The field of motor vehicle rollover research and testing has been one of multiple and varied approaches, dating back to at least the 1930's. The approach has been as simple as tipping a vehicle over at the top of a steep hill ( Wilson et al., 1972 ), to as complex as releasing a vehicle from an elevated roll spit mounted to the rear of a moving tractor and trailer ( Cooper et al., 2001 and Carter et al., 2002 ). Presenter Peter Luepke, P Luepke Consulting
The presentation describes the aerodynamic development and optimization process of the three different new models of the Audi A6/A7 family. The body types of these three models represent the three classic aerodynamic body types squareback, notchback and fastback. A short introduction of the flow structures of these different body types is given and their effect on the vehicle aerodynamic is described. In order to achieve good aerodynamic performance, the integration into the development process of the knowledge about these flow phenomena and the breakdown of the aerodynamic resistance into its components friction- and pressure drag as well as the induced drag is very important. The presentation illustrates how this is realized within the aerodynamic development process at Audi. It describes how the results of CFD simulations are combined with wind tunnel measurements and how the information about the different flow phenomena were used to achieve an aerodynamic improvement.
Silicones have been utilized in multiple industries in the last 50 years and their applications are still expanding as technology grows. Ice phobic coatings, as an example, have been utilized on lock walls, navigation channels, wind turbines, hydropower intakes, and aircraft. Without protection these applications have a high risk of failure in the functions they perform. For example, ice build up on an aircraft?s aerodynamic surfaces increases drag which reduces lift during flight operations. Utilizing a silicone ice phobic coating significantly reduces the adhesion of ice to aerodynamic surfaces. Compared to other polymeric materials, silicones are known for their broad operating temperature range and lend themselves to excellent performance in a variety of harsh environments. Especially in low temperatures where ice adhesion is a concern, silicones retain their elastomeric physical properties and low modulus.
Scratch resistance is one of the most important customer requirements for automotive painting. Scratches occur as a result of a load being imposed on a paint film, which then destroys or deforms it. In order to improve the scratch resistance properties of clear coat, a specially developed molecular that act to accelerate closslinking reaction was added to the clear coat main resin. This developed molecular facilitates closslinking between multiple molecules and creates an unprecedentedly fine molecular structure. The result is a soft, highly elastic, and durable clear coat with improved resistance to light and acid as well as enhanced deformation recovery properties. It requires no special maintenance, prevents luster degradation caused by surface scratches and helps to prolong new-car color and gloss. Developmental Clear Coat is introduced into the flagship of the Lexus range - the LS as Self-restoring Coat in 2009. Presenter Junya Ogawa, Developmental Center
DSM will present various application solutions in High Performance Plastics enabling to significant weight or friction reduction and thus to reduced fuel consumption and/or emission levels, and on top of that to lower system costs. Typical Eco+ Solutions Examples to be presented are: - Friction Reduction: Nylon 46 in chain tensioners yielding up to 1 % fuel reduction - Weight Reduction (metal-to-plastic conversion): Nylon 46 with long term temperature resistance upto 230 C in turbo components, Nylon 6 in oil pans/sumps, PET in plastic precision parts, Nylon 46 in gears, many other examples - Electrification: Nylon 46 in start/stop and e-motor components, TPC in HV cables - System Cost optimization: High Flow PA6 in various components, TPC in Brake Tubes - Improved LCA: biobased materials as PA410 and TPC-Eco Typical Application Solutions concern: air induction systems, engine and transmission components, electrical systems, structural&safety parts.
TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends. Presenter Victor Nasreddine
Prevention of catastrophic upset mishaps cannot depend solely on recovery training. The proposed document should complement the training initiatives already in place. As a committee dealing with transport human factors and handling qualities, the output must consider both issues. At the same time, we cannot ignore initial and recurrent training issues and the widespread use of ground-based simulators. The plan would follow the approach taken in the 2003 S-7 white paper but would extend the scope to all forms of LOC, not just repeated rudder reversals. As with the white pa-per, the new document would have sections on transport handling qualities, flight control modes, aircraft displays, simulator requirements, and approval for IFR test evaluations as well as covering training issues. This new document would complement, not replace documents such as the Airplane Upset Recovery Training Aid.
