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Aerospace Engineering 2005-01-01

Flying safer Software is being designed to predict pending failures, warn pilots, and maybe even fly the plane. CMM + laser probe = complete inspection Sonaca gave up its manual inspection methods in favor of a digital approach to save time- and money. A rounded view of fibers The use of fibers for aerospace gyroscope applications- notably inertial navigation and platform stabilization- is common now, but it was not always so. Piston engine propulsion SAE 100 Future look: As the propulsion industry looks to the future, the barriers remain challenging, the drivers more critical, but the innovations more promising. What's downstream in turbine technology SAE 100 Future look: Gas turbine machines-aviations, industrial, and vehicular- are versatile and cost-effective machines used for the provision of electricity, mechanical load power, and propulsion.

Aerospace Engineering & Manufacturing 2009-11-11

Watching wires A new FAA rule will require airlines to develop maintenance and inspection tasks to identify, correct, and prevent wiring conditions that introduce risk to continued safe flight.

A Quantitative Risk Analysis for AeroMACS Network Security in SESAR

The growing need for an efficient worldwide airspace system management, generated by an increasing traffic load, requires new capabilities for air-ground data communication technologies. In order to cope with these requirements, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), EUROCONTROL, and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have jointly made specific recommendations for candidate technologies for the airport surface communication network. In the SESAR project, the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communication System (AeroMACS) technology is being developed in such a way to provide next generation broadband and wireless data communications for airport surface applications (i.e. Air Traffic Control ? ATC, Airline Operational Communications ? AOC, and surface vehicles services).

Review and Assessment of the ISO 26262 Draft Road Vehicle - Functional Safety

ISO 26262 is the first comprehensive automotive safety standard that addresses the safety of the growing number of electric/electronic and software intensive features in today's road vehicles. This paper assesses the standard's ability to provide safety assurance. The strengths of the standard are: (1) emphasizing safety management and safety culture; (2) prescribing a system engineering development process; (3) setting up a framework for hazard elimination early in the design process; (4) disassociating system safety risk assessment from component probabilistic failure rate. The third and fourth strengths are noteworthy departure from the philosophy of IEC61508. This standard has taken much-needed and very positive steps towards ensuring the functional safety of the modern road vehicles. SAE publications from industry show a lot of enthusiasm towards this standard.

Automotive Functional Safety Standard ISO 26262 and the Current Challenges

The ISO 26262, titled "Road vehicles - Functional safety," is a Functional Safety standard that gives a guidance to reduce the risks to tolerable level by providing feasible requirements and processes. This standard is an adaptation of the Functional Safety standard IEC 61508 for Automotive Electrical/Electronic and programmable electronic Systems. The standard covers the development of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronics systems in the road vehicles. It will have a significant impact on the way such systems are designed, developed, integrated and validated for safety. Functional safety of embedded systems has become an integral part in automotive engineering activities due to the recently released safety standard ISO 26262. One main challenge is to perform development activities compliant to the standard and provide the respective documentation.
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Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On

As an annual subscription, the Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On is available for purchase along with one or both of the following: Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection The titles from the Wiley Cyber Security Collection are included in the SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package. Titles: Network Forensics Penetration Testing Essentials Security in Fixed and Wireless Networks, 2nd Edition The Network Security Test Lab: A Step-by-Step Guide Risk Centric Threat Modeling: Process for Attack Simulation and Threat Analysis Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms and Source Code in C, 20th Anniversary Edition Computer Security Handbook, Set, 6th Edition Threat Modeling: Designing for Security Other available Wiley collections: Wiley SAE MOBILUS eBook Package Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection Wiley Computer Systems Collection Add-On (purchasable with the Wiley Aerospace Collection and/or the Wiley Automotive Collection)
Technical Paper

Introduction of Periodical Maintenance/Inspection of Motor Vehicles in Use and Its Automated System

To assure safe runnings of motor vehicles, laws in Japan have made it statutory for motor vehicles to periodically undergo motor vehicle tests. During these tests (diagnosis and inspections), brakes, speedometers, wheel alignment, headlamps, exhaust emissions and so forth are inspected by means of appropriate pieces of test equipment. After the test results have been compared against the reference values, "pass/fail" evaluation is indicated, memorized and recorded. Moreover, instructions for the driver are provided on indicators. The test equipment with such capabilities has been employed in the government-run motor vehicle inspection stations in Japan. In addition to such government-run motor vehicle inspection stations, this paper deals with an automated motor vehicle inspection system which has been designed compactly and which is to be used in nongovernmental service shops directly connected with services and repairs.
Technical Paper

