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Exhaust Emissions Control & System Integration and Durability, 2019

Papers in this collection focus on technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and diesel Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) reduction technologies plus analogous technologies for the growing population of direct injection gasoline engines. Novel developments in sensors and control systems will also be considered. This collection encompasses studies in the area of exhaust aftertreatment integration and durability. Topics of interest include detailed studies on the caveats of aftertreatement system design, integration and performance. Other topics of interest include studies documenting the challenges and solutions related to durability and robustness of catalytic solutions.
Technical Paper

New Materials and Experiences for the Industrialization of Pu Structural Rim Technology

Processes involving use of reactive polymers received recently considerable attention also for producing components suitable for automotive structural applications. In particular polyurethane structural RIM technology seems to be the route of choice in terms of productivity, reliability and physico- mechanical performances in order to fit the automotive industry needs in the production of parts requiring superior load bearing properties. In this frame the development of long pot life snap-cure resins, fast and effective reinforcement preforming techniques as well as the development of computerized provisional processing methodologies are of paramount importance in view of industrialization of the technology. In this paper a description of the work carried out by Enichem Montedipe and Montedison is given. In particular a new family of PU systems, based on special isocyanate variants, is reported.
Technical Paper

Critical Compression Loads on Aluminum Honeycomb Panels

The purely theoretical evaluation of critical compression loads seems complex and not very reliable in the case of honeycomb panels, on account of the numerous parameters in play and their complex interrelationships. This report provides the designer with a fast tool for preliminary calculations, consisting of a finite-element mathematical model with elastic-linear code (which can be processed using a PC), which makes it possible to obtain information very closely resembling the real situation.
Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Analysis of Strength of All-Ceramic Swirl Chamber for Diesel Engines

An all-ceramic swirl chamber has been developed and analyses and evaluations concerning the strength of silicon nitride ceramic (Si3N4) have been performed with a view to using it for the entire internal wall surface of the swirl chamber. The strength characteristics of Si3N4 and their effect and variation have been determined. On the basis of measurements and analyses of thermal stresses, assembling stresses, etc., investigation of the most suitable construction and assembling methods to reduce load stresses on ceramic, and various kinds of duration tests, the swirl chamber has been confirmed to have the required durability. This engine was found to comply with the 1987 U.S. diesel particulate regulation.
Technical Paper

Integration of Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Parameters in Design

Synthesizing different customer and functional requirements into an acceptable design configuration within a given space constraints is a challenging task for design engineers. The principles for designing efficiency, noise levels, maneuverability, safety, durability, etc. into the product are well understood. However, designing for reliability, maintainability and quality turns out to be a long-drawn laborious process due to unavailability of simplified design procedures. The author in this paper develops the understanding of reliability, maintainability and quality design principles and methods for products, with specific reference to vehicle designs.
Technical Paper

Silicone Thermal Interface Materials for Under-Hood Electronics

Heat dissipation is one of the key issues facing automotive engineers, as performance, reliability and longevity of electronic devices have all been shown to be directly affected by temperature. The current thermal challenges are unprecedented, as smaller engine compartments and higher component density raise under-hood temperatures, while electronic devices with greater functionality and power also generate more heat than previous designs. The unique properties of silicone thermal interface materials can help achieve higher levels of physical and electrical performance in automotive electronics -- facilitating heat dissipation in a variety of forms, including adhesives, gels, encapsulants, gap fillers, fabricated pads and phase change materials.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Dynamic Characteristics of Electromechanical Commutating Devices

Modern production is intensified by the extensive application of computing art to structure design. This paper deals with the results of numerical simulation of electromechanical commutating devices. Speed of operation, vibrostability, reliability and durability are basic characteristics, which can be satisfied by studying mathematical models of mechanical and magnetic systems. During the impact interaction of elastic links several modes of vibrations are excited. By developing certain conditions, the amplitudes of the higher modes can be increased by changing the intensity of energy dissipation and responsiveness of the mechanical system. Such parameters as the position and configuration of the contact elements, ratio of their natural frequencies and others should guarantee the smallest amplitudes of rebounds with a possibility to minimize transient processes occurring in the building ofthe operation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Quality Control by Mid Infrared Spectroscopy

