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Energy Harvesting/Regeneration for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2015-2025

2014-12-01
The electric vehicle industry - land, water and air - is rapidly rising to become a market of over $533 billion by 2025. Some run entirely on harvested energy as with solar lake boats. Others recycle energy as with regenerative braking of cars, buses and military vehicles harvesting kinetic energy. Others use different forms of harvesting either to charge the traction batteries, or to drive autonomous device. In some cases, harvesting is making completely new forms of electric vehicle possible such as "glider" Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) that can stay at sea for years, gaining electricity from both wave power and sunshine. Multiple forms of energy harvesting on one vehicle are becoming more common from cars to superyachts.
Video

Development of an Electrically-driven Intelligent Brake Unit

2012-02-16
An electrically-driven, intelligent brake unit has been developed, to be combined with a regenerative braking system in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which went into production in 2010 - 11. The brake pedal force is assisted by an electrically driven motor, without using vacuum pressure, unlike conventional braking systems. The actuator can be implemented to coordinate with a regenerative braking system, and to have adjustable pedal feel through use of a unique pressure-generating mechanism and a pedal-force compensator. In this paper, we describe features of the actuator mechanism and performance test results Presenter Yukio Ohtani, Hitachi Automotive Systems
Video

Flexible Real-Time Simulation of Truck and Trailer Configurations

2011-12-05
Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
Video

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-05-30
This paper presents a low-cost path for extending the range of small urban pure electric vehicles by hydraulic hybridization. Energy management strategies are investigated to improve the electric range, component efficiencies, as well as battery usable capacity. As a starting point, a rule-based control strategy is derived by analysis of synergistic effects of lead-acid batteries, high efficient operating region of DC motor and the hydraulic pump/motor. Then, Dynamic Programming (DP) is used as a benchmark to find the optimal control trajectories for DC motor and Hydraulic Pump/Motor. Implementable rules are derived by studying the optimal control trajectories from DP. With new improved rules implemented, simulation results show electric range improvement due to increased battery usable capacity and higher average DC motor operating efficiency. Presenter Xianke Lin
Collection

Brake - Braking for Electric and Hybrids & Actuation, 2012

2012-09-23
The 9 technical papers in this collection cover the evolving demands on brake systems driven by hybrid and electric vehicle architectures are providing opportunity for new component and brake system configurations and a demand for greater integration of the brake control system with overall vehicle controls.
Collection

Vehicle Dynamics, Stability and Control, 2014

2014-04-01
This technical paper collection is focused on vehicle dynamics and controls using modeling and simulation, and experimental analysis of passenger cars, heavy trucks, and wheeled military vehicles. The papers address active and passive safety systems to mitigate rollover, yaw instability and braking issues; driving simulators and hardware-in-the-loop systems; suspension kinematics and compliance, steering dynamics, advanced active suspension technologies; and tire force and moment mechanics.
Collection

Vehicle Dynamics, Stability and Control, 2015

2015-04-14
This technical paper collection is focused on vehicle dynamics and controls using modeling and simulation, and experimental analysis of passenger cars, heavy trucks, and wheeled military vehicles. The papers address active and passive safety systems to mitigate rollover, yaw instability and braking issues; driving simulators and hardware-in-the-loop systems; suspension kinematics and compliance, steering dynamics, advanced active suspension technologies; and tire force and moment mechanics.
Journal Article

A Heavy Tractor Semi-Trailer Stability Control Strategy Based on Electronic Pneumatic Braking System HIL Test

2019-10-15
Abstract Aiming to improve the handling performance of heavy tractor semi-trailer during turning or changing lanes at high speed, a hierarchical structure controller is proposed and a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is developed to validate the proposed controller. In the upper controller, a Kalman filter observer based on the heavy tractor semi-trailer dynamic model is used to estimate the yaw rates and sideslip angles of the tractor and trailer. Simultaneously, a sliding mode direct yaw moment controller is developed, which takes the estimated yaw rates and sideslip angles and the reference values calculated by the three-degrees-of-freedom dynamic model of the heavy tractor semi-trailer as the control inputs. In the lower controller, the additional yaw moments of tractor and trailer are transformed into corresponding wheel braking forces according to the current steering characteristics.
Journal Article

Influence of Intelligent Active Suspension System Controller Design Techniques on Vehicle Braking Characteristics

2018-12-04
Abstract This article presents a comprehensive investigation for the interaction between vehicle ride vibration control and braking control using two degrees of freedom (2DOF) quarter vehicle model. A typical limited bandwidth active suspension system with nonlinear spring and damping characteristics of practical hydraulic and pneumatic components is controlled to regulate both suspension and tire forces and therefore provide the optimum ride comfort and braking performance of an anti-lock brake system (ABS). In order to design a suitable controller for this nonlinear integrated system, various control techniques are followed including state feedback tuned using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), state feedback tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA), Proportional Integrated (PI) tuned genetically, and Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC). The ABS control system is designed to limit skid ratio below threshold of 15%.
Journal Article

Conceptualization and Modeling of a Flywheel-Based Regenerative Braking System for a Commercial Electric Bus

