ASSESSING THE INFLUENCE OF CRASH PULSE, SEAT FORCE CHARACTERISTICS, AND HEAD RESTRAINT POSITION ON NICmax IN REAR-END CRASHES USING A MATHEMATICAL BioRID DUMMY
The major car and crash related risk factors for Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) 1-3 long-term neck injuries in rear-end crashes are the shape of the crash pulse, the seat-force characteristics and the head restraint position. However, the specific roles of these factors are not yet fully understood, which makes it difficult to find adequate countermeasures and to design protective car seats. In order to study these issues, a mathematical MADYMO model of the first version of the Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID I) has previously been developed. In addition, a neck injury criterion, NICmax, has been proposed and evaluated by means of dummy, human and rear-end impact simulations. In this paper the MADYMO BioRID I and four car seats ranked differently according to a disability ranking list are used to study the influence of crash pulse, seat-force characteristics, and head restraint position on the NICmax in rear-end crashes.