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Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2020

How Solid-State Technology Impacts A&D Equipment Testing The Role of Prototype/Test Systems in Next-Generation C5ISR Development Using Advanced Computational Engineering Software to Meet Aerospace & Defense Industry Challenges How Advanced Vacuum Bag Kits Streamline Composite Parts Manufacturing Replacing Multiple RF Receivers with Just One Using Channelization Air Force Technology Tracks "Sporadic E" Progress on Zirconia-Polyurea Matrix Hybrid Composites Incorporating zirconia particles into polyurea elastomers to form hybrid composites and designing them into state-of-the-art body armor has the potential to achieve lightweight ballistic efficiency. Bioenvironmental Engineering Guide for Composite Materials Developing a comprehensive baseline for identifying, evaluating, and controlling occupational and environmental hazards associated with composite fibers and materials for base-level Bioenvironmental Engineering (BE) personnel.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: September 2021

Pulse Plasma Nitriding for Aerospace Application Ruggedization of Electronics for Deployed Military Environments Migrating Advanced Signal Processing Technology to Rugged SFF Platforms Radar Recording Proves Next-Level System Performance As radar and electronic warfare systems contend with an increasingly crowded environment, recording tests, interactions, and conflicts provides insight that can help assure future triumphs. > Facing 5G New Radio (NR) Test Challenges Communicating Via Long-Distance Lasers The Purpose of Mixed-Effects Models in Test and Evaluation The simplest version of a mixed model-the random intercept model, where so-called random effects represent group-wide deviations from a grand mean-can account for day-to-day deviations in system performance while still allowing the results to be generalized beyond the few days of observed testing.

Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization (MMPDS) Handbook - 07

The Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization (MMPDS) Handbook, is an accepted source for metallic material and fastener system allowables recognized by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), all departments and agencies of the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), within the limitations of the certification requirements of the specific government agency. MMPDS-07 supersedes MMPDS-06 and prior editions of the MMPDS as well as all editions of MIL-HDBK-5, Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures that was maintained by the U.S. Air Force. The last edition, MIL-HDBK-5J was cancelled by the U.S. Air Force in March of 2006. MMPDS-07 contains design information on the mechanical and physical properties of metallic materials and joints commonly used in aircraft and aerospace vehicle structures.

Automatic Target Recognition

Automatic Target Recognition provides an inside view of the automatic target recognition (ATR) domain from the perspective of an engineer working in the field for 40 years. The algorithm descriptions and testing procedures covered in the book are appropriate for addressing military problems and unique aspects and considerations in the design, testing, and fielding of ATR systems. These considerations need to be understood by ATR engineers working in the defense industry as well as by their government customers. The final chapter discusses the future of ATR and provides a type of Turing test for determining if an ATR system is truly smart (neuromorphic or brain-like). The Appendix provides difficult-to-find resources available to the ATR engineer.

Autonomous Technologies: Applications That Matter

Over the years, the DARPA Challenges in the United States have galvanized interest in autonomous cars, making them a real possibility in the mind of the public, but autonomous and unmanned vehicles have been increasingly employed in many roles on land, in the water, and in the air. Military applications have received a great deal of attention, with weaponized unmanned aircraft (drones) being the most prominent. However, unmanned vehicles with varying degrees of autonomy already have many civilian applications. Some of these are quite familiar (such as the Roomba autonomous vacuum cleaner), while others remain largely out of the public eye (such as autonomous farm equipment). Additional applications and more capable vehicles are rapidly coming to the markets in the years ahead. This book examines a number of economically important areas in which unmanned and autonomous vehicles, also understood here as autonomous technologies, are already used or soon will be.

Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization (MMPDS) Handbook - 10

The Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization (MMPDS) Handbook is an accepted source for metallic material and fastener system allowables, recognized by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), all departments and agencies of the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), within the limitations of the certification requirements of the specific government agency. MMPDS-10 supersedes MMPDS-09 and prior editions of the MMPDS, as well as all editions of MIL-HDBK-5, Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures that was maintained by the U.S. Air Force. The last edition, MIL-HDBK-5J was cancelled by the U.S. Air Force in March of 2006.