A finite element model of the human lower extremity has been developed in this study to simulate lower extremity behavior in frontal car crashes. Precise geometry of the human lower extremity and material properties of the hard and soft tissues were introduced to the model. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing with dynamic loading test data using post mortem human subjects (PMHS). The comparison proved its ability to estimate dynamic responses of the human lower extremity. A study was conducted using the model to investigate possible factors of loading to the ankle and tibia. Force and moment were calculated with different time history profiles of footwell intrusion and pelvis motion. The results suggested that timing of maximum intrusion was important as well as its magnitude. It was also found that loading to the tibia could be affected not only by intrusion but also by pelvis motion.
AFTER indicating the trend of requirements in induction systems, the author discusses air-cleaners, carbureters and inlet manifolds. Particular attention is paid to improvements in centrifugal air-cleaners, that result in only slight pressure loss and in high cleaning efficiency. These improvements have been made by changing the body outline; by the addition of a diffuser, to make the resistance as small as possible; and by proportioning the vanes, as to angle and number, to increase the cleaning efficiency with only slight loss in pressure. Carbureters are considered briefly, only because of their interrelation with air-cleaners and manifolds. Inlet manifolding for four, six, and eight-cylinder-inline engines is studied, with variations in port arrangement. Recommendations are made as to the cross-sectional areas and form to secure best distribution of the mixture and adequate vaporization.
AFTER enumerating the fundamental qualities that make an engine indicator successful, the authors classify existing indicators and discuss a few of the more successful ones. Then is introduced the new electrical indicator, which makes its record from variation between the resistances of two carbon-piles which form the branches of a Wheatstone bridge. The pressure element is a thin diaphragm flush with the inner walls of the combustion-chamber. This is connected by an invar rod to a cantilever spring, the displacement of which reduces the resistance in one carbon-pile and increases the resistance in the other. The diagram is recorded by either an ordinary oscillograph or a portable cathode-ray oscillograph. Diagrams taken with this indicator are presented to illustrate its performance under varied conditions. A natural frequency of more than 3000 cycles per second makes possible the faithful recording of phenomena having frequencies as high as 800 cycles per second.
ALUMINUM and magnesium, being the lightest commercial metals and therefore the most suitable for aircraft construction, are discussed in their pure and alloyed states. Physical properties of the pure metals and their alloys are given and the effects of adding small quantities of alloying elements are shown. Heat-treating as a means of increasing the strength per unit weight of the alloys is discussed at length, together with the effects of natural aging and artificial aging at elevated temperatures and of quenching in hot and in cold water after heat-treating. The several types of corrosion are considered and resistance to corrosion of the metals and their various alloys are discussed. Protection afforded to aluminum alloy by a surface coating of pure aluminum is described, and other methods are mentioned.
SEVEN basic copper-tin-lead bearing-bronzes having high copper contents were studied by the application of various mechanical tests, such as Brinell hardness, resistance to impact, resistance to repeated pounding and resistance to wear. The effects of various additions were investigated by preparing test bearings of the same base alloys with additions of zinc, phosphorus, nickel and antimony, taken singly, and applying the same tests to these. The preparation of the test castings and the methods of testing are described in detail. The chemical analyses are given for the 40 different alloys tested; and the results of the various tests on each group of alloys are reported and discussed in detail, with the observations charted and tabulated for convenient reference. A tabulation of the specifications of 54 different bearing bronzes now in use is included in the paper. Dr. Dowdell presented and discussed∗ the paper for the authors.
