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Tech Briefs: September 2018

Enhanced SATCOMs for Unmanned Aerial Systems The Bus Too Tough to Die Combating Infrared Threats on the Battlefield Optical Interconnect Design Challenges in Space High-Performance Computing for the Next-Generation Combat Vehicle Merging Antenna and Electronics Boosts Energy and Spectrum Efficiency Integrated Magneto-Optical Devices for On-Chip Photonic Systems Development of magneto-optical (MO) materials could lead to a range of nonreciprocal optical devices for emerging standardized photonic integrated circuit (PIC) fabrication processes. Low Power Optical Phase Array Using Graphene on Silicon Photonics Electrostatic doping of 2D materials embedded in waveguides could enable ultrafast devices with unprecedented power. Spatial Resolution and Contrast of a Focused Diffractive Plenoptic Camera New technology captures spectral and spatial information of a scene in one snapshot while raising pixel counts and improving image quality.

A Quantitative Risk Analysis for AeroMACS Network Security in SESAR

The growing need for an efficient worldwide airspace system management, generated by an increasing traffic load, requires new capabilities for air-ground data communication technologies. In order to cope with these requirements, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), EUROCONTROL, and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have jointly made specific recommendations for candidate technologies for the airport surface communication network. In the SESAR project, the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communication System (AeroMACS) technology is being developed in such a way to provide next generation broadband and wireless data communications for airport surface applications (i.e. Air Traffic Control ? ATC, Airline Operational Communications ? AOC, and surface vehicles services).

Review and Assessment of the ISO 26262 Draft Road Vehicle - Functional Safety

ISO 26262 is the first comprehensive automotive safety standard that addresses the safety of the growing number of electric/electronic and software intensive features in today's road vehicles. This paper assesses the standard's ability to provide safety assurance. The strengths of the standard are: (1) emphasizing safety management and safety culture; (2) prescribing a system engineering development process; (3) setting up a framework for hazard elimination early in the design process; (4) disassociating system safety risk assessment from component probabilistic failure rate. The third and fourth strengths are noteworthy departure from the philosophy of IEC61508. This standard has taken much-needed and very positive steps towards ensuring the functional safety of the modern road vehicles. SAE publications from industry show a lot of enthusiasm towards this standard.

Automotive Functional Safety Standard ISO 26262 and the Current Challenges

The ISO 26262, titled "Road vehicles - Functional safety," is a Functional Safety standard that gives a guidance to reduce the risks to tolerable level by providing feasible requirements and processes. This standard is an adaptation of the Functional Safety standard IEC 61508 for Automotive Electrical/Electronic and programmable electronic Systems. The standard covers the development of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronics systems in the road vehicles. It will have a significant impact on the way such systems are designed, developed, integrated and validated for safety. Functional safety of embedded systems has become an integral part in automotive engineering activities due to the recently released safety standard ISO 26262. One main challenge is to perform development activities compliant to the standard and provide the respective documentation.
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Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On

As an annual subscription, the Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On is available for purchase along with one or both of the following: Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection The titles from the Wiley Cyber Security Collection are included in the SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package. Titles: Network Forensics Penetration Testing Essentials Security in Fixed and Wireless Networks, 2nd Edition The Network Security Test Lab: A Step-by-Step Guide Risk Centric Threat Modeling: Process for Attack Simulation and Threat Analysis Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms and Source Code in C, 20th Anniversary Edition Computer Security Handbook, Set, 6th Edition Threat Modeling: Designing for Security Other available Wiley collections: Wiley SAE MOBILUS eBook Package Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection Wiley Computer Systems Collection Add-On (purchasable with the Wiley Aerospace Collection and/or the Wiley Automotive Collection)
Technical Paper

Requirement on Driving I.C. for Automotive LCD

THIS PAPER describes a design guide for a driving Integrated Circuit (IC) of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) for automotive application. Many LCD Driver ICs are now available at market places, however, most of the ICs are not very suitable to advanced automotive LCD. This paper describes important parameters of both LCD and its driving IC to optimize display performances.
Technical Paper

New Integrated Circuits for Electronically-Tuned Automotive Radios

The increasing availability of digital tuning systems using phase-locked loops to control the radio local oscillator (LO) frequency and RF tuning, and the anticipated introduction of an AM stereo broadcast service, has motivated the development of a new set of integrated circuits (I/Cs) specifically designed to handle the broadcast signal processing functions of the radio. Features such as a valid station stop detector are provided for interfacing with the tuning system and improved FM performance is achieved, together with the use of dual-threshold AGC circuits and a novel, low-distortion quadrature detector. Special attention has been paid to the AM circuit design in order to accommodate the proposed AM stereo broadcast formats and a new decoder circuit has been developed to complement the improved performance obtainable with this I/C set.
Technical Paper