Pregnant Occupant Biomechanics

This ground-breaking book provides substantial new analysis and summary data about pregnant occupant biomechanics, and will serve as a critical asset to anyone in the field of automobile safety. The overall goal of this book is to provide the reader with a complete resource for issues relating to the pregnant occupant. This multi-authored book is thoroughly vetted and includes chapter contributions from highly qualified practitioners in the field. A total of 19 technical papers are featured and are broken into six chapters. Each chapter begins with a brief summary and analysis of the research for that topic, and is followed by a selection of references. The remainder of the chapter includes a selection of the very best full-length technical papers on the topic, which are intended to provide depth and compliment the new material.
Technical Paper

Sustainment Measures for Fighter Jet Engines

The US Air Force (USAF) has evolved a policy for the acquisition of fighter jet engines (FJE). In the 1970s and 1980s that policy placed a premium on FJE performance primarily measured by the metric: thrust/engine weight. In the 1990s, the USAF policy changed from an emphasis on performance to reduced life-cycle cost with a premium on sustainment. This paper reports the results of a study of how the USAF and Corporation Alpha (Alpha) have adapted their processes, practices, and policies to design, develop, manufacture, test, and sustain a family of FJEs. Each member of the family of FJEs is sequentially linked relative to insertion of technology designed to reduce sustainment costs. In addition to the technology linkages, the development of the family of FJEs selected for this case study is also tracked relative to US Department of Defense and USAF policy and industry design, build, and maintain processes, methods, and tools.
Technical Paper

Towards Electric Aircraft: Progress under the NASA URETI for Aeropropulsion and Power Technology

The environmental impact of aircraft, specifically in the areas of noise and NOx emissions, has been a growing community concern. Coupled with the increasing cost and diminishing supply of traditional fossil fuels, these concerns have fueled substantial interest in the research and development of alternative power sources for aircraft. In 2003, NASA and the Department of Defense awarded a five year research cooperative agreement to a team of researchers from three different universities to address the design and analysis of revolutionary aeropropulsion technologies.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Switch-Loading Fuels on Fuel-Wetted Elastomers

The Office of the Secretary of the Defense (OSD), Advanced Systems and Concepts, established the OSD Assured Fuels Initiative, which aims to spark commercial production of clean fuels made from U.S. energy sources for use by the U.S. Military. The Department of Defense (DoD) will provide the “spark” by developing the fuel specifications needed, demonstrating and qualifying the use of these fuels in tactical ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships, and transitioning to the full-time use of these fuels in their fleets operating in the U.S. One such clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic fuel, made using low-temperature FT technology, contains no aromatic compounds.
Technical Paper

Properties of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Blends for Use in Military Equipment

Clean, very low sulfur fuels produced from domestic resources are of interest to the U.S. Military to enhance supply security and reliability versus continuing to rely on the supply of fuels that are either manufactured from an increasing percentage of imported oil or imported in increasing amounts as finished products. [1]* Synthetic Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel is one type of fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. FT fuels can be produced from a variety of non-petroleum feed stocks, such as natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, or even biomass and various wastes. Starting with reforming or gasification processes, the FT technology first produces synthesis gas (syngas) which is subsequently processed to high-boiling hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons are then hydrocracked, hydroisomerized, and/or hydroprocessed to produce the desired liquid fuels. The military has a Single Battlefield Fuel Policy which mandates use of the JP-8/JP-5/Jet A-1 aviation turbine fuels.
Technical Paper

Implementing the DoD Unique Identification (UID) Requirement and Understanding Its Impact on Manufacturing and Data Management Systems

In July of 2003, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) issued a memo that made Unique Identification (UID) a mandatory Department of Defense (DoD) requirement on all solicitations issued on or after January 1, 2004. There are two aspects of the UID requirement that require attention as a company works to implement it into their processes - physical marking requirements and data management requirements. The difficulty in implementing the UID requirement grows at a seemingly exponential rate with respect to the complexity of the existing manufacturing and/or data management systems. This paper examines some of the challenges that Lockheed Martin Aeronautics has encountered as it has begun to implement the UID requirement into its production line and its data systems.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Frequency and Mechanism of Injury to Warfighters in the Under-body Blast Environment

During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, improvised explosive devices were used strategically and with increasing frequency. To effectively design countermeasures for this environment, the Department of Defense identified the need for an under-body blast-specific Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan). To help with this design, information on Warfighter injuries in mounted under-body blast attacks was obtained from the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program through their Request for Information interface. The events selected were evaluated by Department of the Army personnel to confirm they were representative of the loading environment expected for the WIAMan. A military case review was conducted for all AIS 2+ fractures with supporting radiology. In Warfighters whose injuries were reviewed, 79% had a foot, ankle or leg AIS 2+ fracture. Distal tibia, distal fibula, and calcaneus fractures were the most prevalent.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Development of a 30 kW Heavy Fueled Compression Ignition Rotary ‘X’ Engine with Target 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency

