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SAE Wheel Standards Manual - 2010 Edition

This manual provides a comprehensive compilation of technical reports relating to the design and dimensional characteristics, labeling and marking, nomenclature, and testing of wheels and wheel end hardware.

Numbering System for Standard Drills, Standard Taps, and Reamers

This hands-on manual provides a systematic method for identifying standard drills, standard taps, and various types of hand, machine and shell reamers used in industrial applications. Complete contents include: J2122 - Numbering System for Standard Drills; J2123 - Numbering System for Standard Taps; and J2124 - Numbering System for Reamers. A complete appendix section listing numerous examples of standard tool designations using the numbering scheme is also included. A valuable reference that will help OEMs and suppliers effectively communicate tool descriptions, as well as more efficiently catalog and supply tools!
Technical Paper

The Use of Trailers with Motor-Trucks

TRAILER registration figures for the entire United States are given to show the rapid increase in the use of trailers in the last seven years, and, for comparison, State registrations of all motor-vehicles in 1931 are given. To account for the relatively more rapid increase in trailers than in trucks, factors favoring the use of trailers are mentioned and illustrative examples of operation are briefly described. The factor of first importance is legislation, which in general is stated to have promoted the use of trailers to distribute the weight of heavy loads over more axles and wheels; but in some States the laws and regulations have a serious adverse effect. Next to legislation, savings in hauling costs through the use of trailers account for the increase in their numbers, and comparative figures of the cost of hauling per 100 lb. per 100 miles by truck, by truck and trailer and by rail are given to show the economy.
Technical Paper


When the volume and the variety of the parts produced by a plant increase beyond the point at which the shop mechanic is capable of devising the methods and building the tools for accomplishing the desired results, it becomes necessary to make a division of labor, and a special department on tool division is needed to determine the proper sequence of operations and the suitable equipment to produce the required quantity with the required degree of accuracy. It is necessary that the men be informed regarding the daily and the ultimate numbers of parts to be produced and the tolerances that will be allowed. The foremost consideration of the production engineer should be economy of production. In this phase of tool engineering, the ultimate number of parts to be produced plays an important role and equipment should be selected that will give the maximum production. All known methods of production should be compared and the most economical one chosen.
Technical Paper


Principal stresses in one type of eye-bolt have been determined in the laboratory of photoelasticity at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by the photoelastic method. In the test, an eye-bolt, designed in accordance with a method suggested for circular eyes in a course in machine design by the Institute, was made of celluloid 0.25 in. thick, 1 in. wide on either side of the eye, with a 1.405-in. diameter of eye, and a 1.333-in. width of shank. Steel loading-plates were pinned to the broadened end of the shank and a load of 100 lb. was suspended from the bolt, which gave a mean stress of 300 lb. per sq. in. in the shank. Plain polarized light was passed through the celluloid model and the isoclinic lines, or lines of equal inclination of principal stress, were observed and recorded. Two families of lines of principal stress, designated as P and Q stresses, were determined graphically from these isoclinic lines.
Technical Paper


The question as to whether a part should be made or bought is one that must be settled by the individual maker according to the value of his product, the nature of the part, his capital available for manufacturing purposes and the price at which his product is sold. The author describes the practice followed by some of the large companies, showing that in spite of their being quantity producers, they have found it desirable to buy a number of important parts. Certain parts are rarely made by automobile manufacturers, either because they can be bought more cheaply or because the machinery to produce them is intricate. The author sums up the problem by stating that a manufacturer makes the unit on account of not getting deliveries or because he does not get a fair price from the parts maker or an article good enough to satisfy his conditions. In order to give individuality to the product, the car maker often produces certain parts, such as the engine, himself.
Technical Paper

Effect of Weight/Power Ratio on Highway Transportation

THE purpose of this presentation is to focus attention upon the need for improving commercial highway vehicles in order to keep pace with the new standards of comfort and operation now prevailing in passenger-car design. The tendency to reduce the number of motions and the physical effort required to perform a task has led to the use of automatic transmissions in automobiles. Passenger-car manufacturers have designed higher-output engines without materially increasing weight, thereby providing a horsepower reserve which eliminates uneconomical operation of the engine at peak output at all times. Streetcars have been improved so that the operator need only apply foot-treadle pressure to start, accelerate, and stop the vehicle. This appears to be in direct contrast to the trend in bus and truck design.
Technical Paper

