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SAE Vehicle Electrification: February 11, 2014

2014-02-11
Inside the cell walls The high cost of lithium-ion batteries is a prison that has largely kept electric vehicles off the street; the keys to their release are more effective—but not more expensive—cell chemistries.
Technical Paper

Application of Shape Memory Heat Engines to Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy

1996-04-01
91A128
Shape memory materials undergo temperature-induced martensitic phase transformations that involve reversible dimensional changes. In performing these changes in shape, the shape-memory material is able to do work against external constraints, and this is the basis for shape-memory low-temperature heat engines. The transformation temperatures on heating and cooling are often not very different (little hysteresis) and are well defined and reproducible. Furthermore, these temperatures can be adjusted by varying the composition of the shape memory alloy. Internal combustion engines dissipate approximately two-thirds of the fuel energy as heat to the exhaust and coolant systems. A low-temperature heat engine could convert a fraction of this heat energy to useful work. This paper discusses the conceptual basis for the application of shape memory heat engines to internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Metallurgical and thermodynamic factors are discussed, as well as engine efficiency.
Technical Paper

Simulors, An Innovative Tool for Molds Development

1996-04-01
91A117
Mold designers and foundrymen spend a lot of time in developing molds without knowing exactly the phenomena which take place inside. Simulor, which has been used in an industrial environment for two years, offers the solution to make foundrymen understand what happens during the filling of the mold and the solidification of the part. Based on navier-stokes and heat transfer equations, simulor provides speed distribution and metal front evolution in the cavity and thermal map in the mold and the part. Some examples with different metals (cast iron, aluminum alloy) cast with various processes (sand or die casting, low pressure or gravity casting) will be given. This new tool will given foundrymen the opportunity to test the mold before having it machined and will also allow reduction in development delays.
Technical Paper

Shoebox Converter Design for Thinwall Ceramic Substrates

1999-05-03
1999-01-1542
Shoebox catalytic converter design to securely mount thinwall substrates with uniform mounting mat Gap Bulk Density (GBD) around the substrate is developed and validated. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis, using heat transfer predictions with and without chemical reaction, allows to carefully select the mounting mat material for the targeted shell skin temperature. CFD analysis enables to design the converter inlet and outlet cones to obtain uniform exhaust gas flow to achieve maximum converter performance and reduce mat erosion. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to design and optimize manufacturing tool geometry and control process. FEA gives insight to simulate the canning process using displacement control to identify and optimize the closing speed and load to achieve uniform mat Gap Bulk Density between the shell and the substrate.
Technical Paper

The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1833
An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of thermal barriers and catalytic coatings in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted. The main intent of the study was to investigate if a thermal barrier or catalytic coating of the wall would support the oxidation of the near-wall unburned hydrocarbons. In addition, the effect of these coatings on thermal efficiency due to changed heat transfer characteristics was investigated. The experimental setup was based on a partially coated combustion chamber. The upper part of the cylinder liner, the piston top including the top land, the valves and the cylinder head were all coated. As a thermal barrier, a coating based on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 was used. The catalytic coating was based on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 doped with Platinum. The two coatings tested were of varying thickness' of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.6 mm. The compression ratio was set to 16.75:1.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux Flowing Into Metallic and Ceramic Combustion Chamber Walls

2000-06-19
2000-01-1815
Accurate measurements of combustion gas temperature and the coefficient of heat transfer between the gas and the combustion chamber wall of internal combustion engine in cyclic operations are difficult at present. Hence the only method available for determination of states of thermal load and heat loss to the combustion chamber wall in a cycle is to measure the instantaneous temperature on the combustion chamber wall surface accurately and precisely using proper thin-film thermocouples, then to calculate the instantanenous heat flux flowing into the wall surface by means of numerical analysis. However, it is necessary to pay adequate attention to the effects of thermophysical properties of the thermocouple materials on the measured values, since any thermocouple consists of several kinds of materials which are different from those of portions to be measured.
Technical Paper

Graphitic Foam Thermal Management Materials for Electronic Packaging

2000-04-02
2000-01-1576
The goal of this program is to utilize the recently developed high conductivity carbon foam for thermal management in electronics (heat exchangers and heat sinks). The technique used to fabricate the foam produces mesophase pitch-based graphitic foam with extremely high thermal conductivity and an open-celled structure. The thermal properties of the foam have been increased by 79% from 106 to 187 W/m·K at a density of 0.56 g/cm3 through process optimization. It has been demonstrated that when the high-thermal-conductivity graphitic foam is utilized as the core material for the heat exchanger, the effective heat transfer can be increased by at least an order of magnitude compared to traditional designs. A once-through-foam core/aluminum-plated heat exchanger has been fabricated for testing in electronic modules for power inverters.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Package Bearings to Improve Driveline Performance

