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Spotlight on Design: Composite Materials: Advanced Materials and Lightweighting

“Spotlight on Design” features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode “Composite Materials: Advanced Materials and Lightweighting” (30:20), Molded Fiber Glass Companies, known for its deep involvement in the creative development of the molded fiberglass process for the Corvette, demonstrates the manufacturing of sheet molded composite for fiberglass parts. Tanom Motors introduces the Tanom Invader, a blend between an automobile and a motorcycle made exclusively with composite materials. Finally, Euro-Composites demonstrates the manufacturing of honeycomb core material made out of aramid paper and phenolic resin used in aircraft structures.
Technical Paper


The paper surveys the differences between American and European conditions in the automotive industry and then considers briefly the reasons for them. The governing conditions are stated and their effects are traced. The subjects discussed include motorcycles and small cars, road conditions, car idiosyncracies, selling conditions in Europe, and a comparison of design in general. The differences of practice are stated and commented upon. Six specific points are emphasized in the summary. The author states that the outlook for American cars the world over is seemingly good. In recent American designs, equal compression - volumes are often assured by machining the heads; six-cylinder crankshafts have seven bearings and are finished all over in the circular grinding machine; pressure lubrication is used for all moving parts of the engine; and in all ways the highest practice is aimed at. America is trying to improve the quality without increasing the cost.

Motorcycles Vehicle Inspection Handbook

Written by the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA), in partnership with the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators (CCMTA), this book is now available through the SAE International Bookstore. Chapters include: Fuel System Exhaust System Passenger Safety Items Motorcycle Frame & Swing Arm Tires, Wheels, Rims & Spokes and more Published by American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators. Distributed by SAE International. Published by American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators. Distributed by SAE. Click here to see the Vehicle Inspection Handbooks Set!
Technical Paper

Delivering the Mail with Diesels - The Post Office Department Looks at Diesel Engines

To determine to what extent diesel power should be introduced into the 60,000 truck postal fleet, a comprehensive evaluation-type study was undertaken by the Automotive Division of the Post Office Department. The study encompassed the complete range of truck sizes from the large 65,000 gcw tractor-trucks to the small 1/4-ton three wheel scooters. Considered in the evaluation were such factors as reliability, noise level, driver reaction and vehicle performance characteristics, in addition to the usual comparison of fuel consumption. Although the complete life cycle of the representative gasoline and diesel vehicles being studied is not complete, certain interim findings concerning vehicle performance and driver acceptance do support the trend to more general use of diesel powered vehicles.
Technical Paper

Transition from Toy to Tool

Perhaps no other single development has given so much impetus to the single-hand held power tool field as has the lightweight, compact, gasoline-powered engine. This paper describes the many innovations required to develop the three models of the Ohlsson & Rice Compact engine. This versatile power package, weighing less than 4 lb, has opened up new markets for the imaginative tool and equipment design engineer. To date it has been adapted to such widely diversified equipment as motor bikes, cultivators, saws, generators, and similar units. Even wider application is inevitable because of its ruggedness, portability, and easy starting.
Technical Paper

Some Development Aspects of Two-Stroke Cycle Motorcycle Engines

This paper describes aspects of YAMAHA 2 cycle, high speed, high output engines. Generally speaking, in order to obtain good results in developing engine performance, high delivery ratios and high thermal and mechanical efficiencies are essential. In addition to these, the most suitable cooling and lubricating systems must be employed. YAMAHA has developed a separate and automatic lubrication system for 2-cycle gasoline engines, which keeps YAMAHA engines well lubricated.
Technical Paper

Lubrication of Japanese Two-Cycle Engines

Field tests were conducted in a variety of Japanese two-cycle gasoline engines, comparing several lubricating oil additive types in motorcycle and small truck service. Three popular types of two-cycle additives were tested, the non-metallic amide and imide types, and the metallic sulfonate type. These field studies showed that (1) at moderate-to-high additive treatments, the amide type gave superior performance followed by the imide type, and then the sulfonate type; (2) at lower additive treatment, the imide type gave superior performance, followed by the sulfonate type, and then the amide type.
Technical Paper

NEEXT : New Electric Experience For Traction

Electric scooters are suited to mobility in zones with environmental traffic limitations, and particularly for city centers with very poor room for parking. Aim of this paper is the illustration of the performance that can be obtained from a purposely designed electric scooter. The features of the main components of the scooter driveline: battery package, converter, motor and control will be described.
Journal Article

Fuel Film Behavior Analysis Using Simulated Intake Port

Transient behavior of the engine is one of the most crucial factors for motorcycle features. Characterization of the fuel film with port fuel injection (PFI) is necessary to enhance this feature with keeping others, such as high output, low emissions and good fuel consumption. In order to resolve the complicated phenomena in real engine condition into simple physical issues, a simulated intake port was used in our research with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique to allow accurate measurement of the fuel film thickness, complemented by visualization of the film development and spray behavior using high-speed video imaging. Useful results have been conducted from the parametric studies with various sets of conditions, such as injection quantity, air velocity and port backpressure.
Technical Paper

Development of Fail-safe Method for Motorcycle's Electronic Throttle Control System

In recent years, even motorcycles impose demands for engine power controls that are more flexible and precise. The Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) system is one of the methods that addresses this need. However, the most important issue facing the installation of the ETC system on the motorcycle is handling failures. To avoid this problem, we developed an ETC system for motorcycles that can properly effect engine power control in case of a failure. This ETC system contains in duplicate the major components to detect failures and switch to a failure mode properly. To effect control that is optimally suited to the type of failure, this system switches between three types of failure modes. These failure modes are designed to minimize risks in case of a failure and maximize the operational capability while the rider is on the way to have the motorcycle repaired.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Feeling of Pulse for Cruiser-type Motorcycle