THIS paper tells how to obtain and evaluate maximum speed of airplanes in level flight. Relationship between available thrust horsepower and powers required to overcome both induced and non-induced resistances is given, in order to provide a clearer understanding of the items affecting maximum speed and the various ways of evaluating changes in that speed. Maintenance of a constant density altitude in combination with a constant engine power or airplane speed is most satisfactory, the authors show. Charts enabling a pilot to attain these conditions in flight are given, together with a method of manifold-pressure calibration of the engine and the use of such calibration in determining the engine power in flight.
THIS is Part 2 of a study of air resistance in terms that the automobile engineer can understand without delving deeply into aerodynamics. In Part 1, after analyzing car resistance mathematically, the author related how air resistance was determined by wind-tunnel tests of various body models and presented tabulated and charted results. A study of the test methods used is presented herewith, together with comparisons made between the results obtained in Part 1 and those obtained in Part 2 from road tests of a car equipped with a so-called “floating envelope.” Fuel consumption is considered also, since full advantage of streamlining cannot be obtained without improvement of the transmission to provide for sufficient activity of a car at the lower speeds. In conclusion, the salient facts of the entire paper are summarized and seven specific suggestions for streamlining are made to car builders.
THIS is Part 1 of a study of air resistance in terms that the automobile engineer can understand without delving deeply into aerodynamics. The study was suggested by the fact that motor-vehicles are now being driven at a speed at which most of the engine power is used to overcome air resistance, although the greater part of this resistance is unnecessary and can be eliminated by correct shaping of the vehicle body. It is a progress report of research just begun. After analyzing car resistance mathematically, the author relates how air resistance was determined by wind-tunnel tests of various body models. Numerous illustrations are utilized to portray the models and the testing equipment, and the data obtained are tabulated and charted.
Mr. Woolson points out that designers are continually trying to make 1 lb. do the work of 2 lb. but are prone to underestimate the important possibilities of alloyed cast iron in automotive engineering. Recent improvements in methods of handling molten metal for casting lends these methods to the obtaining of uniformity of castings and physical properties. Some readily obtainable properties of electric-furnace iron are strength approximately double that of ordinary cast iron, increased wear resistance, reduced growth characteristics, heat resistance and corrosion resistance.
GENERAL DESIGN and detail mechanical developments that have been made in the last year and incorporated in automobile, truck and motorcoach models for 1932 are reviewed by the author, who also points out noticeable trends in a number of directions. He deals in order with the cars as a whole and with each major component, from the powerplant to the tires and body, as found in many leading makes. Decision of the industry not to announce the details of new models until the end of the year, at or immediately before the opening of the New York Automobile Show in January, interfered with the presentation at this time of a complete picture of all the improvements made in American motor-vehicles, but enough information is believed to be given to show the more important developments and the ways in which the automotive engineers have responded to the desire of the times for greater refinement and efficiency in automobiles.
CONSTANT improvement in airplanes involving increased speeds and increased maneuverability permits of their performing evolutions that were not contemplated when present strength requirements were established. Additional data and experience, however, make possible the breaking down of some of the problems involved into components that can be treated rationally and others that must still be handled empirically. A method for determining load factors in the high-angle-of-attack condition by the use of two rational variables and one empirical coefficient is described and applied to some 19 airplanes, the results being compared with the factors established by current practice.
HYDRAULIC shock-absorber characteristics are analyzed by the authors with the aid of indicator cards made on a machine designed and built for the purpose. The machine is shown in a diagrammatic drawing and is stated to have been used with much satisfaction for more than two years. Curves of the action of dry and lubricated springs with and without shock-absorbers attached are shown and the statement is made that the resistance of the shock-absorber does not increase fast enough, as the speed of link movement increases, to damp the spring suitably at both large and small deflections. Indicator cards from shock-absorbers of several types reveal the effects of incorrect design of the valves and of dirt in the oil passages. The effect of change in viscosity of the working fluid as a result of temperature changes is discussed and attempts to obtain a fluid that is not thus affected are declared to be fruitless.