2000-06-19
2000-01-1785
The tapered roller bearings employed in axle centers for the pinion support are critical components in determining the noise, fuel economy and reliability characteristics of the vehicle. They represent a relatively complex mechanical and tribological system, with special requirements from the stiffness, lubrication and heat transfer points of view. This paper brings a contribution to the investigation of the intricate dependency between design parameters, environmental factors and the resultant performance of a package bearing in an integral double cup configuration. Axial compactness, reduced weight, and superior rigidity are only few of the multiple advantages recommending this type of double row bearings for automotive driveline applications. Different aspects related to the tapered roller bearing setting are analyzed in a theoretical and experimental manner, also under the consideration of the manufacturing and assembly processes.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Evaluations of a Vacuum-Insulated Catalytic Converter

1999-10-25
1999-01-3678
Vehicle evaluations and model calculations were conducted on a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC). This converter uses vacuum and a eutectic PCM (phase-change material) to prolong the temperature cool-down time and hence, may keep the converter above catalyst light-off between starts. Tailpipe emissions from a 1992 Tier 0 5.2L van were evaluated after 3hr, 12hr, and 24hr soak periods. After a 12hr soak the HC emissions were reduced by about 55% over the baseline HC emissions; after a 24hr soak the device did not exhibit any benefit in light-off compared to a conventional converter. Cool-down characteristics of this VICC indicated that the catalyst mid-bed temperature was about 180°C after 24hrs. Model calculations of the temperature warm-up were conducted on a VICC converter. Different warm-up profiles within the converter were predicted depending on the initial temperature of the device.
Technical Paper

PremAir® Catalyst System – A New Approach to Cleaning the Air

1999-10-25
1999-01-3677
Classical approaches to pollution control have been to develop benign, non-polluting processes or to abate emissions at the tailpipe or stack before release to the atmosphere. A new technology called PremAir® Catalyst Systems1 takes a different approach and reduces ambient, ground level ozone directly. This technology takes advantage of the huge volumes of air which are processed daily by both mobile and stationary heat exchange devices. For mobile applications, the new system involves placing a catalytic coating on a vehicle's radiator or air conditioning condenser. For stationary applications, the catalytic coating typically is applied to an insert, which is attached to the air conditioning condenser. In either case, the catalyst converts ozone to oxygen as ozone containing ambient air passes over the coated radiator or condenser surfaces.
Technical Paper

Development of a Closed Loop, Full Scale Automotive Climatic Wind Tunnel

2000-03-06
2000-01-1375
A closed loop full-scale automotive climatic wind tunnel is described. The tunnel simulates wind and rain as well as several road conditions. It generates under controlled heat loading, wind speeds of up to 50kmh with different approach boundary conditions, rains from drizzle to cloudburst and road inclines up to 15° in any direction. The design and optimization process of the tunnel functions is outlined and examples of its use in vehicle development are given. The size constraint and the need for a compact design are important features of the tunnel. The tunnel provides an important test bed for close scrutiny of the relationship between rain ingress, vehicle speed, road condition, heat loading and vehicle geometry. The tunnel can also be used to study vehicle thermal management, vehicle thermal comfort, engine cold starting, and wipers efficiency in sever cold weather.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Heat Transfer & Thermoelastic Deformation Predictions in Forward Lighting

2000-03-06
2000-01-1396
The thermal performance of an automotive forward-lighting assembly is predicted with a computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) program. A three-dimensional, steady-state heat-transfer model seeks to account for convection and radiation within the enclosure, conduction through the thermoplastic walls and lens, and external convection and radiation losses. The predicted temperatures agree well with experimental thermocouple and infrared data on the housing. Driven by the thermal expansion of the air near the bulb surface, counter-rotating recirculation zones are predicted within the enclosure. The highest temperatures in the plastic components are predicted on the inner surface of the shelf above the bulb where airflow rising from the hot bulb surface impinges.
Technical Paper

NUMERICAL PREDICTIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS ON EXTENDED EXPANSION ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

2000-01-15
2000-01-1415
This paper deals mainly with the computer simulation and experimental investigations on a single cylinder, four stroke, spark ignited, extended expansion engine. The simulation procedure involves thermodynamic and global modeling techniques. Submodels for predicting gas exchange processes, heat transfer and friction are used. Two-zone model is adopted for combustion process. The combustion model predicts mass burning rate, ignition delay and combustion duration. It uses sub-models for calculating flame-front area, flame-speed and chemical equilibrium composition of ten product species. Experimentally measured valve-lift data along with suitable coefficient of discharge is used in the analysis of gas exchange process. Unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions have also been predicted. Experiments have been conducted on a single cylinder, air cooled, four stroke, spark ignition engine. A production engine was modified to run as extended expansion engine.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Design, Development and Manufacturing

