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Book

Lectures of the 32nd International Vienna Motor Symposium

2011-05-05
Proceedings from the 32nd International Vienna Motor Symposium now available through SAE International. One of the most prestigious conferences on engine development in the industry today, the International Vienna Motor Symposium, now in its 32nd year, gathers world renowned experts to discuss the current and future state of motor technology. According to Dr. Hans Peter Lenz, president of the Austrian Society of Automotive Engineers, who opened this year’s conference, markets are now in a better position to understand how internal combustion engines and electrified powertrains can actually complement each other. Presenters offered their input and experience in the development of new technologies enabling higher levels of fuel efficiency and power, longer range and a cleaner way for the mobility industry to move forward. The proceedings, available in two volumes and a CD, contain all the technical papers given during the meeting, both in English and in German.
Book

Insight: Fuel Effiency: Fuel Economy Testing (DVD)

2015-04-15
"Spotlight on Design: Insight" features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. As global concerns about the negative consequences of greenhouse gases on the environment increase, regulatory agencies around the world are taking serious steps to address the issue of tailpipe emissions In the episode "Fuel Efficiency: Fuel Economy Testing" (12:01), engineers at the EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory demonstrate how different vehicles are tested for emissions, and AVL’s technical team shows how accurate tailpipe emissions can be measured and reported.
Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

1988-03-01
871147
Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
Technical Paper

Engine Control System for Lean Combustion

1988-03-01
871171
In order to achieve lean burn engine control system, it is necessary to develop high accuracy air fuel ratio control technology including transient driving condition and lean burn limit expansion technology. This paper describes the following. 1 The characteristics of the transient response of the fuel supply are clarified when various kinds of air flow measuring methods and fuel injection methods are used. 2 To achieve stable combustion in lean mixture, fine fuel droplet mixture, whose diameter is less than 40 μm, needs to be supplied.
Technical Paper

A Photographic Investigation of Multi-Stage Fuel Injection in a Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1501
Increasing concern about the impact of internal combustion engines on the environment has led to ever more stringent emission legislation, and the introduction of more sophisticated equipment to enable the requirements to be achieved. One way of improving the emissions from direct injection (DI) diesel engines is to use multi-stage fuel injection, and an investigation performed on such a system is reported in this paper. In this case, the multi-stage fuel injector caused an increase in the exhaust smoke at low load, and an in-cylinder photographic technique was used to examine why this occurred. A multi-stage fuel injector with a VCO nozzle was fitted to a small, high-speed, direct injection diesel engine fitted with a transparent piston for optical access. The combustion process was filmed using a high-speed 16 mm cine camera, and the fuel injection process was illuminated by a high power, copper-vapour laser.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection Vehicles: Part II - Lubricant Oil Performance and Engine Wear

1999-05-03
1999-01-1499
Four 1998 Mitsubishi Carismas, two equipped with direct injection (GDI) and two with port fuel injection engines (PFI) were tested in a designed experiment to determine the effect of mileage accumulation cycle, engine type, fuel and lubricant type on engine wear and engine oil performance parameters. Fuel types were represented by an unadditised base fuel meeting EEC year 2000 specifications and the same base fuel plus synthetic deposit control additive packages. Crankcase oils were represented by two types (1) a 5W-30 API SJ/ILSAC GF-2 type engine oil and (2) a 10W-40 API SH/CF ACEA A3/ B3-96 engine oil. The program showed that specific selection of oil additive chemistry may reduce formation of intake valve deposits in GDI cars.. In general, G-DI engines produced more soot and more pentane insolubles and were found to be more prone to what appears to be soot induced wear than PFI engines.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

In-Use Emissions from Natural Gas Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

1999-05-03
1999-01-1507
The objective of the work described here is to test the performance of closed-loop controlled, heavy-duty CNG engines in-use, on fuels of different methane content; and to compare their performance with similar diesel vehicles. Performance is measured in terms of pollutant emissions, fuel economy, and driveability. To achieve this objective, three buses powered by closed-loop controlled, dedicated natural gas engines were tested on the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer facility at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Emissions of regulated pollutants (CO, NOx, PM, and THC or NMHC), as well as emissions of alde-hydes for some vehicles, are reported. Two fuels were employed: a high methane fuel (90%) and a low methane fuel (85%). It was found that the NOx, CO, and PM emissions for a given cycle and vehicle are essentially constant for different methane content fuels.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Hybrid Fuel System with Diesel and Premixed DME/Methane Charge on Exhaust Emissions in a Small DI Diesel Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1509
Early stage combustion systems, with lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), have been studied, with the intent to decrease the pollutant emission characteristics of DI diesel engines. Early stage combustion enables drastic reductions in both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emission, but the operating load range is restricted, due to combustion phenomena, such as unsteady combustion and knocking. In this study, we explored the possibility of broadening the operating load range in HCCI and reducing pollutant emissions using Dimethyl Ether (DME) fumigated through the intake pipe. However, the improvements in load range were found to be less than 0.1 MPa in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), even when compression ratios were reduced and Methane with high octane number was mixed. Therefore, a DME premixed charge could be used only at light loads. At heavier loads a hybrid fuel system with a DME premixed charge and diesel fuel injection is necessary.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulation Approaches to Understanding Soot Aggregation

