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Factory Man

2009-02-16
Factory Man is about James Harbour and the epic struggle of the U.S. auto industry to catch up to Japan in quality and productivity. Harbour is a former manufacturing executive who, partly by chance, became the first U.S. expert to study Toyota's operations in Japan. Harbour's consulting firm, Harbour & Associates has gained worldwide recognition for its annual public studies of factory productivity. The Harbour Report is the essential annual scorecard of who is winning the productivity race in the U.S. In 1981, Harbour reported that Toyota could offer a small car for sale in the U.S. at a production cost of $1,500-$1,700 less than the Detroit automakers at that time, a cost advantage of about 30 percent. The impact on Detroit was atomic, and launched the painful, historic effort by the Big Three to catch up, which continues today. James Harbour's story, blunt and accessible, includes a detailed description of how Detroit went astray, beginning right after World War II.
Technical Paper

Surface Treatments and Characterization of Electroplated and Hot Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets

1996-04-01
91A126
Protection of surfaces is a critical factor in determining the extended service life of a structure in polluted and aggressive environments. In particular, a rapid growth of the technology for the protecting coating of cold rolled steel is experienced, for the use in transport, electric housewares, building and industrial plants. Numerous changes have taken place in the production of zinc coatings on steel in order to improve the corrosion resistance using zinc alloy platings. Our research group collected from the international production a number of selected galvanized steel samples, including electrodeposited zinc alloys, multilayer coatings, hot dip galvanized steels. On the selected materials we established and analyzed morphology, composition, crystal structure, impurity content and distribution, using many surface microanalysis techniques.
Technical Paper

New Materials and Experiences for the Industrialization of Pu Structural Rim Technology

1996-04-01
91A122
Processes involving use of reactive polymers received recently considerable attention also for producing components suitable for automotive structural applications. In particular polyurethane structural RIM technology seems to be the route of choice in terms of productivity, reliability and physico- mechanical performances in order to fit the automotive industry needs in the production of parts requiring superior load bearing properties. In this frame the development of long pot life snap-cure resins, fast and effective reinforcement preforming techniques as well as the development of computerized provisional processing methodologies are of paramount importance in view of industrialization of the technology. In this paper a description of the work carried out by Enichem Montedipe and Montedison is given. In particular a new family of PU systems, based on special isocyanate variants, is reported.
Technical Paper

Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites Obtained By Indirect Squeeze-Casting

1996-04-01
91A115
Indirect squeeze casting technology is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques of near net shape components constituted by aluminum matrix composite (AMC) materials. AMCs reinforced with both continuous and discontinuous ceramic elements have been mainly produced by infiltration of porous preforms. Nevertheless, a further promising production route offered by this technique is given by the possibility to employ ingots of pre-reinforced aluminum alloys containing ceramic particles (silicon carbide or alumina); ingots are remelted and, under suitable operative conditions, high quality composite castings of simple and complex shape are produced by squeeze casting. The present paper describes the results of an extensive experimental work carried out by Alures-Centro Tecnico Porcessi on a pilot plant scale employing a vertical squeeze casting machine with a clamping force of 315 tons.
Technical Paper

Glass Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites: Effects of Ribs and Different Types of Reinforcement on the Characteristics of the Molded Part

1996-04-01
91A119
Compression molding of thermoplastic sheets, consolidated or non- consolidated, reinforced with glass fibers (GMT, GRT) is applied as an economic production process in the automotive industry. The aim of this work is to evaluate how the physical and mechanical strength characteristics depend on the presence or absence of ribs and how component performance may be changed by modifying the molding parameters, altering the content and orientation of the reinforcement fibers in the ribbed areas. For this purpose, two statistical designs will be considered, the first carried out on a box type component without ribs, the second on the same component with a set of internal ribs. Two different materials with a PP matrix will be tested, a GMT reinforced with continuous random glass fibers and a 12 mm random glass fibers composite.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Glasses for Automotive

1996-04-01
91A109
The windows of a vehicle have to satisfy the following driver and passenger needs concerning visibility and climate perception both related to active safety: transparency, reluctance, dazzling, glare and diffused light (scattering). All functions are related to visibility and so to the optics of glazing, solar control, deicing, defogging, demisting. The task of material science is to find the multifunctional glasses solving simultaneously problems of visibility, safety and comfort. Particular kind of glasses, colored, wired, coated, electrochromic, liquid crystal, photochromic can be already considered solutions which can operate passively or actively. The example of passive solar control and active heatable coated glasses is shown as a possible practical multifunctional glass very soon.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Advanced Aluminum Alloys and Mmc Obtained By Means of a Spray Depositon Approach