2000-01-15
2000-01-1417
Computer aided engineering is used to design, develop, optimize and manufacture catalytic converter. Heatcad, a transient heat transfer analysis is used to simulate the temperature response in the exhaust system to locate the catalytic converter to achieve maximum performance. Heatcad analysis provides the easy way to identify thermal management issues and to design and optimize the runner lengths and material thicknesses of the manifold, and downpipes. P-Cat is used to estimate back pressure due to substrates, end cones, and inlet/outlet pipes. Catheat, a one dimentional heat transfer tool is used to identify the converter insulation to maintain the required external skin temperature. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, a powerful means of simulating complex fluid flow situations in the exhaust system, is used to optimize the converter inlet and outlet cones and the downpipes to obtain uniform exhaust gas flow to achieve maximum converter performance and reduce mat erosion.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study Concerning the influence of Hot Residual Gas On Combustion

2000-01-15
2000-01-1419
This research focused on the light emission behavior of the OH radical (characteristic spectrum of 306.4 [nm]) that plays a key role in combustion reactions, in order to investigate the influence of the residual gas on autoignition. Authors also analyzed on the heat release and thermodynamic mean temperature due to research activity state of unburned gas. The test engine used was a 2-stroke, air-cooled engine fitted with an exhaust pressure control valve in the exhaust manifold. Raising the exhaust pressure forcibly recirculated more exhaust gas internally. When a certain level of internal EGR is forcibly applied, the temperature of the unburned end gas is raised on account of heat transfer from the hot residual gas and also due to compression by piston motion. As a result, the unburned end gas becomes active and autoignition tends to occur.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms in Simulating the Emission Characteristics of Catalytic Converters

2000-06-19
2000-01-1953
Engine exhaust systems need to undergo continuous modifications to meet increasingly stricter regulations. In the past, much of the design and engineering process to optimize various components of engine and emission systems has involved prototype testing. The complexity of modern systems and the resulting flow dynamics, and thermal and chemical mechanisms have increased the difficulty in assessing and optimizing system operation. Due to overall complexity and increased costs associated with these factors, modeling continues to be pursued as a method of obtaining valuable information supporting the design and development process associated with the exhaust emission system optimization. Insufficient kinetic mechanisms and the lack of adequate kinetics data are major sources of inaccuracies in catalytic converters modeling.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Visualization of Some Processes Concerning Gases Transport Properties and Gaseous Fuel Combustion, Starting from the Molecular Collision Theory

2000-03-06
2000-01-1080
Starting from the molecular collision theory, the goals of this study are the simulation and visualization of some processes related to gases transport properties and gaseous fuel combustion, like: formation of Maxwell distribution function, diffusion, thermal diffusion, heat conductivity, heat transfer to the walls, spark ignition, autoignition, wall ignition, laminar flame propagation and two wall quenching. The simulation program replaces the molecules with a certain number of spheres (100-2700). Each specie is simulated with a determined type of sphere characterized by mass, speed, diameter and a specific color for the identification on the screen. The spheres moves inside a two-dimensional space. The collisions between spheres are elastic. The activation energy condition must be achieved during a collision involving two molecules in order to have chemical reaction.
Technical Paper

A Review of Investigations Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics to Study Internal-Combustion Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1081
Investigations that have used the second law of thermodynamics to study internal-combustion engines in a detailed manner date back to the late 1950s. Over two dozen previous investigations which have used the second law of thermodynamics or availability analyses were identified. About two-thirds of these have been completed for diesel engines, and the other one-third have been completed for spark-ignition engines. The majority of these investigations have been completed since the 1980s. A brief description of each of these investigations is provided. In addition, representative results are presented for both compression-ignition (diesel) and spark-ignition engines to illustrate the type of information obtained by the use of second law analyses. Both instantaneous values for the engine availability, and the overall values for energy and availability are described.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Heat Transfer to the Walls for Autoignition Related Situations in SI Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1084
A theoretical investigation is presented concerning how the heat transfer process from the gas in the combustion chamber, burned as well as the unburned gas regions, to the walls is affected by the autoignition phenomenon in SI engines. The zonal model in ref. [1] is adapted for the calculations. The radiative heat flux during the heat release period and the heat transfer in the thermal boundary layer by convection are predicted for situations when autoignition has occurred. The cylinder wall temperature is also used as a parameter in this study. The effects of engine operating parameters such as engine speed, timing of ignition, duration time of flame propagation and the fuel parameter Research Octane Number, i.e., RON, on the heat flux to the walls have been studied. The heat release is calculated for a detailed chemical kinetic model, refs. [1, 2 and 3].
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Charge-cooler Model for Simulating Gas Dynamics in Engine Manifolds

2000-03-06
2000-01-1264
Charge-coolers have a significant effect on the performance of turbocharged internal combustion engines. For a comprehensive simulation of internal combustion engines fitted with such devices it is important to model the whole of the manifold system. A wave-action model of a charge-cooler boundary is proposed, together with a methodology for predicting the heat transfer coefficient of the device. This approach enables the instantaneous effectiveness of the charge-cooler to be predicted as a function of the mass flow rate through the device.
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