1999-05-03
1999-01-1516
During 1998, the US Federal authority introduced a requirement for vehicles powered by heavy duty diesel engines that NOx emissions shall be less than 4 g/bhp.h. This represents a 20% reduction over current levels and has prompted significant further hardware changes. As a result of these increasingly tighter NOx emission constraints, soot loading of diesel engine lubricants - due to retarded fuel injection, is becoming an ever more significant issue in crankcase lubricant formulation. For this reason, increased understanding is required of the mechanism of soot particle aggregation and resultant aggregate morphology - together with the likely consequences for the performance of soot-laden lubricants, for viscosity increase, filter blocking, sludging and (directly or indirectly) - soot-induced wear. We describe here a combined experimental and simulation approach to screening formulated lubricants and characterising soot aggregate structures.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1530
The numbers, sizes, and derived mass emissions of particles from a production DISI engine are examined over a range of engine operating conditions. Particles are sampled directly from the exhaust pipe using heated ejector pump diluters. The size distributions are measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The numbers and sizes of the emitted particles are reported for stratified versus homogeneous operation and as a function of fuel injection timing, spark timing, engine speed, and engine load. The principal finding is that particle number emissions increase by about a factor of 10 - 40 going from homogeneous to stratified charge operation. The particulate emissions exhibit a strong sensitivity to injection timing; generally particle number and volume concentrations increase steeply as the injection timing is retarded, except over a narrow portion of the range where the trend reverses.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1529
The effects of operating parameters (speed, load, spark-timing, EGR, and end of fuel injection timing [EOI]) on engine-out, regulated (total HC, NOx, and CO) and speciated HC emissions have been investigated for a 1.83 L direct-injection, spark-ignition (DISI) engine. As the EOI is varied over the range from high to low stratification with other engine parameters held constant, the mole fractions of all regulated emissions vary sharply over relatively small (10-20 crank angle degrees [CAD]) changes in EOI, suggesting that emissions are very sensitive to the evaporation, mixing, and motion of the stratified fuel cloud prior to ignition. The contribution of unburned fuel to the HC emissions decreases while the olefinic partial oxidation products increase as the fuel stratification increases, increasing the smog reactivity of the HC in the exhaust gas by 25%.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Economy of a 1998 Toyota with a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1527
A 1998 Toyota Corona passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine was tested via a variety of driving cycles using California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline. A comparable PFI vehicle was also evaluated. The standard driving cycles examined were the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test, US06, simulated SC03, Japanese 10-15, New York City Cycle, and European ECE+EDU. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of gas phase species were measured each second. Hydrocarbon speciations were performed for each phase of the FTP for both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe particulate mass emissions were also measured. The results are analyzed to identify the emissions challenges facing the DISI engine and the factors that contribute to the particulates, NOx, and hydrocarbon emissions problems of the DISI engine.
Technical Paper

Activities of the Federal Aviation Administration’s Aviation Weather Research Program

1999-04-20
1999-01-1578
Weather is a major cause of aircraft accidents and incidents and the single largest contributor to air traffic system delays. Through improvements in the knowledge of current weather conditions and reliable forecasts, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) can improve aviation safety, increase system capacity, and enhance flight planning and fuel efficiency. The FAA has established an Aviation Weather Research (AWR) program to address specific requirements for weather support to aviation by providing the capability to generate more accurate and accessible weather observations, warnings, and forecasts and also by increasing the scientific understanding of atmospheric processes that spawn aviation weather hazards. The goal of AWR is to provide meteorological research that leads to the satisfaction of specific aviation weather requirements.
Technical Paper