A Contribution to Risk Analysis and the Characteristics of Truck Accidents

The subject of research into truck accidents with a view to making safety modifications to trucks is steadily gaining in importance. In the light of newly compiled truck accident material comprising 2000 cases from 1979 to 1983 the problem of truck accidents can be assessed comprehensively. This study covers truck accidents with pedestrians, bicycles and motorcycles, cars, truck/truck collisions and single-truck accidents. Because all accident groups and their percentage weighting according to real life are considered, it is possible to transfer the results to the general accident occurrence. The internal structure of the accident groups is contrasted with the official accident statistics in significant accident parameters. The frequencies of essential parameters, i.e. the kind of collision, the type of accident and the risk for the truck occupants and the other traffic participants involved are indicated.
Technical Paper

Quantified Risk in a Democratic Society

THE EMPHASIS IN THIS ANALYSIS is on the word “democratic”. We live in a democratic society, and we intend to continue to do so. If risk analysis is to have a useful contribution to our society it must fit itself into its democratic decision making structure. If necessary, it must subordinate itself to this democratic tradition. The subject being considered is complex. In order to provide some coherence to the presentation, the following approach will be adopted: First, the societal framework will be mapped out. Second, quantified risk analysis itself will be defined. Third, its status will be analyzed by means of a case study. Fourth, some conclusions will be drawn.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Methodology for Engine Gear Rattle and Whine Assessment and Noise Simulation

In this paper, a CAE methodology based on a multiphysics approach for engine gear noise evaluation is reviewed. The method comprises the results and outputs from several different analytical domains to perform the noise risk assessment. The assessment includes the source-path analysis of the gear-induced rattling and whining noise. The vibration data from the exterior surface of the engine is extended through acoustic analysis to perform the engine noise simulation and to identify acoustic hot spots contributing to the noise. The study includes simulations under different engine loading conditions with results presented in both time and frequency domains. Various sensitivity analyses involving different gear geometries and micro-geometries are investigated as well. Finally, the simulation results from three different engines are compared vis-a-vis.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Damage Prediction for Bonded Composite Repairs Applied to Metallic Aircraft Structures

This paper describes the initial development of methods for predicting the fatigue life of bonded composite repairs applied to cracked aluminum aircraft structures. Bonded repairs offer great potential in stopping or slowing crack growth. The benefits of bonded repairs when compared to riveted repairs are significant, and include improvements in fatigue life, inspectability, and cost. The main barrier to the widespread use of this technology is the lack of methods for ensuring damage tolerance and durability [1–3]. In this paper, approximate analytical equations are developed to characterize both disbonding and crack growth in a repair applied to a center-cracked plate. The equations are in a form suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments and inclusion in industry codes and standards, and have been validated against a boundary element model.
Technical Paper

Neutron Environment Calculations for Low Earth Orbit

The long term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind, which varies over the solar cycle. The HZETRN high charge and energy transport code developed at NASA Langley Research Center can be used to evaluate the neutron environment on ISS. A time dependent model for the ambient environment in low earth orbit is used. This model includes GCR radiation moderated by the Earth’s magnetic field, trapped protons, and a recently completed model of the albedo neutron environment formed through the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere. Using this code, the neutron environments for space shuttle missions were calculated and comparisons were made to measurements by the Johnson Space Center with onboard detectors.
Technical Paper

A Novel Interface for Linear Oxygen Sensors

The precise, fast and wide range measurement of exhaust gas oxygen concentration is a key element to the development of low emissions combustion engines. This is true to Gasoline Direct Inject and Common Rail Diesel engines, but even standard Multi Port Injection ( MPI ) engines benefit from a better lambda control ( SULEV applications ). The proliferation of linear oxygen sensors has up to now been hindered by a lack of compatibility of sensors / interface electronics among different suppliers, keeping the cost high. A newly developed interface electronics brings down that barrier, giving the car manufacturers the freedom of choice among different sensor suppliers, reducing the effort mainly to software adaptation. The sensor interface is a self contained integrated circuit with minimum external components for additional sensor adaptation. It has built in diagnostics, full sensor protection, and is controlled by an external micro controller.
Technical Paper