Gasolines and diesel fuels of wide source were analyzed with the aim to predict the quality through the mid infrared spectroscopy and the algorithms PCA-PCR and PLS. The results revealed that octane number, cetane number, MTBE, benzene, aromatics and specific gravity could be predicted with good reliability. The other relevant fuel physical-chemical characteristics were beyond the precision of the standard test methods.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Models of Fastened Structural Connections

The development of efficient and reliable methods for the design and analysis of fastened structural connections is among the most important problems in aerospace applications because fastened structural connections are common sites of failure initiation. Numerical simulation of fastened structural connections is difficult because there are complicated interactions between the fasteners and the structural components being joined and one of the most important attributes of a fastened connection, the clearance, is a stochastic variable. This paper presents a mathematical model for frictionless shear connections and its implementation within the framework of the p-version of the finite element method.
Technical Paper

A Compact and Robust Corona Discharge Device (CDD™) for Generating Non-Thermal Plasma in Automotive Exhaust

We describe the details of a particular compact and robust Corona Discharge Device (CDD™) that generates non-thermal plasma in the harsh environment of a stoichiometric exhaust. This particular CDD™ can generate plasma power of up to 15W at exhaust gas temperatures to 850C. Optimizations of geometry, material selection, and thermal design were performed by a combination of simulation and experiment. This particular design considered tradeoffs of several factors, including plasma power, EMI shielding, thermal durability, high voltage interconnection, packaging size, and exhaust emissions reduction. This particular CDD™ was designed to meet most of the same durability and survivability specifications as an O2 sensor, since both are exposed to similar exhaust environments.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Response Data Measured During Severe Maneuvers

During the past few years, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center has generated a plethora of reliable vehicle test data during their efforts to study vehicle rollover propensity. This paper provides further analyses of a small selection of some of the data. The analyses provided here derive in part from the previous work, trying to answer some of the questions spawned by earlier analyses. The purpose of this paper is to introduce several new concepts to the study of vehicle roll stability and provide case studies using the results available from the NHTSA testing. Results from several severe maneuvers are studied in detail to gain understanding of vehicle response in these cases.
Technical Paper

Applying Design of Experiments, Accelerated Testing and Weibull Analysis Methods to Improve ABS ECU Reliability

This paper presents, in a case study format, a methodology for combining the methods of Design of Experiments, Accelerated Testing, and Weibull Analysis to improve the reliability of an ABS Electronics Control Unit (ECU). While much literature focuses on each method individually, sometimes it's necessary combine all of these methods to achieve product improvement. The paper walks through the steps of using an multi-environment over-stress accelerated test routine, with DOE methods to evaluate key factors, and then applying Weibull and Weibayes methods to validate the new proposal and estimate expect life improvement.
Technical Paper

The New Allison HD4070 Transmission - Design, Development and Applications

Allison Transmission has been a key player in the Military and Heavy Duty Commercial truck markets for many years. These tough vocations require transmissions that are not only capable of heavy loads, rigorous duty cycles, and proven reliability, but also provide value for the end-user and maintain compatibility with leading edge technological improvements of engines and other parts of the vehicle system. The Allison HD4070 transmission is one of the latest transmission offerings from Allison Transmission to meet the “next generation” heavy-duty vehicle needs. This product increases value to the vehicle manufacturer and customer, and provides compatibility with the fast changing electronics capabilities of modern vehicle systems and engines. These improvements are offered in a durable design that has been the trademark of Allison transmissions in these markets.
Technical Paper

New Fuel Mass Flow Meter - A Modern and Reliable Approach to Continuous and Accurate Fuel Consumption Measurement

