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Automotive Engineering: June 2018

2018-06-01
Underway on nuclear power Ford Motor Co. CTO Dr. Ken Washington is driving new approaches to technology innovation—from inside and outside the enterprise. Silicon drives autonomy movement Renesas’ Amrit Vivekanand explains how the software and semiconductors that underlie the industry’s rapid transition are rapidly evolving. Automotive propulsion ‘On a journey’ CTO Jeff Hemphill explains how Schaeffler Group is blending its longstanding mechanical-systems expertise with critical investment in electrification and autonomy. Steeling for reduced mass and higher strength New 3rd-generation AHSS and steel-polymer hybrid tech aim to cut mass by up to 30%—and take a bite out of aluminum’s business. Balancing the rumble and roar Multiphysics simulation is part of the development toolset at Mahindra Two Wheelers, as the Indian motorcycle and scooter maker expands into global markets with larger bikes. Le Mans 2018: can anyone beat Toyota’s hybrids?
Standard

Global eLoran User Equipment Interface Standard

2018-12-18
WIP
SAE1012
There are numerous GNSS user equipment interface standards in use that provide some form of timing and/or positioning information. This document incorporates their essential content into a uniform array that will enable seamless interoperation with eLoran.
Standard

Global eLoran User Equipment Interface Standard for Timing

2019-04-16
WIP
SAE1012/1
There are numerous GNSS user equipment interface standards in use that provide some form of timing and/or positioning information. This document incorporates their essential content into a uniform array that will enable seamless interoperation with eLoran.
Standard

Standard for Interfacing Resilient GNSS Receivers

2019-04-18
WIP
SAE1014
This standard defines how a resilient GNSS receiver provides enough information for an alternative PNT source to be selected when the GNSS receiver does not meet the required levels of accuracy, availability, integrity, or continuity even when the GNSS signals are subject to interference
Technical Paper

Recycling Potential of Polymers

1996-04-01
91A123
In order to reduce the volume of waste in general and of shredder waste from the disposal of scrap cars, the German Federal Government has prepared a draft regulation, which will be implemented unless the automotive industry and the distributors of imported cars take action on their own to achieve these objectives. The regulation provides that the car manufacturers are fully responsible for the environmentally controlled disposal of scrap cars. The return of scrap cars to the work industry must be free of change for the last owner. A nation-wide network for the return of scrap cars must be implemented by end of 1993. To reduce the amount of shredder waste the automotive industry is expected to practice recycling on non-metallic materials. Facilities required for thermal treatment of residues, which cannot be recycled, are to be installed on account of the originator, i.e. the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Us Automobile Materials: a Conundrum for Advanced Materials

1996-04-01
91A090
This paper discusses the difficulties associated with imposing recycling imperatives upon advanced materials development by examining the case of automotive materials substitution and its impacts upon the recyclability of the automobile. Parallels are drawn between today's issues, which focus upon the recyclability of the increasing polymeric fraction in automobile shredder fluff, and the junked automobile problem of the 1960's, when the problem of abandoned automobiles became a part of the environmental and legislative agenda in the US and overseas. In the 1960's, both the source and the resolution of the junk automobile problem arose through a confluence of technological and economic factors, rather than through any set of regulatory influences. The rise of electric arc furnace steelmaking and the development of the automobile shredder were sufficient to virtually eliminate the problem - so much so that today's problems are incorrectly viewed as novelties.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Retained Fluid and Humidity on the Evacuation of Critical Vehicle Systems

1999-05-10
1999-01-1630
In automotive assembly facilities worldwide, many critical vehicle systems such as brakes, power steering, radiator, and air conditioning require the appropriate fluid to function. In order to insure that these critical vehicle systems receive the correct amount of properly treated fluid, automotive manufacturers employ a method called Evacuation and Fill. Due to their closed-loop design, many critical vehicle systems must be first exposed to vacuum prior to being flooded with fluid. Only after the evacuation and fill process is complete will the critical vehicle system be able to perform as specified. It has long been thought, but never proven, that humidity and entrenched fluid were major hindrances to the Evacuation and Fill process. Consequently, Ford Motor Company Advanced Manufacturing Technology Development, Sandalwood Enterprises, Kettering University, and Dominion Tool & Die conducted a detailed project on this subject.
Technical Paper

Is There a Need for Human Factors and Error Management in General and Corporate Aviation?

