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AMS-STD-595A/10032

2016-05-01
AMS-STD-595A Color Chips Precise Color Matching, Individual Color Chips: A 3 x 5 inch color chip supplied in a 3 x 5 inch protective envelope for each AMS-STD-595 color, suitable for matching quality control inspection purposes. SAE Product Code: EA-10032 AMS-STD-595 – Colors Used in Government Procurement. This standard presents the colors used by Government Activities in a format suitable for color selection matching and for quality control inspection for paints and coatings. Standard is used with DoD and other Federal Agencies as a primary source of color reference.
Technical Paper

Surface Treatments and Characterization of Electroplated and Hot Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets

1996-04-01
91A126
Protection of surfaces is a critical factor in determining the extended service life of a structure in polluted and aggressive environments. In particular, a rapid growth of the technology for the protecting coating of cold rolled steel is experienced, for the use in transport, electric housewares, building and industrial plants. Numerous changes have taken place in the production of zinc coatings on steel in order to improve the corrosion resistance using zinc alloy platings. Our research group collected from the international production a number of selected galvanized steel samples, including electrodeposited zinc alloys, multilayer coatings, hot dip galvanized steels. On the selected materials we established and analyzed morphology, composition, crystal structure, impurity content and distribution, using many surface microanalysis techniques.
Technical Paper

Microarc Oxidization Process--A Perspective Technology Used for the Obtention of Qualitative Ceramic Coatings

1996-04-01
91A108
A perspective microarc oxidization (MAO) technology used for the obtention of ceramic coatings is described. The coat formation mechanism and its phase composition and revealed conformably to aluminum alloys. The results of the analysis of MAO-coatings are given by their cohesive strength with respect to the substrate and microhardness distribution within ceramic layer thickness. The examples of practical use of coatings are given and possible perspectives of MAO-technology inculcation are outlined.
Technical Paper

Electrochromic Glazings for Use in Automobiles

1996-04-01
91A110
In the present paper we will outline the principles, designs, problems and benefits of electrochromic coatings and present our own laboratory results. The effect of electrochromic coatings on the thermal comfort of a parked vehicle is theoretically calculated and the results confronted with the performances of selective coatings.
Technical Paper

Reliability Improvement of Automotive Components By Surface Modification

1996-04-01
91A104
In this paper, several detailed studies on the surface properties of coatings are explained in order to make function of surface modification become more effective. As surface coatings, eletroless nickel plating, organic thin film, nitriding and antireflection coating by ultra fine particles are examined. Discussion of optimum production conditions and surface conditions for each coating is introduced.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Coating for Aluminum Engine and Components

1996-04-01
91A105
The trend toward lighter vehicles for improved performance has recently introduced the use of aluminum and plastic materials for vehicle bodies and drive trains. In particular, the aluminum alloy block foar engine application is certain to reappear. The soft aluminum cylinder liner will require additional treatment before acceptance. Three possible approaches appear to solve the aluminum cylinder liner dilemma. These approaches are: 1) use of high silicon aluminum such as the 390 aluminum; 2) insert or cast steel liners into the aluminum engine block; and 3) ceramic coat the low cost standard aluminum engine block. Each has known advantages and disadvantages. It is the purpose of this paper to present the merits of option 3, the ceramic coated aluminum cylinder bore, from the standpoint of low weight, cost, and tribological effectiveness. The advantages of approaches 1) and 2) are obvious. High temperature after treatment of the ceramic engine components is not required.
Technical Paper

Antiwear Properties and Applications of Thin Hard Coatings

1996-04-01
91A106
Different techniques, like PVD, CVD, ion implantation, are increasingly used to produce thin film layers of ceramic compounds to modify the surface properties of metals, carbides, ceramics or polymeric components for specialized conditions or in severe conditions of use. Carbides, nitrides, oxides, etc. have been deposited on the most varied supports to solve problems of high temperature, erosion, corrosion, diffusion and conductivity or electrical resistance. The fields of thin hard coating applications are: tools, dies, punches, mechanical components (for antiwear deposits), structures (for anticorrosion), optics (reflecting or absorbing layers) and microelectronics. In this paper we will present the principal characteristics of different thin hard coating layers and processes, and the principal applications in the anti-wear field.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Shrinkage and Warpage in Plastics Injection Molded Auto Parts