The New Packard Lightweight Diesel Engines

THE new Packard automotive diesel engine is reported to feature reductions in weight and space occupied, while maintaining good life expectancy. It is available in 6-cyl in-line, V8, V12, and V16 models. These models all have a large number of interchangeable parts. They all have the same bore and stroke. According to the authors, noteworthy points of these engines include: 1. Extensive use of aluminum. 2. Turbosupercharging. 3. One-piece cylinder and head assembly. 4. Four valves per cylinder, with stellite seating surfaces on valves and seats in the head.
Technical Paper

The Use of Zinc and Zinc Alloys in the Automotive Industry

THE PURPOSE of the paper is to discuss zinc as an engineering material. To this end the author reviews briefly the part that zinc and its alloys have played in the past and discusses recent development in zinc-base alloys which have greatly enlarged their field of use in the automotive industry. Among the various specific subjects treated by the author are brass, nickel and silver, rolled zinc and rolled zinc-alloys, zinc wire, extruded zinc shapes and die-castings. He states that in the early days of die-casting, alloys composed principally of tin or lead were used almost exclusively, but that castings made of these alloys did not possess the necessary strength and their use was greatly restricted. Zinc was tried and found to have certain advantages and, finally, a special zinc-alloy was adopted. Shortly after this the so-called high-grade zinc was introduced.
Technical Paper

Quality Control of Aluminum-Alloy Aircraft Castings

ARTICLES of a wide variety of sizes and shapes can be produced easily by the sand-casting process. The advantage of simplicity and low cost offered by the sand-casting process for small numbers of identical parts is offset by certain inherent limitations which must be recognized clearly if it is to yield optimum results. The various methods of inspecting and controlling structural variations that affect the strength and serviceability of aircraft castings are described. It is recognized that the user of castings must rely to a considerable extent on the foundryman for careful inspection. Several direct tests worthy of consideration as final acceptance tests of quality, such as the proof test, radiography (X-ray examination), and the static breakdown test, are described. However, this discussion leads to the conclusion that there is not yet available a satisfactory direct method of predicting the normal life of an aircraft casting.
Technical Paper

Magnaflux - What Does It Show?*

MAGNAFLUX testing has become an important adjunct in connection with the inspection of aircraft parts fabricated from magnetic materials. The method is very sensitive and may indicate not only defects which seriously weaken the part, but also non-injurious imperfections. The author has classified the several defects indicated by magnaflux which have been found in the routine inspection and examination of a large number of parts which have been in service in engines, airplanes, and accessories operated by the U. S. Army Air Corps.
Technical Paper

Camshaft-Tappet Problems in Ford Overhead-Valve Engines

IN THE first part of this paper dealing with the metallurgical aspects of the camshaft-tappet problems met with in the design of the new Ford overhead-valve V8 engines, Messrs. Laird and Stevens describe the events which led to the adoption of the as-cast alloy-iron camshaft, nitro-carburized martensitic tappet combination. The combination cited works well in the engines described, but it is not implied that it will perform satisfactorily elsewhere. In the second portion of the paper, Mr. Iles discusses the test schedule devised in connection with the development of the camshaft-tappet materials in the new engines. It is stated that important findings will occur when such tests involve a large number of parts, making possible the study of results on a frequency basis. Tests have shown that a predominantly martensitic tappet structure results in superior performance in combination with the as-cast alloy-iron camshaft used.
Technical Paper

Fluid Amplifier-Controlled Medical Devices

The fluid amplifier provides a solution for certain design problems associated with modern military medicine. The Military requires its medical equipment to possess not only a reliability and life compatible with its proposed use, but sufficient ruggedness to withstand the rigors of logistics and operation in the field. Where fluid amplifiers are used, these requirements are generously satisfied. By reducing the number of moving parts involved, logistics problems are simplified and manufacturing costs reduced. In illustration, this paper describes a volume limited respirator, a pressure cycled respirator, an external cardiac compressor, and a blood pump all utilizing fluid amplifiers for control and designed primarily for Army medicine.
Technical Paper

