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SAE Vehicle Electrification: February 11, 2014

2014-02-11
Inside the cell walls The high cost of lithium-ion batteries is a prison that has largely kept electric vehicles off the street; the keys to their release are more effective—but not more expensive—cell chemistries.
Standard

Test Method for Catalytic Carbon Brake Disk Oxidation

2013-12-04
WIP
AS6289
The scope of the test method is to provide stakeholders including fluid manufacturers, brake manufacturers, aircraft constructors, aircraft operators and airworthiness authorities with a relative assessment of the effect of deicing chemicals on carbon oxidation. This test is designed to assess the relative effects of runway deicing chemicals by measuring mass change of contaminated and bare carbon samples tested under the same conditions.
Standard

Missionized Wear Testing

2019-01-02
WIP
ARP6979
Publicize Aircraft Recommended Practice for Missionized Wear Testing on Wright Patterson’s Landing Gear Test Facility’s 168i dynamometer.
Standard

Performance based packaging standard for lithium batteries as cargo on aircraft

2016-03-18
WIP
AS6413
This standard is intended to demonstrate and document the control of the potential hazards from lithium cells or batteries (UN 3090 and 3480) when transported as cargo on aircraft. [still need to identify if we are addressing global (external fire) or local (battery internal failures)] This standard addresses the need to control the hazards which might arise from a failure from an individual cell by containing the hazards within the package. This specific hazards addressed within this standard are: • Uncontrolled fire • Rapid overpressure pulse within compartment
Standard

ARC Fault Interrupter, 270 VDC

2019-04-27
WIP
AS6087
Develop a standard for testing and evaluating direct current arc fault detection and interruption technologies.
Standard

Landing Gear Based Weight and Balance Systems

2019-04-18
WIP
AIR6941
This document outlines historical systems which have used the landing gear as a sensor or installation point for full aircraft weight and balance systems. A number of systems have been developed, installed, certified, and placed in service but few systems remain in regular use. The document will capture the history of these systems, reasons (where known) for their withdrawal from service, and lessons learned.
Standard

Advanced methods for Wire Selection and Sizing for Aerospace applications

2019-05-30
WIP
AIR7497
This SAE Aerospace Information Report is intended to provide advanced methods for wire selecting and sizing in aerospace application as a continuation of AIR6540, Fundamentals in Wire Selection and Sizing for Aerospace Applications. Also, it will provide valuable information for the electrical design engineer to verify the proper wire selection and validate a set of system design requirements which includes meeting environmental and installation constraints.
Standard

Electric Drivetrain Fluids (EDF)

2019-04-24
WIP
J3200
This SAE Information Report is to assist those concerned with lubricants used in drivetrain components powered by electric powerplants. The information contained herein will be helpful in understanding the terms related to the properties of a lubricant used in electric drivetrains.
Standard

Wheels - Radial Impact Test Procedure - Road Vehicles

2019-05-22
WIP
J3203
The SAE recommended practice provides a uniform laboratory test procedure for evaluating radial(road hazard) impact collision resistance of all wheels intended for use on passenger vehicles and light trucks.
Standard

ELA Standardization

2017-07-18
WIP
ARP6505
This AIR intends to better document and tabulate electrical load dynamics that influence power source capacity, power quality and stabiltiy.
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Using Microprocessors

1988-03-01
871156
An inexpensive driving simulation system with sufficient fidelity has been developed. The system produces motion cues of four degrees of freedom, visual and auditory cues, and control feel on the steering wheel. This paper describes the features of this newly developed system and gives examples that demonstrate its effectiveness. The motion cues provided in this system are yaw, heave, and lateral and fore/aft accelerations. The lateral and fore/aft accelerations are simulated by tilting the simulator compartment. A computer-processed road image is given through a CRT monitor. The restoring torque of the steering wheel is produced by an electrical servosystem via a coil spring. Cruising sound is given in order to improve speed perception. Since the system uses digital computers, the vehicle characteristics are altered easily by merely rewriting the software. This enables us to simulate special vehicle dynamics such as front & rear wheel steering.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Performance of Guideway Bus Steering Control System

1988-03-01
871231
In this paper a computer simulation study on the effects of steering parameters on lateral dynamics of the guideway bus to contribute to a development practice of designing optimum steering control system are dealt with. A stability limit of vehicle lateral motion is analyzed and an emphasis is laid on the effects of moment of inertia of a conventional steering wheel and lateral elasticity of the guide rail which have proven to reduce the critical vehicle speed. It is pointed out conclusively that a normal bus equipped with additional simple guidance equipments can be guided smoothly on a simple guideway at adequately high vehicle speed.
Standard