This paper presents initial progress in the development of LiquidPiston’s ‘X4’, a 30 kW heavy-fueled rotary compression ignition engine prototype. The X4 is the newest version of the unique rotary ‘X’ engine architecture. This development is partially funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), with broad dual-use civilian / military applications including UAVs, generators, and for propulsion. The 30 kW size may be of significant interest in the automotive application as a range extender for Electric Vehicles. The final performance objectives of the program are aggressive: 45% brake thermal efficiency; > 1 hp / lb power-to-weight; and the engine is targeted to fit within a 10”x10”x10” box weighing <40lbs. A first prototype engine “core” has been designed, analyzed, prototypes, and completed its initial testing.
Technical Paper

The X-29 - a Unique and Innovative Aerodynamic Concept

Grumman Corporation, under a contract sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and monitored by the United States Air Force, has designed, fabricated, and is jointly flight testing the X-29 Advanced Technology Demonstrator with NASA. The X-29 was conceived to demonstrate in-flight the potential advantages of several advanced and innovative technologies integrated into one vehicle design. These advanced technologies include: A forward-swept wing (FSW) employing a thin supercritical airfoil Aeroelastically-tailored composite wing covers to control divergence A close-coupled, variable-incidence canard Variable wing camber Three-surface trim configuration. An aerodynamic overview of the configuration development and integration of these technologies is presented. Wind tunnel results and flight test results, where available, are also presented to substantiate the advantages of these innovative concepts.
Technical Paper

A Systems Engineering Approach to Payload/STS Integration

The Air Force has developed an approach to integrating Department of Defense payloads into the National Space Transportation System based on Systems Engineering principals. The approach emphasizes the interdisciplinary nature of the activities required to assure that the payload/STS physical, functional and operational interfaces involved in mission integration and operations have been identified, implemented and verified prior to the start of an STS mission.
Technical Paper

Development of the Multi-Resolution Modeling Environment through Aircraft Scenarios

Multi-Resolution Modeling (MRM) is one of the key technologies for building complex and large-scale simulations using legacy simulators. MRM has been developed continuously, especially in military fields. MRM plays a crucial role to describe the battlefield and gathering the desired information efficiently by linking various levels of resolution. The simulation models interact across different local and/or distance area networks using the High Level Architecture (HLA) regardless of their operating systems and hardware. The HLA is a standard architecture developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and is meant to create interoperability among different types of simulators. Therefore, MRM implementations are very dependent on Interoperability and Composability. This paper summarizes the definition of MRM-related terminology and proposes a basic form of MRM system using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) simulators and HLA.
Technical Paper

Using Social Network Analysis to Quantify Interoperability and Versatility in the U.S. Air Force Network of Systems

The Department of Defense (DoD) faces a similar challenge to the broader aerospace community in that they must integrate and operate a range of systems developed independently over a long period. It has proved difficult for the DoD to manage this network of systems and they must explore other options for analyzing and managing their systems. This paper explores the application of social network analysis tools and metrics to a network of aerospace systems within the U.S. Air Force. The structure of the network includes over one hundred U.S. Air Force systems including, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, munitions, satellites, and command and control systems. The paper describes two separate networks based on direct connections and shared activities between these systems. For each of these networks measures of centrality, degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector, quantify both the interoperability and versatility of the U.S. Air Force systems.
Technical Paper

Advanced Finite Element Analysis of a Lightweight Nanometal-Polymer Hybrid Component with Experimental Validation, and Its Applications to Vehicle Lightweighting

The presence of engineering plastics in the automotive, aerospace, and defense industries is rapidly increasing; the lightweight and cost-effective nature of these materials, coupled with improvements to their mechanical performance, is driving the replacement of more traditional materials. However, the stiffness of engineering plastics cannot rival that of their metal counterparts, making metal replacement challenging in cases where stiffness is paramount. Nanometal-polymer hybrids, which are engineering plastics reinforced by a thin high-strength metal coating, provide an innovative solution to this problem. However, implementing this hybrid material into innovative designs remains a challenge, as relatively little information about mechanical behaviour or appropriate modeling techniques for this complex material are available. In this article, an efficient and effective finite element modeling approach for the structural analysis of nanometal-polymer hybrids is presented.