A One-Wire Brushless Integral Charging System for Earthmovers

It is apparent that a new generator and regulator design is needed to supply the additional electrical loads and meet the requirements for durability, reliability, and environmental protection on earthmoving equipment. The author discusses the d-c and alternator type systems which have been used to supply electrical needs. A detailed analysis of the integral charging system is presented. This system overcomes many of the shortcomings of the present electrical systems and, because it has a minimum number of moving parts, it is potentially the most reliable charging system in use on heavy duty equipment.
Technical Paper

Airplane Design for Reliability

This paper discusses methods used in establishing, measuring, and controlling dispatch reliability of the 727 jet transport during its design. Dispatch delays experienced by three commercial trunk airlines on 707-120B and 720B fleets through 82,187 departures in 11 months were categorized by ATA systems and individual components. Using individual comparison of each 727 system component or subassembly with its 707/720 counterpart as to the number of parts per component, duty cycle, design, operating environment, and accessibility delay factors were computed which expressed expected 727 delays as a given decimal fraction of 707/720 delays. The overall 727 airplane delay factor was found to be 0.43 relative to the 707/720 delays, and the 727 dispatch reliability 98.02%.
Technical Paper


The results of a survey of spark plug fouling in 193 late-model passenger cars of four popular makes showed that approximately one-third of the spark plug sets were fouled sufficiently to cause at least a 20 percent decrease in vehicle performance. While the vehicle models and number of cars involved are limited and do not completely represent the car population nor types of service, the survey did provide a sample of the three main price classes of cars. The results indicate that a considerable amount of spark plug fouling exists in vehicles driven in city and city-suburban service. Recognition of spark plug fouling by car owners varied with car make. Dynamometer and road-test procedures have been devised for studying various factors affecting spark plug fouling. Careful control of test variables has produced acceptable correlation between these procedures.
Technical Paper


DESIGNERS and vendors of aircraft parts need both foresight and pessimism, Dr. Klein feels, if they are not to violate the fundamentals of safety, weight, manufacturability, and serviceability in manufacturing aircraft. Safety requires that gadgets work not only if they are treated properly but even if they are neglected or misused. Weight is so important that it justifies an incredible amount of work in engineering and the shop to save it. Airplane manufacturers are harassed by several problems that must be kept in mind by designers. The manufacturer must schedule and keep track of a great number of parts. The parts must fit after they are made. Some operations cause parts to expand, others to shrink, making the problem of assembly a major one - made even more difficult if there are serious deflection troubles.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis for the Lubricant Film in Bearings Under THD Lubrication

The study about the dynamic characteristics of a great number of mechanical parts has been promoted by the necessity of decreasing the vibrational effects in mechanical systems, as the reduction of superficial fatigue. In this way, the research around, even, a simple part like a hydrodynamic bearing is very important, especially in the automotive industry. In this case, the lubricant acts like a flexible liking element between the journal-bearing surfaces. The lubrication is essential for the engine, because it reduces the wear between the internal parts and prevents the metal contact. Due to the shear stresses present in the lubricant, the temperature rises and, consequently, it changes the lubricant properties. The viscosity is strongly dependent on the temperature and it is the parameter that characterizes the fluid flow and its dynamic behavior. Any temperature change induces a consequent modification in the lubricant behavior.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fast, Robust Numerical Tool for the Design, Optimization, and Control of IC Engines

This paper discusses the development of an integrated tool for the design, optimization, and real-time control of engines from a performance and emissions standpoint. Our objectives are threefold: (1) develop a tool that computes the engine performance and emissions on the order of a typical engine cycle (25-50 milliseconds); (2) enable the use of the tool for a wide variety of engine geometries, operating conditions, and fuels with minimal user changes; and (3) couple the engine module to an efficient optimization module to enable real-time control and optimization. The design tool consists of two coupled modules: an engine module and an optimization module.
Journal Article

Benchmarking Hybrid Concepts: On-Line vs. Off-Line Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures

The recent advance in the development of various hybrid vehicle technologies comes along with the need of establishing optimal energy management strategies, in order to minimize both fuel economy and pollutant emissions, while taking into account an increasing number of state and control variables, depending on the adopted hybrid architecture. One of the objectives of this research was to establish benchmarking performance, in terms of fuel economy, for real time on-board management strategies, such as ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy), whose structure has been implemented in a SIMULINK model for different hybrid vehicle concepts.