2019-11-19
Abstract The following article illustrates the detailed study of the development of a unique flywheel-based regenerative braking system (f-RBS) for achieving regenerative braking in a commercial electric bus. The f-RBS is designed for installation in the front wheels of the bus. The particular data values for modeling the bus are taken from multiple legitimate sources to illustrate the development strategy of the regenerative braking system. Mechanical components used in this system have either been carefully designed and analyzed for avoiding fatigue failure or their market selection strategies explained. The positioning of the entire system is decided using MSC Adams View®, hence determining a suitable component placement strategy such that the f-RBS components do not interfere with the bus components. The entire system is modeled on MATLAB Simulink® with sufficient accuracy to get various results that would infer the performance of the system as a whole.
Journal Article

Stability Analysis of Combined Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer Based on Phase-Plane Method

2018-06-04
Abstract An analysis method for the stability of combined braking system of tractor-semitrailer based on phase-plane is investigated. Based on a 9 degree of freedom model, considering longitudinal load transfer, nonlinear model of tire and other factors, the braking stability of tractor-semitrailer is analyzed graphically on the phase plane. The stability of both tractor and semitrailer with different retarder gear is validated with the energy plane, β plane, yaw angle plane and hinged angle plane. The result indicates that in the long downhill with curve condition, both tractor and semitrailer show good stability when retarder is working at 1st and 2nd gear, and when it is at 3rd gear, the tractor is close to be unstable while semitrailer is unstable already. Besides, tractor and semitrailer both lose stability when retarder is working at the 4th gear.
Journal Article

Vehicle Stability Control through Optimized Coordination of Active Rear Steering and Differential Driving/Braking

2018-07-05
Abstract In this article, a hierarchical coordinated control algorithm for integrating active rear steering and driving/braking force distribution (ARS+D/BFD) was presented. The upper-level control was synthesized to generate the required rear steering angle and external yaw moment by using a sliding-mode controller. In the lower-level controller, a control allocation algorithm considering driving/braking actuators and tire forces constraints was designed to assign the desired yaw moment to the four wheels. To this end, an optimization problem including several equality and inequality constraints were defined and solved analytically. Finally, computer simulation results suggest that the proposed hierarchical control scheme was able to help to achieve substantial enhancements in handling performance and stability.
Collection

Vehicle Dynamics, Stability and Control, 2018

2018-04-03
This technical paper collection is focused on vehicle dynamics and controls using modeling and simulation, and experimental analysis of passenger cars, heavy trucks, and wheeled military vehicles. The papers address active and passive safety systems to mitigate rollover, yaw instability and braking issues; driving simulators and hardware-in-the-loop systems; suspension kinematics and compliance, steering dynamics, advanced active suspension technologies; and tire force and moment mechanics.
Collection

Vehicle Dynamics, Stability and Control, 2017

2017-03-28
This technical paper collection is focused on vehicle dynamics and controls using modeling and simulation, and experimental analysis of passenger cars, heavy trucks, and wheeled military vehicles. The papers address active and passive safety systems to mitigate rollover, yaw instability and braking issues; driving simulators and hardware-in-the-loop systems; suspension kinematics and compliance, steering dynamics, advanced active suspension technologies; and tire force and moment mechanics.
Journal Article

Safe and Secure Software Updates Over The Air for Electronic Brake Control Systems

2016-09-18
2016-01-1145
Vehicle manufacturers are suffering from increasing expenses for fixing software issues. This fact is mainly driving their desire to use mobile communication channels for doing Software Updates Over The Air (SOTA). Software updates today are typically done at vehicle service stations by connecting the vehicles’ electronic network via the On Board Diagnostic (OBD) interface to a service computer. These operations are done under the control of trained technicians. SOTA means that the update process must get handled by the driver. Two critical aspects need to get considered when doing SOTA at Electronic Brake Control (EBC) systems. Both will determine the acceptance of SOTA by legal authorities and by the passengers: The safety and security of the vehicle The availability of the vehicle for the passengers The security aspect includes the necessity to protect the vehicle and the manufacturers IP from unwanted attacks.
Standard

Landing Gear Based Weight and Balance Systems

2019-04-18
WIP
AIR6941
This document outlines historical systems which have used the landing gear as a sensor or installation point for full aircraft weight and balance systems. A number of systems have been developed, installed, certified, and placed in service but few systems remain in regular use. The document will capture the history of these systems, reasons (where known) for their withdrawal from service, and lessons learned.
Standard

Runway Condition Monitoring Systems

2022-04-13
WIP
AIR6697
This report will document Runway Condition Monitoring systems that provide information intended to reduce or eliminate aircraft runway excursions or overruns that may occur as a result of poor runway conditions.
Standard

Test Method for Catalytic Carbon Brake Disk Oxidation

2013-12-04
WIP
AS6289
The scope of the test method is to provide stakeholders including fluid manufacturers, brake manufacturers, aircraft constructors, aircraft operators and airworthiness authorities with a relative assessment of the effect of deicing chemicals on carbon oxidation. This test is designed to assess the relative effects of runway deicing chemicals by measuring mass change of contaminated and bare carbon samples tested under the same conditions.
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