This paper describes the relationship between the rider's evaluation of feeling of pulse and the seat vibration of the cruiser-type motorcycle. A simulated running condition was created to measure the seat vibration and engine speed. Next, the seat vibration was reproduced on the hydrodynamic shaker. Finally, we examined the influence of which order of rotational speed effects evaluation of feeling of pulse in a forced vibration test. As a result, it is known that 0.5th and 1st orders of seat vibration contribute to evaluation of feeling of pulse near 1,500 to 2,000 rpm of engine rotation.
Technical Paper

Estimating of Motorcycle Frame Strength by Virtual Durability Test

The computational method and the CAE technique have been developed to evaluate durability performance of a motorcycle body. The computational method in this study consists of three parts of simulation. The first is the mode analysis of the body parts. The second is the multi body dynamics simulation, which calculates forces loaded into the frame of a motorcycle body equivalent to actual durability tests. The third is the static structure analysis, which calculates stress distribution using the forces calculated by the multi body dynamics simulation as boundary conditions. Also, two kinds of durability tests, that are the chassis durability test and the falling durability test, are simulated in this study.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Evaluation on Aerodynamics and Air-cooling Performances for Motorcycle using CFD Analysis

In order to optimize the balance between aerodynamics and air-cooling performances for a motorcycle, a simulation method of external flow around a vehicle has been developed. In this paper, steady-state flow calculations were performed using two types of turbulence models, the realizable k-ε and the SST k-ω, and two levels of mesh sizes of computational models and their results were compared. To validate the computational results, wind tunnel tests were conducted and CD, CL and mean velocity of flow passing through heat exchangers were measured. The computational results on drag coefficient and mean velocity show good agreements with the experimental ones.
Journal Article


As a result of environmental pressures and end-user demands several companies are working on low cost fuel injection systems specifically for small motorcycles and utility engines. A common approach to this application is to take an existing engine management system derived from automotive or high end motorcycle applications and to re-design it to reduce its complexity and cost for the small engine market. This paper introduces and discusses the latest development and application of a novel engine management system designed from the outset specifically for low cost small engines for motorcycles and utility applications (Pulse Count Injection, PCI [ref 2, 3]). The paper details comparisons of the performance of the PCI system compared to carburettor and conventional EFI systems. Detailed results are shown for; Fuel consumption comparison Engine out emission benefits Fuel flow comparison Cost reduction The paper demonstrates the latest state of development of the PCI system technology.
Technical Paper

Development of the Electronically-Controlled Combined Brake System

Motorcycles in general are equipped with independent brake systems provided separately for the front and rear wheels. Because motorcycles characteristically exhibit large front-rear load fluctuations while running, they require a level of rider skill to operate the front-rear independent brake system in order to accomplish an appropriate front-rear brake distribution. However, motorcyclists have various levels of rider skills, from beginner to experienced rider. The combined brake system has been developed as an effective means for complementing these rider skills. This paper describes the characteristics of the electronically-controlled combined brake system that realizes a finer skill support than the conventional mechanically combined brake system. This is accomplished through the electronic control of the linking mechanism, wherein the rider's brake operation information and running condition information are incorporated as calculation parameters.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Coating for Effective Emission Reduction in a Small Motorcycle Application

This paper will present a comparison of different catalytic coatings especially designed for small motorcycle application with regard to activity, durability and precious metal costs. Since recent catalytic formulations for this application widely use rather expensive platinum (Pt) -rhodium (Rh) formulations, this paper will present data for less expensive coatings which use palladium (Pd) as the main or the only active precious metal compound. Besides the fresh catalytic activity the thermal and chemical aging stability will be compared for PtRh, PtPdRh and Pd-only formulations. We will show that also less expensive Pd-rich catalytic coatings can be used for an effective emission reduction of small motorcycles. The presented data have been obtained by synthetic gas reactor testing using a simulated engine exhaust gas for coated catalysts as well as for thermally and chemically aged catalysts.
Technical Paper

Test Method for Evaluating Gear Fatigue Life of 4-Stroke Motorcycle Engine Oils

A new test method for evaluating gear fatigue life of 4-stroke motorcycle engine oil is proposed. A newly developed rolling 4-ball type apparatus demonstrated good discrimination of anti-fatigue performance of known motorcycle engine oils with relatively shorter test duration, smaller sample size and reasonably good precision in comparison with the conventional fatigue tests available in the industry. The effects of operating parameters on test accuracy and repeatability have been studied. The parameters studied are oil temperature, contact pressure, speed and the test specimen batch.
Technical Paper

Testing and Evaluation of Fuel Properties Effect on High Speed Engine Performance

In the past, the performance of motorcycle engines has improved quite rapidly through intensive competition in racing and marketplace. In today's very competitive market environment, fuel producers also have to continuously develop and renew their products performance and capability in order to improve their business competitive edge and market share. With more consumer awareness on environment concerns, fuel producers require a better mean of assessing their product performance for internal combustion engine market including motorcycle for improve fuel economy and exhaust emission pollutants. Fossil fuel resources depletion and uncertainty in oil prices further worsen the situation. Advancement in internal combustion engine measurement technology allows engineers to have access to improve evaluation tools in enhancing their understanding and knowledge on the effect of fuel properties on engine performance.