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Global eLoran User Equipment Interface Standard

There are numerous GNSS user equipment interface standards in use that provide some form of timing and/or positioning information. This document incorporates their essential content into a uniform array that will enable seamless interoperation with eLoran.

Global eLoran User Equipment Interface Standard for Timing

There are numerous GNSS user equipment interface standards in use that provide some form of timing and/or positioning information. This document incorporates their essential content into a uniform array that will enable seamless interoperation with eLoran.

Standard for Interfacing Resilient GNSS Receivers

This standard defines how a resilient GNSS receiver provides enough information for an alternative PNT source to be selected when the GNSS receiver does not meet the required levels of accuracy, availability, integrity, or continuity even when the GNSS signals are subject to interference
Technical Paper

The Use of Chemiluminescence for the Ranking of Lubricants in Terms of Oxidation Stability

In this study, a chemiluminescence apparatus (CL), ATLAS CL–400, was employed to measure the oxidation induction time (OIT) of various types of lubricants. Results of OIT obtained for base oils and industrial oils were compared to that obtained from standardized methods requiring larger expenditures of sample and/or analysis time. Some exploratory tests were also run on engine oils having increased expected performance. The technique was found to be very good for the ranking of lubricants since the relative oxidation stability of the products studied has been successfully evaluated by chemiluminescence (CL). This method was shown to be a good tool for oil formulation optimization.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Thermal Verification and Testing of Integral and Artemis Satellites

Integral (INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) is an ESA observatory scientific satellite to be used for gamma ray astronomy, while Artemis (Advanced Relay and TEchnology MISsion) is an ESA program to be used for data relay and technology demonstration. Both programs have been recently submitted to a System Environmental test campaign including extensive Thermal Balance tests with Solar Simulation performed in the Large Solar Simulation (LSS) chamber at ESTEC Noordwijk in 1998. Alenia Spazio, who has the role of Prime Contractor for both programs at Torino and Rome premises respectively for Integral and Artemis, is responsible of the Thermal Control of the satellites and the relevant verification aspects.
Technical Paper

Mapping J1939 Parameter to CANopen Object Dictionary

J1939-based networks are used in most of the in-vehicle networks in trucks and buses and in some off-road vehicles. In addition, some off-highway vehicles such as agriculture and forestry machines and military vehicles are equipped with J1939-based networks. Because in Europe, many of the super-construction manufacturers like to use off-the-shelf, price-competitive devices originally developed for other applications fields, they like to buy CANopen-based modules. CANopen is a standardized CAN-based application layer and profile specification. In order to standardize the gateway functionality, a CANopen device profile for J1939 truck gateway is introduced.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Extravehicular Activity Gloves on Human Hand Performance

Past approaches to space suit glove evaluation have primarily been subjective. This report details efforts at the University of Maryland Space Systems Laboratory to use standardized dexterity tests and advanced biomechanics instrumentation to provide objective measures of glove performance. Ten subjects participated in the study. Tests were conducted barehanded, and wearing pressurized and unpressurized space suit gloves. Data on performance time, range of motion, dexterity, strength, fatigue, and comfort were collected. Range of motion data was measured using an experimental data glove that instrumented the movement of the joints of the right hand. The results indicated that performance time wearing pressurized gloves is not adequately estimated by performance wearing unpressurized gloves. Also, joint angle results indicated a decrease in the range of motion from the bare handed condition, but no significant difference between the gloved-hand conditions.
Technical Paper

Crew Size, Composition, and Time: Implications for Habitat and Workplace Design in Extreme Environments

The authors report the results of an ongoing study that investigates the effects of crew size, composition, mission duration, and mission interval on behavior and performance among polar and space expeditions. The standardized rates for a behavior/performance indicator constructed during the pilot study displayed distinctive patterns across different crew profiles and settings. Then, a further analysis over the missions in the pilot sample found compelling information suggesting that several factors created specific differentials between outside (baseline) groups (e.g., mission controllers, “folks back home”) and groups in extreme environments. These differentials reflected how the passage of time was subjectivized by crews and how the expeditionary situation was otherwise defined differently from baseline. These analyses suggest that the definition of the long-duration mission, such as a mission to Mars, likely involves more than the issue of real-time duration.
Technical Paper