EC-Diesel Technology Validation Program Interim Report

2000-06-19
2000-01-1854
ARCO has developed diesel fuel called Emission Control Diesel (EC-D) that results in substantially lower exhaust emissions compared to a typical California diesel fuel. EC-D has ultra-low sulfur content, low aromatics, and has a high cetane number. EC-D is produced from typical crude oil using a conventional refining process. Initial engine laboratory tests and vehicle tests indicated that EC-D reduced regulated emissions while maintaining fuel economy, compared to a typical California diesel fuel. Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels such as EC-D may enable the widespread use of passive catalyzed particulate filters for both new and existing diesel engines. The use of catalyzed particulate filters could allow large reductions of particulate matter emitted from vehicles. A one-year technology validation program is being run to evaluate EC-D and catalyzed particulate filters using diesel vehicles operating in Southern California.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Conditions on Mixture Formation Process in a Premixed Compression Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1831
The mixture formation process in a premixed compression ignition engine was numerically analyzed. This study aimed to find out effective injection conditions for lean mixture formation with high homogeneity, since the NOx and soot emissions in the engine are closely related to the mixture homogeneity. To calculate fuel spray behavior, a practical computer code GTT (Generalized Tank and Tube) was employed. In a model for the premixed compression ignition engine, the effects of injection parameters, such as injection timing, initial droplet size, spray angle, injection velocity, nozzle type (pintle and hole) and injection position / direction, on the mixture homogeneity near ignition timing (or TDC) were investigated. To evaluate the homogeneity of the mixture, an index was defined based on the spatial distribution of fuel mass fraction. The fuel vapor mass fractions as well as the homogeneity indices, obtained as a function of time, were compared under various boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) with Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Pilot Fuel

2000-06-19
2000-01-1835
In an attempt to extend the upper load limit for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), supercharging in combination with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) have been applied. Two different boost pressures were used, 1.1 bar and 1.5 bar. High EGR rates were used in order to reduce the combustion rate. The highest obtained IMEP was 16 bar. This was achieved with the higher boost pressure, at close to stoichiometric conditions and with approximately 50 % EGR. Natural gas was used as the main fuel. In the case with the higher boost pressure, iso-octane was used as pilot fuel, to improve the ignition properties of the mixture. This made it possible to use a lower compression ratio and thereby reducing the maximum cylinder pressure. The tests were performed on a single cylinder engine operated at low speed (1000 rpm). The test engine was equipped with a modified cylinder head, having a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) mechanism.
Technical Paper

On-Board Hydrogen Generation for Rapid Catalyst Light-Off

2000-06-19
2000-01-1841
This paper describes an on-vehicle demonstration of a hydrogen-heated catalyst (HHC) system for reducing the level of cold-start hydrocarbon emissions from a gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicle. The HHC system incorporated an onboard electrolyzer that generates and stores hydrogen (H2) during routine vehicle operation. Stored hydrogen and supplemental air are injected upstream of a platinum-containing automotive catalyst when the engine is started. Rapid heating of the catalytic converter occurs immediately as a result of catalytic oxidation of hydrogen (H2) with oxygen (O2) on the catalyst surface. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results of the hydrogen-heated catalyst-equipped vehicle demonstrated reductions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) up to 68 and 62 percent, respectively. This study includes a brief analysis of the emissions and fuel economy effects of a 10-minute period of hydrogen generation during the FTP.
Technical Paper

Performance Development of the First European Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with Full Electronic High Injection Pressure Common Rail System

2000-06-19
2000-01-1821
Over the last few years, Renault VI has gained an important knowledge in low emissions combustion optimization using the high injection pressure Common Rail system. A completely new six cylinder in-line DCI 11 engine has been designed with this full electronic injection system for EURO3 truck applications. The engine performance has been optimized to reach low fuel consumption and low emissions, while keeping customer utilization in mind. After a short view on the general features of the new engine, the highly flexible injection system is presented as well as its potential to control fuel injection timing, fuel quantity and pressure with multiple injections, independently of engine speed and load. The development process is described, covering the swirl design with two inlet ports per cylinder, the injector and combustion bowl geometry match and the injection data optimization.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Swirl on HSDI Diesel Combustion at Moderate Speed and Load

2000-06-19
2000-01-1829
Heat release analysis of the in-cylinder pressure records and images of the naturally occurring combustion luminosity obtained in an optical engine are used to explore the effect of variable swirl ratio on the diesel combustion process. Swirl ratios Rs at IVC of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 were investigated. The engine is equipped with common-rail fuel injection equipment, and the combustion chamber geometry is maintained as close as possible to typical engines intended for automotive applications. The operating condition employed was 2000 rpm, with a gross IMEP of 5.0 bar and 800 bar injection pressure. Swirl ratio is found to exert a measurable influence on most of the combustion process, from ignition to late-cycle oxidation. Ignition delay decreases with increasing Rs, as do the magnitudes of the initial premixed burn, the peak rates of heat release, and the maximum rates of pressure rise.
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