braking, and/or lane changing has been an issue that concerned many researchers for a long time, a literature review has been conducted which underlines the most important contributions in this field. This review covers work done in the field of fluid-structure interaction, yaw and roll stability of heavy-vehicles, and fluid-vehicle dynamic interaction. In addition, vehicle stability issues are addressed such as jack-knifing, side slipping, vehicle geometry and container geometry among others.
Technical Paper

Optimal Tank Geometry to Enhance Static Roll Stability of Partially Filled Tank Vehicles

1999-11-15
1999-01-3730
A generic tank cross-section is formulated to describe the geometry of currently used tanks in transportation of fuel oils and bulk liquids, and to explore optimal tank geometry for enhancement of roll stability limit of tank vehicle combinations. The tank periphery, composed of 8 circular arcs symmetric about the vertical axis, allows more design flexibility in view of the roll stability limits than the conventional tank shapes. A shape optimization problem is formulated to minimize the overturning moment imposed on the vehicle due to c.g. height of the liquid load, and the lateral and vertical movement of the liquid bulk within the partly filled tank. Different optimal tank cross-sections are proposed corresponding to varying fill conditions, while the total cross-sectional area, overall height and overall width are constrained to specified values.
Technical Paper

Proposal for a New Frontal Crash Test Procedure to Meet Self Protection and Compatibility Needs

2000-03-06
2000-01-1373
Compatibility between cars is a major issue worldwide. In Europe several groups are dealing with it: BRITE EURAM, which involves the majority of European manufacturers, and EEVC WG15, involving several European test laboratories and institutes, are the most active in Europe at the moment. In the past also ADAC developed a similar study in Germany. In US NHTSA is conducting studies, mainly related to the particular American market, where pick-ups represent the most important cause of incompatibility. Several approaches and test procedures are proposed to assess compatibility which consider tests against fixed obstacles, like offset deformable barriers and full width barrier (to measure energy absorption and stiffness of the front end and its distribution) and overload tests (to measure resistance capability of the compartment).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Occupant Impacts During Rollover Collisions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0854
This paper describes a modeling method whereby the occupant impacts during rollover collisions may be predicted with sufficient accuracy to predict their injury level. By using MADYMO to reconstruct the vehicle motions during a rollover collision and the subsequent vehicle accelerations, the model may also be used to calculate occupant impact accelerations if reasonable estimates of interior surface stiffnesses are used.
Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction of Rollovers - A Methodology

2000-03-06
2000-01-0853
There is little debate that reconstructing a rollover crash presents complex multi-dimensional challenges to the reconstructionist. Real world rollovers often cover large amounts of various terrains and typically involve multiple ground impacts. The possible vehicle orientations throughout the roll are almost unlimited. It is also clear that the complexities of these events have placed practical limitations on the abilities for both analytical and experimental models to accurately recreate specific real world rollover collisions. The fundamentals of accident reconstruction do still apply, however, and much valuable and insightful test data is available. This paper will describe a practical methodology and protocol to assist reconstructionists in reconstructing both on-road and off-road rollover accidents.
Technical Paper

Occupant Sensors' Response to Small Female and Mid-Sized Male Crash Test Dummies

2000-03-06
2000-01-1004
The introduction of occupant position sensors into automobiles raises questions about the response of these sensors to current crash test dummies. To adequately test the performance of these sensors in a crash environment, it is crucial that crash test dummies resemble humans. Each sensor technology perceives the crash test dummy as being different from a human. These differences range considerably. The differences for four sensor technologies, capacitive, electric field, ultrasonic and pressure pattern, are described. The differences between humans and crash test dummies are discussed, along with possible modifications to the crash test dummies that improve the biofidelity of the crash test dummy. Results will be presented from testing on a mid-sized male and small female.
Technical Paper

Driver Fatalities in Frontal Crashes of Airbag-Equipped Vehicles: A Review of 1989-96 NASS Cases

2000-03-06
2000-01-1003
Using data from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) for1995-96, this study updates previous analyses of driver fatalities in airbag-equipped vehicles in the NASS/CDS database for 1989-93 and 1989-94. A total of 59 cases of frontal crashes of airbag-equipped vehicles with driver fatalities were identified in these 8 years of NASS/CDS data, but in 9 cases the fatalities were not related to the impacts (e.g., fire, medical condition). Vehicle intrusion was the cause of the fatal injuries in 27 cases, and 7drivers died from injuries sustained when they were either partially or totally ejected from their vehicles. There was one case in which the airbag did not deploy, although the crash conditions indicated it should have. One driver died from contact with a nonintruding vehicle surface, and the causes of the fatal injuries in 5 cases were unknown.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Vehicle Structural Integrity and Occupant Injury Potential in Full-frontal and Offset-frontal Crash Tests