1996-04-01
91A112
The paper review some recent efforts, made by the aluminum industry, towards the development of new advanced alloys for aerospace applications; unconventional production technologies and MMC occupy an outstanding position in this context. Raid solidification processes are currently used for obtaining advanced alloys and, among them, the powder metallurgy route is one of the most commonly applied, since it has reached a considerable level of maturity. Experimental results of PM materials are shown and discussed in order to appreciate the potentialities of this class of materials and some recent further progress is shown: the spray deposition approach (osprey process). After having described the main features of the osprey process, some results obtained at the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Pisa about the development of high strength Al-alloy and MMC obtained by means of the osprey process are shown.
Technical Paper

Casting and Characterization of An Aluminum Alloy Car Engine Bracket Produced By Squeeze Casting Technology

1996-04-01
91A114
The following paper describes the experimental activity regarding the setting-up and characterization of a car engine bracket in Al-Si12Cu2FeZn-F alloy produced by the new technology squeeze casting. LExperimentation was carried out at the Alures squeeze casting pilot plant. Static and dynamic characterization (fatigue resistance on test samples and the component itself) was carried out at Teksid and Fiat Auto. Characterization test have demonstrated the considerable advantages offered by the new technology compared with conventional production processes.
Technical Paper

Devleopment and Industrial Realization of Glass Mat Preforming Equipment for Rtm and Shim

1996-04-01
91A101
As a result of the rapid expansion of liquid molding in closed mold, fiberglass mat performers have rapidly changed in order to meet the high production requirements. The reasons for this interest in RTM and SRIM can be found in the considerable benefits offered by this technology which include: 1) ability to produce very large parts (weights up to 70 kg are currently being prototyped); 2) continuous and homogeneous reinforcement or even predetermined distribution of the reinforcement in the mold; 3) the ability to produce structures using cores of various types; and 4) the ability to use large inserts, even if they are metallic. The creation and development of this technology has been possible thanks to the introduction of very low viscosity reactive polymers. These materials permits very fast impregnation of the reinforcement in the closed model, thereby decreasing the cure time and the overall cycle time.
Technical Paper

Advances in Thermoset Injection Molding

1996-04-01
91A102
Injection molding of thermosetting materials such as low profile SMC/BMC composites found increasing application in the transportation industry in the eighties. Such automotive parts as front end panels and rear/hatchback doors have grown in usage. The rear doors have reached exceptional production levels of 2600/day in a single plant. The injection process offers the advantages of greater automation for the mass production of body panel parts compared in compression molding. However, the injection molding of fiber reinforced low profile composites suffers from a severe reduction in physical properties. This is particularly true for impact strength which can be one-third that of similar compression molding materials. A primary reason for this is due to the degradation of the reinforcement during the processing/molding. Efforts at increasing the physical properties through processing changes have many times caused problems with the surface smoothness of the moldings.
Technical Paper

Reliability Improvement of Automotive Components By Surface Modification

1996-04-01
91A104
In this paper, several detailed studies on the surface properties of coatings are explained in order to make function of surface modification become more effective. As surface coatings, eletroless nickel plating, organic thin film, nitriding and antireflection coating by ultra fine particles are examined. Discussion of optimum production conditions and surface conditions for each coating is introduced.
Technical Paper

Structual Problems in the Design of a Car-Component in a Composite Material

1996-04-01
91A096
The paper summarizes the results of an experimental and numerical study performed on the rear door of a car of large production. It was carried out with a DMC ("dough molding compound") plastic material with short glass fibers. This technology makes strong the link between the production process and the mechanical properties of the component. Such properties really vary according to the fibers orientation, the distance from the injection points and the geometrical complexity of the different regions of the molded component. In some regions the fibers orientation is well defined, in others the orientation can be expressed only in average tendency terms, with a large scatter band. It is natural to think that the material modifies its behavior from region to region, showing marked orthotropic properties or, on the contrary, a compensation isotropic trend.
Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

1988-03-01
871147
Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
Technical Paper

Development of STORM Series Diesel Engine (D1146, D1146T, D2366, D2366T)

1988-03-01
871218
For the purpose of satisfying today's market demands, new 8 and 11 liter diesel engines, named "STORM" series, have been developed and moved into production in 1986. Based on the predecessors which have been produced since 1975, the development of the STORM series aimed high performance, low emission, long life-time and low operating costs. In order to consult customers' convenience, exchangeability of engine parts and commonality of vehicle installations with the former engines had to be maintained. This paper describes the development work of STORM engines, and the design aspects and performance characteristics of these engines.
Technical Paper