I/M Short Tests and Cutpoints for 1981 and Newer Emission Control Technology

Manufacturers have used a number of alternative emission control technologies to meet the emission standards for 1981 and later model years. Each technology type can have malperformances that lead to high emissions, but the ability of inspection/maintenance short tests to identify high emitters varies considerably by technology. In this study, the relationships between malperformance types, FTP emissions and short test emissions were identified for several major technology types, using data from the EPA Emission Factor data base. Based on these relationships, methods to enhance the effectiveness of I/M tests are suggested. The analysis indicated that the most important factor governing the ability of any I/M short test is the presence of absence of secondary air. The short tests were found to be incapable of recognizing any malperformance except severe misfire if secondary air was present.
Technical Paper

Field Performance of Synthetic Automatic Gear Lubricants

This paper reviews a series of durability field performance tests that resulted in the development of an all-synthetic automotive SAE 75W-90 gear lubricant. The synthetic gear lubricant meets the requirements of API GL-5 and MIL-L-2105C. The synthetic gear oil was field tested in heavy-duty truck axles including Rockwell SQHD and SQHP, Eaton DS-380, and Mack SW-34D models. In general, lubricant drain intervals were extended as high as 250,000 miles with parts inspections carried out at 100,000 to 500,000 miles. All axles inspected indicated that satisfactory lubrication was achieved. The parts analysis and oil inspection analysis are included in this paper.
Technical Paper

Transition from Quality Control to Quality Assurance at a Stamping Facility

The Quality Control function in the domestic automobile industry is in transition. The changing role is predicated on the question “who will be responsible for Quality?”. Traditional approaches had a separate quality control organization using “On-Line” inspection techniques. A better method it seems would assign quality responsibility to the production activity. “Real-Time” data would be supplied on a regular basis to enhance the decision making process. This presentation will describe a method utilized by Ford Body and Assembly Stamping Operations for the transition from the traditional quality control organization to the quality assurance concept.
Technical Paper

Man's Role in a Remote Orbital Servicing System

Advancing technology and existing needs are converging toward a new spacecraft system - a free-flying telemanipulator system which can perform satellite servicing, minor repairs, inspection, and retrieval. Langley is supporting the technology required and performing systems analysis for such a vehicle. Man is a major part of the system - performing both high level direction and lower level control functions, but sharing these functions with some onboard autonomy. This paper discusses the technical challenges and the role of man in such a system, and results from recent simulation studies.
Technical Paper

Effects of FAR 25.1309 on Airplane Operation and Maintenance

More and more transport airplane designs are being affected by the requirements of Section 25.1309 of the Federal Aviation Regulations as their certification bases include Amendment 25-23. Although this regulation became effective in 1970 and Advisory Circular No. 25.1309-1 was published in 1982, misunderstandings still exist concerning its application and its effects on maintenance and operations. This paper attempts to clarify some of the more common misconceptions about numerical methods of analysis and to outline how the results of these analyses may affect airplane maintenance and operations. Maintenance effects are generally of the type which require that a particular inspection or test be accomplished within a specified time. Operational effects have been minor to date and have been limited to specifying a time allowed for airplane dispatch with certain equipment inoperative.
Technical Paper

The Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System Materials, Designs, and Flight Performance Overview

The design requirements for the Orbiter thermal protection system (TPS), the various TPS materials that are used, the different design approaches associated with each of the materials, and the performance experienced during the flight test program are described. The first five flights of the Orbiter Columbia have provided the necessary data to verify the TPS thermal performance, structural integrity, and reusability. The flight performance characteristics of each TPS material are discussed. This discussion is based on postflight inspections and postflight interpretation of the flight instrumentation data. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements for the Orbiter TPS have been met and that the overall performance has been outstanding.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Inspection of Bevel and Hypoid Gears

The latest innovations in coordinate measuring machines and instrumentation have been combined with theoretical gear calculations to provide an objective quantitative method for inspecting bevel and hypoid gears. The measuring machine, its software, the gear software and the measuring procedure are described. Also included is an example of the use of the procedure in the development of a gear set.
Technical Paper

The California Approach to Vehicle Inspection/Maintenance

Though primarily decentralized, California has proposed a biennial Inspection/Maintenance Program that is a hybrid of the decentralized and centralized concepts of vehicular pollution inspections. Private repair garages will volunteer to become licensed by the State in order to conduct inspections and repairs. This novel approach greatly enhances motorist convenience but also results in lesser inspection and repair accuracy than seen in the typical centralized approach. Several features have been built into the proposed program that protect the motorist and minimize decisions on the part of the mechanic. Equipment and quality assurance measures are comparable to those typically found in a centralized approach. The major features of the program will be discussed in this paper.