A Systems Modeling Methodology for Evaluation of Vehicle Aggressivity in the Automotive Accident Environment

A systems modeling approach is presented for assessment of harm in the automotive accident environment. The methodology is presented in general form and then applied to evaluate vehicle aggressivity in frontal crashes. The methodology consists of parametric simulation of several controlled accident variables, with case results weighted by the relative frequency of each specific event. A hierarchy of models is proposed, consisting of a statistical model to define the accident environment and assign weighting factors for each crash situation case, and vehicle and occupant models for kinematic simulation of crash events. Head and chest injury results obtained from simulation are converted to harm vectors, in terms of probabilistic Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) distributions based on previously defined risk analyses. These harm vectors are weighted by each case’s probability as defined by the statistical model, and summed to obtain a total estimate of harm for the accident environment.
Technical Paper

Power Distribution for Spacecraft Payloads that Employ State of the Art Radiation Hardened Integrated Circuits

Recent advances in the state of the art of space-borne data processors and signal processors have occurred that present some unprecedented constraints relating to their power needs. Such processors include the class of multiprocessors providing computational capabilities in the billions of floating point operations per second. Processors of this type tend to require use of modern radiation tolerant or radiation hardened integrated circuits requiring very low voltage power supplies that place considerable challenge on power distribution and conversion within those processing payloads. The primary challenges are efficient conversion of power from the spacecraft power bus to these low voltages and distribution of the very high accompanying currents within the payload while maintaining proper voltage regulation (typically +/− 5%). Some integrated circuits require 10 Amps or more at 1Volt, as an example [3], [6].
Technical Paper

Optical Strain Measurement- Experimental Tool for Validating Sheet Metal Forming Analysis

Automotive sheet metal components involve complex geometry and large surface areas. In addition to complex geometry, thrust for reduction of the new product development cycle demands for virtual simulation before prototyping. However in order to validate the simulation parameters, the numerical model needs to be experimentally verified. Conventional strain measurement techniques like Mylar tape, Traveling microscope are tedious and error prone for sheet metal forming analysis. Recently, optical strain measurement techniques are being used in sheet metal forming industry. Through this, strain measurement is more accurate, less time consuming and repeatable. This paper discusses a case study in which the analysis results of an automotive sheet metal component are experimentally validated by circular grid analysis using an optical strain measurement method. The circular grids are marked in the sheet metal blanks by screen-printing.
Technical Paper

FPGA Considerations for Automotive Applications

The technological and process developments within the semiconductor industry during the past two decades has led to significant advancements in the complexity, functionality and performance of standard devices, such as microprocessors, digital signal processors, memories and custom Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) suppliers have taken advantage of these developments to offer device configurations that can include millions of programmable gates integrated with megabytes of internal memory and processor cores in package profiles and temperature ranges suitable for a variety of applications. The combination of reusable intellectual property, low unit costs and relative ease of implementation has led to increased FPGA usage in the automotive industry. Engineers are turning to FPGA solutions to enable the required features and functions not currently available with standard components.
Technical Paper

Controller Grid: Real-Time Load Balancing of Distributed Embedded Systems

The concept of a “controller grid”, which makes effective use of computational resources distributed on a network while guaranteeing real-time operation, is proposed and applied to realize highly advanced control. It facilitates the total optimization of a plant control and achieves the high efficiency that is not acquired by individual plant optimization. To realize this concept, migration of a control task customized to be executed on one particular microcontroller to another microcontroller is necessary while strictly observing the required response time. Two techniques to meet this requirement are proposed: “task migration” for a control system and “real-time guaranteed scheduling of task migration and execution”. The effectiveness of the controller grid is assessed by applying it in experiments with electronic-throttle-body (ETB) advanced control.
Technical Paper

Integrated Systems Testing of Spacecraft

How much integrated system level test should be performed on a spacecraft before it is launched? Although sometimes system test is minimized, experience shows that systems level testing should be thorough and complete. Reducing subsystem testing is a less dangerous way to save cost, since it risks finding problems later in system test, while cutting systems test risks finding them even later on orbit. Human-rated spacecraft test planning is informal, subjective, and inconsistent, and its extent is often determined by the decision maker's risk tolerance, decision-making style, and long-term or short-term view. Decisions on what to test should be guided by an overall mission cost-benefit analysis, similar to the risk analysis used to guide development efforts.
Technical Paper

Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-Term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation

NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is ‘the show stopper.’ Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the new vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. As NASA is looking forward to exploration in deep space, there is a need to go beyond current technology to the technology of the future.