1996-04-01
91A088
The article emphasizes the effect of flow on dimensional stability, mechanical properties and surface finish, and the close coupling of dimensional stability and mechanical properties. Warpage is the result of the balance between the structural stiffness of the part and the stress pattern resulting in variation in shrinkage due to area shrinkage, orientation, and thermal effects. The practical solution to warpage depends on the use of software to isolate the basic causes of warping which then leads to a logical solution procedure.
Technical Paper

The Transformation of Recycled Painted Fascias for use in Automotive Acoustical Applications

1999-05-17
1999-01-1678
Substantial activity in the field of recycling has made industry increasingly aware of the need to find novel ways of reusing post industrial and post consumer waste to produce useful products for our markets. The traditional approaches have been to use the scrap material as is into the original markets targeted for virgin materials, and finding areas that can accept the resultant downgraded properties. This approach has created difficulties in the recycling of automotive painted thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) fascia and trim products. The presence of the paint contaminant has substantially degraded the physical properties of the plastic. This paper reviews the use of painted TPO scrap as a raw material for automotive sound barrier applications whereby the inherent material characteristics of TPO are capitalized on. The material modifications and functional characteristics as they relate to this application are described.
Technical Paper

Vibration Weldability Study for Painted Plastics

1999-05-10
1999-01-1628
Weldability study has been performed on Polypropylene (PP) and PC/ABS samples to investigate how the paint layer along the weld joint affects the vibration weldability. The plastic used for this study were PP representing semicrystalline thermoplastics and PC/ABS representing amorphous thermoplastics. Both resins were molded to generate sample plaques for the study. Design of Experiment (DOE) studies were initially conducted with unpainted plaques and then repeated with the painted plaques for comparison. Optimal welding parameters were determined through DOE and the maximum weld strength under optimized welding conditions were determined and compared. Following each DOE, a regression analysis, using the weld strength as a response, was performed.
Technical Paper

A New Light Weight, High Performance, Spray Applied Automotive Damping Material

1999-05-17
1999-01-1674
A new multifunctional material was developed to provide corrosion protection, anti-chip protection and vibration damping equal to or better than the existing materials today. This multifunctional coating, applied robotically or manually with airless spray equipment, is a one component system and provides the following characteristics: high vibration damping, low viscosity-easy to process, low shrinkage-no small molecules given off, no solvents, excellent adhesion to oily steel and electrocoat, excellent stone-chip resistance, high stiffness and low density. This paper describes the application and performance benefits of utilizing this sprayable, chip-resistance damper.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Crack Initiation Life Analysis Procedure

2000-05-09
2000-01-1666
Any analysis tool should be validated to verify computation accuracy. Fatigue analysis processes are inherently complex to validate due to the sensitivity and interdependency of variables. In the current work the authors systematically separate the variables for independent evaluation and verification. The approach is the result of new Neuber notch analysis equations, derived by the authors, and draws upon the experience of the authors as well as several other analysts in developing an approach that reduces interaction between variables. The extension of the Neuber’s Rule into multiaxial format is presented. Each building block of the process is discussed: loads and load histories, stresses, stress concentrations, notch analyses (uniaxial and multiaxial), material properties (stress-strain response as well as life data), and damage accumulation. A method to account for fretting is discussed. Occasionally, during an evaluation, a variable is either overlooked or not quantified well.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Tribological Characteristics of Energy-Conserving Engine Oils Using a Reciprocating Bench Test

2000-06-19
2000-01-1781
Engine design and tribology engineers are constantly challenged to develop advanced products with reduced weight, reduced friction, longer life, and higher engine operating temperatures. The resulting engine systems must also meet more demanding emissions and fuel economy targets. Advanced energy-conserving lubricants and surface coatings are concurrently evolving to meet the needs of new engine materials. Because of the enormous cost and time associated with engine testing, much interest is being focused on the development of representative and repeatable bench tests for evaluation of engine materials and lubricants. The authors have developed a bench test employing reciprocating motion for evaluating friction and energy-conserving characteristics of lubricants.
Technical Paper

Tapered Roller Bearings with Improved Efficiency and High Power Density for Automotive Transmissions