The Next Step in Acoustical Part Weight Reduction

1999-05-17
1999-01-1685
Weight reduction with maintained part performance is a continuing trend throughout the automotive industry. Acoustical insulation parts (carpet underlay and dash insulators) are no exception. Several years ago, ICI Polyurethanes led the industry in establishing a molded density standard of 48 kg/m3. Although this is the current production standard, the technology drive is toward even lower weights. Recent technological demonstrations show that molded densities of 35-38 kg/m3 are achievable. In addition to removing weight, acoustical performance can be maintained with no deficiencies in physical characteristics.
Technical Paper

Representation of Constrained/Unconstrained Layer Damping Treatments in FEA/SEA Vehicle System Models: A Simplified Approach

1999-05-17
1999-01-1680
In this study, a simplified approach to modeling the dynamics of damping treatments in FEA (Finite Element)/ SEA (Statistical Energy) models is presented. The basic idea is to represent multi-layered composite structures with an equivalent layer. The properties of the equivalent layer are obtained by using the RKU (Ross, Kerwin and Ungar) method. The procedure presented here does not require any special pre-processing of the finite element input file and it does not increase the number of active degrees of freedom in the model, thereby making it possible to include the effect of these treatments in large system/subsystem level models. The equivalent properties obtained from RKU analysis can also be used in the SEA system models. In this study, both unconstrained and constrained layer damping treatments applied to simple structures (e.g., flat panels) as well as production vehicle components are examined.
Technical Paper

Tire/Pavement Interaction Noise Source Identification Using Multi-Planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography

1999-05-17
1999-01-1733
In this study, multi-planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is used to investigate noise radiated from the front, side and rear areas of single tires on a two-wheel trailer. Contributions to the radiated noise from the leading edge, trailing edge, and sidewall of the tire are identified. Two tires - an experimental monopitch tire and a production passenger car tire - are evaluated on a smooth asphalt pavement at 58 km/hr. From the measured complex pressure, acoustic intensity is reconstructed on three planes surrounding the tire using modified NAH procedures. Additionally, sound power levels are presented in tabulated and spectra forms. Tire noise generating mechanisms are inferred based on the results.
Technical Paper

Squeak and Rattle - State of the Art and Beyond

1999-05-17
1999-01-1728
Modern trends in noise control engineering have subjected the automobile to the “drained swamp” syndrome. Squeaks and rattles (S&R) have surfaced as major concerns. Customers increasingly perceive S&R as direct indicators of vehicle build quality and durability. The high profile nature of S&R has led manufacturers to formulate numerous specifications for assemblies and components. Even so, a large majority of buzz, squeak and rattle (BSR) issues are identified very late in the production cycle, some often after the vehicle is launched. Traditionally, the “find-and-fix” approach is widely adopted, leading to extensive BSR warranty bills. The “design-right-the-first-time” approach must replace the “find-and-fix” approach. Due to the vast breadth and depth of S&R issues, a comprehensive summary of the present state of the art is essential. This paper includes a literature survey of the current state of the art of S&R, and discusses the methods available to further advance it.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Dynamic Characteristics of Electromechanical Commutating Devices

1999-05-17
1999-01-1710
Modern production is intensified by the extensive application of computing art to structure design. This paper deals with the results of numerical simulation of electromechanical commutating devices. Speed of operation, vibrostability, reliability and durability are basic characteristics, which can be satisfied by studying mathematical models of mechanical and magnetic systems. During the impact interaction of elastic links several modes of vibrations are excited. By developing certain conditions, the amplitudes of the higher modes can be increased by changing the intensity of energy dissipation and responsiveness of the mechanical system. Such parameters as the position and configuration of the contact elements, ratio of their natural frequencies and others should guarantee the smallest amplitudes of rebounds with a possibility to minimize transient processes occurring in the building ofthe operation.
Technical Paper

Noise Analysis of Automotive Alternators

1999-05-17
1999-01-1712
An extensive experimental study of noise generating mechanisms of two production models of automotive alternators is presented. It was established that aerodynamic noise (generated by cooling fans) is dominating at high speeds (above 3,000 rpm), while electromagnetic noise is the most intensive at low rpm. Two directions of noise reduction are proposed and validated: reduction of noise levels generated by alternators to be achieved by using axial flow fans for cooling instead of presently used bladed discs, and radical reduction of operating speed of alternators by using variable transmission ratio accessory drives.
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