1999-04-20
1999-01-1595
This paper explores the need for human factors and error management within the context of the general and corporate aviation environments. It discusses strategies currently employed in other segments of the aviation industry and how they might be utilized in the corporate and general aviation arenas. It also relates research findings and program successes experienced within the airline industry and makes recommendations as to how a consortial effort by industry organizations might be utilized to employ these strategies in corporate and general aviation operations.
Technical Paper

Corporate Aviation on the Leading Edge: Systemic Implementation of Macro-human Factors in Aviation Maintenance

1999-04-20
1999-01-1596
While majority of the airlines are struggling to implement macro human factors principles in their maintenance activities, at least eleven corporate aviation departments (CADs) in the country are showing signs of success. The implementation philosophy of these CADs differs from others, and from the airlines in one fundamental aspect: it enforces a behavior change rather than an attitude change among the CAD employees. Consequently, they strive to achieve an employee behavior which is consistent within and across their flight operations, maintenance, and management functions. Ethnographic research was conducted at one of the eleven eligible sites to develop a theoretical model which is representative of the structure, the strategy, and the processes used by these aviation departments to implement macro human factors principles in aviation maintenance. This model was then tested at three other CADs that have a implemented similar approach.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

1999-04-20
1999-01-1586
This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Technical Paper

Engineering Metrics for Disturbing Sound Elements of Automotive Exhaust Noise

1999-05-17
1999-01-1653
This paper describes a method to determine an objective measure of disturbing sounds of automotive exhaust noise (e.g. booming noise, whistle, flow noise,…). First, a disturbing sound catalogue is established. Then the approach used to make the different disturbing sounds measurable is presented. By making the perception of the disturbing sounds objective, it becomes easy to determine when they appear and to what extent. Finally, the contribution of this research in the framework of the global integration of sound quality in the design process of exhaust systems will be discussed.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Practicability of a Secondary Air Injection for Emission Reduction

1999-05-03
1999-01-1540
In this study, feasibility tests of secondary air injection technology and lean A/F control technology were performed for LEV program using the FTP75 test on a 2.0 DOHC A/T vehicle. Second-by-second emissions and temperatures were evaluated. The temperatures of exhaust gas were measured at exhaust manifold, front of warm up, and the center of warm up converter. At first, amount of secondary air injection was determined with a bench aged warm up converter and a fresh UCC. And then, the performances of secondary air injection and lean A/F control strategy were compared with 80,000km vehicle aged converters(warm up converter, UCC). Both secondary air injection and lean A/F control technologies satisfied the ULEV regulation. This study shows that the lean A/F control strategy can be one of the potential technologies to meet the LEV/ULEV regulations without an active system that need a cost up.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of New Volatility Indices for Modern Fuels

1999-05-03
1999-01-1549
From 1995 to 1997, the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) conducted a cold-start driveability program to evaluate the behavior of lower volatility fuels at cold, intermediate, and warm ambient temperatures. The program used 135 vehicles to evaluate 87 hydrocarbon, MTBE blended, and ethanol blended fuels. Evaporative driveability index equations (EDIs) were developed using the test design fuel variables (E158°F, E200°F, E300°F), and three other variable sets: (E158°F, E250°F, E330°F), (T10, T50, T90), and (E70°C, E100°C, E140°C). The models that best fit the data contained oxygenate offsets. Overall, the best indices are the E70°C, E100°C, E140°C equation and the DI equation with offsets.
Technical Paper

Hole Quality Study in High Speed Drilling of Composite and Aluminum Sheet Metal

1999-04-20
1999-01-1564
Drilling is one of the most widely applied manufacturing operations. Millions of holes are drilled today in manufacturing industries especially in aerospace industry where high quality holes are essential. Rejection and rework rate of the products because of the bad hole is quite high. In this research graphite/honeycomb composite material and aluminum sheet metal has been used. The results show that drill geometry, speed and feed rate have substantial effects on the hole quality and also there was gradual variation of the thrust and lateral forces with feed rates.
Technical Paper

Activities of the Federal Aviation Administration’s Aviation Weather Research Program

1999-04-20
1999-01-1578
Weather is a major cause of aircraft accidents and incidents and the single largest contributor to air traffic system delays. Through improvements in the knowledge of current weather conditions and reliable forecasts, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) can improve aviation safety, increase system capacity, and enhance flight planning and fuel efficiency. The FAA has established an Aviation Weather Research (AWR) program to address specific requirements for weather support to aviation by providing the capability to generate more accurate and accessible weather observations, warnings, and forecasts and also by increasing the scientific understanding of atmospheric processes that spawn aviation weather hazards. The goal of AWR is to provide meteorological research that leads to the satisfaction of specific aviation weather requirements.
Technical Paper

In Search of the Perfect Ten - Piston Rating: The Complete Picture, the First Step to “Globalisation”

2000-06-19
2000-01-1816
Tasked by the Engine Lubricant Technical Committee (ELTC) of the Co-ordinating European Council (CEC), the Rating Steering Group (CEC SL071) and the Co-ordinating Research Council (CRC) Rating Advisory Panel have been working on the “Harmonisation” of rating methods within Europe. It has been recognised that during the last 40 years of product and technological advancements within the oil and additive industries the practical measurement of product performance has remained relatively unchanged. This paper reviews the current rating methods used within Europe and the benefits a single rating method could have on the future “Global” market place.
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