2000-03-06
2000-01-1154
This paper is focusing on the performance enhancement of the tapered roller bearings supporting the transfer shaft in a push belt type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). It also provides an objective comparison, based on test results, with the fixed/floating ball bearings alternative arrangement. The influence of different design parameters such as cup and cone race profile, roller length / diameter ratio, surface finish etc., is quantified in the analytical and experimental investigation. The bearings power loss is calculated and measured for operating conditions that are relevant in a vehicle fuel economy cycle. Additional specific aspects related to the use of tapered roller bearings, such as setting and mounting procedures, are discussed under similar considerations. The paper contains a system analysis of the transfer shaft interacting with the variator output shaft and with the differential.
Technical Paper

Form Trim Inject: A New Technology for Exterior Parts Decoration

2000-03-06
2000-01-1169
To improve the decoration of exterior automotive parts, we developed a new technology called Form - Trim - Inject (FTI). FTI is a very low cost investment process based on Insert Molding. Films can be produced either by roller coating / induction process or co-extrusion process. This article shows some results concerning aspect and glossiness that we observed during many trials which were necessary to develop a new knowledge on this technology. Any color, surface appearance and any graphic can be achieved by using FTI. FTI is also a very good answer to V.O.C. issues
Technical Paper

The Magnesium Hatchback of the 3-Liter Car: Processing and Corrosion Protection

2000-03-06
2000-01-1123
The hatchback of Volkswagen's 3 liter car (3 l fuel consumption per 100 km) consists of an inner component of die casting magnesium (AM50) covered with an aluminum panel from the outside. This hybrid design requires a new manufacturing process: The pre-coated magnesium part will be bonded and folded with the bare aluminum part. Corrosion protection is provided by an organic coating system which both protects against general corrosion and galvanic corrosion. The corrosion of the Al / Mg sandwich has been examined with hybrid samples which are similar to the hatchback. Several powder coatings (epoxy resin, polyester resin, hybrid resin), wet paints and cathodic electro-coating paints of different thicknesses and compositions have been applied to the magnesium part. They show that only powder coating provides adequate protection. Galvanic corrosion at the points of attachment of the hatchback might be possible (for example the bolted joint of the hinge).
Technical Paper

Structural Properties of Thermoplastic Composites Molded and Finished by the Valyi Surface Finishing/Compression Molding Process

2000-03-06
2000-01-1130
Class “A” automotive parts with a 1.6 square meter surface area were produced using a new process of surface finishing/compression molding SFC (The Valyi SFC™ Process (1). In the process a precut Class “A” film finish blank was placed over the mold cavity of a vertical press. Molten plastic was extruded onto the film, reinforcing layers added, and the mold was closed. In this SFC process, the melt, deposited directly onto the film-backing layer, heats the film finish and causes it to become pliable for forming. This process eliminates the need for painting and produces large parts at low clamp forces. This paper reports the materials and process that were used to produce full sized development parts that demonstrate the capability for production of large structural panels such as roof tops, hoods, or trunk lids. In order to achieve the strength and stiffness requirements, continuous fiber reinforcements were moled into the parts.
Technical Paper

The Freeze Cast Process

2000-03-06
2000-01-1384
The Freeze Cast Process for casting precision automotive and other parts, freezes water in rubber molds to make temporary ice patterns that can be invested in ceramic slurries to make a shell that can be filled with any molten metal. The resulting precision casting will be of tight dimensional tolerance, exhibit excellent surface finish and reproduce intricate detail so that parts obtained will require little or no machining. Parts can be produced at 35-50% of the cost of competing precision casting processes such as Lost Wax and Lost Foam, competing in price with sand castings.
Technical Paper

Designing an Interior AppliedWaterborne Coating for Use in Automotive Paint Shops to Replace Sound Deadening Pads

2000-03-06
2000-01-1391
This paper describes a waterborne, bakeable thick-film coating that is designed for use as an interior sound pad replacement. The product is applied using a swirl spray application to reduce overspray and maintain uniform coverage. The product has a nonvolatile content of 82% utilizing a resin system based on an acrylic dispersion. This product shows acoustic properties comparable to melt down sound pads. This chemistry withstands a pregel/primer oven up to 150°C, 20 minutes in length, prior to topcoat application and the associated topcoat bakes by maintaining good surface drying and integrity. Utilization of this type of system allows an automotive NVH engineer to specify a cost effective automated coating system that totally eliminates the use of manual applied mastic pads.
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