Future trends in technical and strategical relationships among OEMs and suppliers~Reshaping the automotive industry

Maturing markets, increasing price competition and the need for innovation have triggered continuous change in the relationship between automotive manufacturers and their suppliers over the past years. The restructuring of the industry was specially fueled by an increasing trend towards outsourcing of modulus and systems. Roland Berger & Partners International Management Consultants and Gelsenkirchen University of Applied Sciences conducted a study to identify the major trends in the automotive manufacturer (OEM) and supplier industry over the next 5 to 10 years. The study is based on 70 expert interviews with companies based in Europe, Japan and USA. Automotive market growth in the next decade will mainly come from the emerging markets of Eastern Europe, South America, China and Southeast Asia, while the "traditional" triad markets are expected to stagnate long-term. The concentration process among automobile manufacturers will lead to some eight independent OEMs in 2010.
Technical Paper

An Overview and Discussion of SPENVIS, ESA's Space Environment Information System, and UNILIB, a Fortran Library of Magnetic Field Utilities

The ESA SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS) provides standardized access to models of the hazardous space environment through a user-friendly WWW interface. The interface includes parameter input with extensive defaulting, definition of user environments, streamlined production of results (both in graphical and textual form), background information, and on-line help. It is available on-line at Intranet versions are also available. SPENVIS has been operational for about three years, with a continuously expanding user community and set of functions. SPENVIS Is designed to help spacecraft engineers perform rapid analyses of environmental problems and, with extensive documentation and tutorial information, allows engineers with relatively little familiarity with the models to produce reliable results.
Technical Paper

CPJazz – A Software Framework for Vehicle Systems Integration and Wireless Connectivity

Integration of new technology into vehicles continues at a rapid pace. New technology includes not only deeply embedded devices for vehicle systems management but also operator interfaces such as navigation systems, voice-recognition/text-to-speech interfaces and integration of consumer electronic appliances such as the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Standardization efforts have attempted to bring these technologies together through common buses, but because these devices have different capabilities and requirements of their own this is most likely impossible. The CPJazz framework was designed to provide integration of disparate devices and protocols through a dynamic and scalable component-like architecture. In this paper the capabilities and services provided by CPJazz for vehicle-based software integrators will be discussed as well as the identification of key scenarios that demonstrate its contributions to the vehicle and wireless environment.
Technical Paper

Standardization of Digger Derrick Capacity Ratings

Utility digger derricks are usually classified by their capacity rating with the booms fully retracted and fully elevated. This is not a practical working position. A more meaningful comparison of useful lifting capacities can be made when the rating classification is the load which can be lifted by the digger derrick lift cylinder at a ten foot load radius. Lifting capacities at lower boom angles are also important for digger derrick applications.
Technical Paper

Front Wheel Drive Vehicle Crashworthiness

An analysis is carried out on the collision behaviour of front engine/front drive (FWD) cars in comparison with the other main types such as: - front engine/rear drive (FE/RD) - rear engine/rear drive (RE/RD) An evaluation is made of the results of standardized collision tests, integrated with non-standardized tests with particular devices. The parameters considered are those typical defining the deformation law and the forces developed during the collision. Special attention is paid to the modes of structural absorption of energy, the influence of car weight and collision velocity.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of a Criterion Task Set for Workload Metric Evaluation

In order to optimize the design and operation of modern military aircraft systems, methods are needed to measure the mental workload of the human operator. While numerous candidate metrics are now available for this purpose, little prescriptive information exists to guide their selection and application. This paper describes the development of a standardized methodology for the evaluation of workload measures against several theoretical and practical criteria. The central feature of this methodology is a set of representative loading tasks selected to place demands on primary information processing resources of the operator. Results are reported from an initial evaluation study in which a subset of these standardized tasks were employed to assess the characteristics of a behavioral workload measure.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characteristics of Standardized Air Force Avionic Enclosures

A series of thermal analyses and tests have been conducted on several avionic enclosures, or “black boxes”, with the enclosure designs being representative of those covered under a new Air Force standard. As a part of this effort, the thermal characteristics of various state-of-the-art hardware elements were investigated, including their effect on overall enclosure thermal performance. Using this data, analyses and tests were then carried out on complete enclosures, with the results indicating that power levels up to 1 watt/in3 could be achieved without exceeding device junction temperature limits.