Definition and Measurement of Beam Axle Efficiency

2019-12-04
WIP
J3218
This SAE Recommended Practice covers beam axles used in passenger car and light-duty truck applications. Beam Axles utilize differentials which are of the open, limited slip, locking or spool types, although other configurations are possible
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network Based Energy Storage System Modeling for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1564
The modeling of the energy storage system (ESS) of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) poses a considerable challenge. The problem is not amenable to physical modeling without simplifying assumptions that compromise the accuracy of such models. An alternative is to build conventional empirical models. Such models, however, are time-consuming to build and are data-intensive. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to modeling the ESS. The model maps the system's state-of-charge (SOC) and the vehicle's power requirement to the bus voltage and current. We show that ANN models can accurately capture the complex, non-linear correlations accurately. Further, we propose and deploy our new technique, Smart Select, for designing ANN training data.
Technical Paper

Excitation of the Automobile Alternator with the Claw Pole Rotor by Means of Stator Winding

2000-04-02
2000-01-1572
It is known, that the alternator self-excitation is possible at capacitor loading [1]. From this follows, that the alternator excitation by means of capacitors connected to one or several stator windings, as from simple excitation winding is located on a rotor, is possible. In the report the excitation of the automobile alternator with claw pole rotor by means of capacitors connected to stator windings at rotor open excitation circuit is considered. Thus, for comparison the alternator idle characteristics are received both at excitation by means capacitors, and by means of a simple excitation winding. Besides the other electrical parameters of the alternator with claw pole rotor by experimental way are determined. On the basis of the received data the alternator digital model was developed, it takes into account the magnetic circuit saturation, by using of the received experimental idle characteristics.
Technical Paper

Advanced Lithium Solid State Battery Developments

2000-04-02
2000-01-1588
This paper presents a summary of a recent conference entitled Advanced Lithium Solid State Batteries Workshop that was held on July 13–15, 1999. The conference was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies, and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences' (BES) Division of Chemical Sciences. This paper presents a summary of the results and recommendations from the conference, including: A review of current research on solid state electrolytes and their interfaces with an emphasis on both applied and basic studies. The research includes theoretical studies of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), lithium ion transport in SPEs, and simulations of the electrolyte–cathode interface. Experimental results are presented on ion transport phenomena in SPEs (NMR and X–ray) and mechanical stresses on electrodes, among other topics.
Technical Paper

A Review of Battery Exchange Technology for Refueling of Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1586
The limited energy storage and long recharge time of electric vehicle batteries have motivated several alternatives to in-vehicle slow charging. Solutions generally fall into three categories: (1) fast charging, in which batteries are charged in-vehicle at an accelerated rate, (2) battery material reloading or refueling, in which the energy-carrying elements of the battery are physically replaced or replenished, and (3) battery interchange, involving the complete exchange of the battery pack, usually with the aid of some semi-automated mechanism. Among these options, the last, battery interchange, has tended to receive the least industry attention, but has been an expansive topic of invention and novel deployment.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Physics Behind New Suspension Concept for Automobiles

2000-05-01
2000-01-1647
The Transverse Leaf suspension with Superior Roll Axis is a new suspension concept for automobiles. It enables the load transfer during a turn to be more evenly redistributed between the two wheels on the same axle thus optimizing its tires lateral force capabilities. The TLSRA concept is made up of a single transverse leaf spring linking the middle of the sprung mass to the outer end of 2 transverse suspension arms per axle. Those transverse arms are mounted close to the middle of the sprung mass with their attachment points located above the mass centroïd. Each wheel assembly is mounted directly onto the free end of its respective suspension arm. Because body roll is now counteracting vertical load transfer during transient and permanent operating conditions, this suspension enables designers to keep spring stiffness low without compromising road handling.
Technical Paper

Development of Active-Traction Control System

2000-05-01
2000-01-1636
Active-TRAC (A-TRAC) is the system for off-road 4WD vehicles. This system consists of independent four wheel brake control system and engine torque control system. This system applies the brake to any spinning wheel, and sends torque to the other wheels with grip. Therefore, the vehicle gets strong LSD(Limited Slip Differential) effect, and it has the same traction performance as a center and rear differential locked vehicle. Because the vehicle with A-TRAC does not have a differential locking mechanism, it no longer has the phenomenon of tight corner braking, and it frees a driver from operating the differential locking system. Therefore anyone can easily enjoy off-road driving with A-TRAC.
Technical Paper

Speed-Sensorless Control of Induction Motors for Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1603
An electric bus system has been operating in the downtown area of Chattanooga, Tennessee for more than four years. The buses use traditional hard-switched IGBT inverters driving special induction motors with a speed sensor (tachometer) and two embedded flux-sensing windings to provide rotor speed and flux information to the motor controller for implementation of high performance field oriented control (vector control). The induction motor is oil-cooled and equipped with an internal planar gear reduction. The current system has experienced failures in both speed sensors and flux sensors because they are unreliable, susceptible to EMI and must operate in a hostile environment created by oil leaks. A speed- and flux-sensorless induction motor drive system with a new 100 kW soft-switching inverter has been implemented to replace the existing system.
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