2000-03-06
2000-01-0879
The frontal crash standard in the USA specifies that the full front of a vehicle impact a rigid barrier. Subsequently, the European Union developed a frontal crash standard that requires 40 percent of the front of a vehicle to impact a deformable barrier. The present study conducted paired crashes of vehicles using the full-frontal barrier procedure and the 40 percent offset deformable barrier procedure. In part, the study was to examine the feasibility of adding an offset test procedure to the frontal crash standard in the USA. Frontal-offset and full-frontal testing was conducted using both the mid-size (50th percentile male Hybrid III) and the small stature (5th percentile female Hybrid III) dummies. Five vehicle models were used in the testing: Dodge Neon, Toyota Camry, Ford Taurus, Chevrolet Venture and Ford Contour. In the crash tests, all dummies were restrained with the available safety belt systems and frontal air bags.
Technical Paper

Simple Experimental Methods for Measurement of Heat Capacities for Electronic and Structure Components

2000-07-10
2000-01-2495
For the prediction of the transient behavior of thermal nodes which are interacting within a Thermal Mathematical Model (TMM) it is necessary to know the heat capacity of each node. For instance this is actual for components of opto-electronic devices for space exploration. Other assignment is to define the thermal properties of new structure materials and their combinations. Often the base for the correction of the TMM is the comparison of the calculated node temperatures with the node temperatures measured on a Thermal Engineering Model (TEM) during a Thermal Vacuum Test. The TEM has to be very similar to the flight hardware from the thermal point of view. But very expensive flight components are replaced in the TEM by thermal equivalent dummies. This makes it possible to use all components of the TEM for an unusual but simple experimental determination of their heat capacity as well.
Technical Paper

Head Injury in Fork Lift Upsets

2000-09-11
2000-01-2547
Phase I, Phase II, Caterpillar, Allis-Chalmers, Clark, Hyster, Toyota, and Entwistle fork lift upset studies have been conducted with Hybrid II dummies, Side Impact Dummies, and stunt men. The investigations concluded that the dummy lacks the ability to brace itself, hold on, and does not have adequate biofidelity to represent the human in a fork lift upset. Crushing injuries and death typically occur when the operator is thrown or jumps from the overturning forklift and is pinned by the overhead guard or canopy. The dummy studies demonstrated a wide range of Head Injury Criteria (HIC) values that were not reproducible. Furthermore, other injury producing variables such as angular acceleration, angular velocity or induced brain stress were not investigated. The injury level of 1000 for the HIC for the mid-sized male, small female, and 6 year-old has been recommended by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA).
Technical Paper

Proactive Human Factors Engineering Analysis in Space Station Design Using the Computer Manikin Jack

2000-06-06
2000-01-2166
In this case study, a human factors analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola, a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS). The manikin software Jack® was used early in the design process before any flight hardware production. All Cupola astronaut tasks were evaluated in a virtual environment of the Cupola. Methodological aspects concerning the analysis are described, e.g. file processing, use of coordinate systems and the use of a prior task analysis. Results show that the thorough manikin analysis supported with the hierarchical task analysis results, was an important help in the design process.
Technical Paper

Application of the 3-D CAD Manikin RAMSIS to Heavy Duty Truck Design at Freightliner Corporation

2000-06-06
2000-01-2165
This paper describes application examples of RAMSIS, a 3-D CAD human model for ergonomic truck evaluations, to truck design. RAMSIS realistically simulates truck driver postures and locations, an important prerequisite to having confidence in subsequent ergonomic analyses. We show examples of how visibility evaluations compare to traditional SAE methods, arm reach and force evaluation; and an example for entry/exit evaluations.
Technical Paper

Anthropometric and Postural Variability: Limitations of the Boundary Manikin Approach

2000-06-06
2000-01-2172
Human figure models are commonly used to facilitate ergonomic assessments of vehicle driver stations and other workplaces. One routine method of workstation assessment is to conduct a suite of ergonomic analyses using a family of boundary manikins, chosen to represent a range of anthropometric extremes on several dimensions. The suitability of the resulting analysis depends both on the methods by which the boundary manikins are selected and on the methods used to posture the manikins. The automobile driver station design problem is used to examine the relative importance of anthropometric and postural variability in ergonomic assessments. Postural variability is demonstrated to be nearly as important as anthropometric variability when the operator is allowed a substantial range of component adjustment. The consequences for boundary manikin procedures are discussed, as well as methods for conducting accurate and complete assessments using the available tools.
Technical Paper

Anthropometry for WorldSID A World-Harmonized Midsize Male Side Impact Crash Dummy

2000-06-19
2000-01-2202
The WorldSID project is a global effort to design a new generation side impact crash test dummy under the direction of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The first WorldSID crash dummy will represent a world-harmonized mid-size adult male. This paper discusses the research and rationale undertaken to define the anthropometry of a world standard midsize male in the typical automotive seated posture. Various anthropometry databases are compared region by region and in terms of the key dimensions needed for crash dummy design. The Anthropometry for Motor Vehicle Occupants (AMVO) dataset, as established by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), is selected as the basis for the WorldSID mid-size male, updated to include revisions to the pelvis bone location. The proposed mass of the dummy is 77.3kg with full arms. The rationale for the selected mass is discussed. The joint location and surface landmark database is appended to this paper.
X