Over the past few years, the fuel mass measurement gained in importance to record the consumed fuel mass and the specific fuel consumption [g/kWh] with high accuracy. Measuring instruments, such as positive displacement meters, methods based on the burette or the Wheatstone bridge mass flow meter measure either the volumetric flow and a temperature-dependant fuel density correction is necessary or they have old technology and therefore poor accuracy and repeatability. A new-generation Coriolis sensor featuring an ideal measurement range for engine test beds but still with flow depending pressure drop has been integrated in a fuel meter to ensure that no influence is given to the engine behaviour for example after engine load change. The new Coriolis meter offers better accuracy and repeatability, gas bubble venting and easy test bed integration. For returnless fuel injection systems the fuel system supplies the fuel pressure.
Technical Paper

Shadow Moire as a Tool for Measurements and Tridimensional Quality Control in Curved Surfaces

The Shadow Moiré fringe patterns are level lines of equal depth generated by interference between a master grid and its shadow projected in the surface. By a simple approach, the minimum error is of the order of the master grid pitch, that is, always larger than 0,1 mm resulting in a experimental technique of low precision. The introduction of a phase shift increases the accuracy of the Shadow Moiré technique. The current work uses the method of phase sifting to determine the three-dimensional shape of surfaces using isothamic fringe patterns and digital image processing. The current study presents the method and applies it to images obtained by simulation for error evaluation, as well as to a buckled plate obtaining excellent results. The method hands itself particularly useful to decrease the errors due to the interpretation of the Moiré fringes that can adversely affect the calculations of displacements in pieces containing many concave and convex regions in relatively small areas.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of Rotational Vibration and other Test Data from Rotating Machinery

When collecting torsional vibration and other test data, many automotive testing departments utilise a combination of hardware and software tools whereby each tool is dedicated to a specific physical phenomenon. Following a series of measurements, the various data are merged for correlation and computer-aided analysis: a procedure which can be cumbersome and time-consuming. In addition, it can lead to errors when performing cross-channel time or phase analyses since all data will not necessarily have been collected on the same time base. In this paper, a portable pc-based data acquisition and analysis system is described which allows for reliable synchronised multi-channel acquisition and analysis of both torsional vibration and a variety of related signals.
Technical Paper

Customer Fuel Consumption – The Vehicle Data Bus as Real–World Information Source

Road to rig problems exist as long as vehicles are being tested. Many approaches and methods exist to produce test cycles for rigs or test tracks, in order to produce viable results for the generation of statements concerning such crucial aspects as durability and fuel consumption. Modern model strategies again demand shorter–than–ever development periods, whilst meeting better–than–ever the needs and demands of special target groups. Therefore, the testing methods must also be refined, in order to gain a closer correlation to the customer's vehicle deployment. The approach introduced here makes use of real–world customer data for obtaining a closer look at how the vehicle is used by different customer groups, in different countries. The data is collected by small and unobtrusive dataloggers installed in customer vehicles. As these customers are using their own vehicles in everyday life, being unaware of the acquisition process, a database of real customer usage is generated.
Technical Paper

Lean Design and Cost of Quality: Voids in Six Sigma Deployment Efforts

This paper will explain the methods and principles of Lean Design and how it, and a consideration of the Cost of Quality, have been principal omissions from most Six Sigma implementations at many companies, resulting in extremely time consuming, inefficient, and too often ineffective activity wasting millions of dollars and producing long delays in reaping the results of Six Sigma.
Technical Paper

Refractory Metal-Lined Composites for Lightweight High-Performance Propulsion omponents

Requirements for advanced rocket propulsion systems are becoming increasingly more demanding. The use of high temperature capable materials in such systems, including applications in liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors, offers potential benefits of increased performance and/or efficiency based on the engine operating cycle. For the ultimate in high temperature capability, refractory metals, ceramics, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), and carbon/carbon (C/C)composites each provide particularly beneficial attributes, but with selected limitations. Refractory metals are relatively tough and durable, provide impermeable structures, and can be conventionally fabricated, but are relatively dense, leading to heavyweight structures. Monolithic ceramics generally lack desired toughness and durability. CMCs offer substantially improved toughness over their monolithic counterparts and are relatively lightweight, but are permeable and difficult to join to conventional structures.