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Career Counselor Series: Effective Communication

Alyson Lyon, executive leadership coach, discusses the value of effective and efficient communication. SAE Members can view the full version by logging into the Member Connection. Not a Member? Join us today at

Goal Setting Strategies

Alyson Lyon, Executive Leadership Coach, discusses how accurately defining goals leads to success. Members can view the full version by logging into the Member Connection here Not a Member? Get a taste of the Member Connection and join at

Time Management Strategies

Alyson Lyon, Executive Leadership Coach, explains how the most successful people manage their time. Members can view the full version by logging into the Member Connection here Not a Member? Get a taste of the Member Connection and join at
Technical Paper

A Novel Method and Product to Damp Cylindrical Articles: Constrained Layer Damping Tubing

Constrained layer damping (CLD) is a well known technique to efficiently damp low frequency vibration. CLD employs a viscoelastic material sandwiched between two very stiff, typically metal, layers. While effective over essentially flat surfaces, CLD has not been applicable to cylindrical shapes. In order to damp low frequency vibration in metal pipes, users have been forced to rely on extensional layer damping, typically consisting of thick layers of extruded or molded rubbers. This paper discusses a novel product to damp cylindrical articles such as metal pipes with a constrained layer heat shrink tubing. This product utilizes a stiff heat shrinkable polymeric jacket bonded on the inside with a viscoelastic layer. When shrunk on a metal pipe or rod, a CLD system is produced. The product is typically thinner than an extensional layer damper and is more effective. It also meets the other physical and environmental requirements for a pipe covering.
Technical Paper

Staking Design and Process Parameter Study of Hot-Air Cold Staking Process

An experimental evaluation to systematically study a hot air cold stake joining process was conducted with injection molded samples. Twelve material combinations consisting of six stud plate materials were matched with two hole plate materials (GDT 6400 and 18% talc filled PP). Seven stud designs with variations in size and geometry were used for each material combination. A proper heating temperature was first determined by heat characterization trials. Different heating times and stake heights were studied in the staking experiments. Pull tests were conducted to determine the strength of the joints and their failure mode. Results showed that material characteristics, material combinations, and process parameters all could contribute to variations in pull strength and different failure modes.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing and Fuel Properties on Exhaust Odor in DI Diesel Engines

Exhaust odor of DI diesel engines is worse than that of gasoline engines, especially at low temperatures and at idling. As the number of passenger cars with DI diesel engines is increasing worldwide because of their low CO2 emissions, odor reduction research of DI diesel engines is important. Incomplete combustion is a major cause of exhaust odor. Generally, odor worsens due to overleaning of the mixture in the cylinder and due to fuel adhering on the combustion chamber walls. To confirm this, the influences of different engine running conditions and fuel properties were investigated. The reason for the changes in exhaust odor with injection timing is evaluated by considerations of optimum positions of the maximum heat release. With n-heptane, a low boiling point fuel, odorous emissions increase because of overleaning of the mixture.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Models of Fastened Structural Connections

The development of efficient and reliable methods for the design and analysis of fastened structural connections is among the most important problems in aerospace applications because fastened structural connections are common sites of failure initiation. Numerical simulation of fastened structural connections is difficult because there are complicated interactions between the fasteners and the structural components being joined and one of the most important attributes of a fastened connection, the clearance, is a stochastic variable. This paper presents a mathematical model for frictionless shear connections and its implementation within the framework of the p-version of the finite element method.
Technical Paper

Increase of Flow Rate of Super - Mini Sac Nozzle and its Application for General Use Small Engine

Reacent strict emisssion regulation requires inprovement in the contradictory turget, that is to say, more engine power per displacement and less pollutants. This target could be realized ZEXEL by increasing the allowable injection quantity in the nozzle with a smaller sac volume, and increasing the flow rate of nozzle hole without enlarging the nozzle orifice size. Sac volume of the super-mini sac nozzle is dereased to 0.17mm3, from 0.23-0.31 mm3 which is the minimum level of the conventional mini sac nozzle. Increase in injection flow rate was obtained by means of the “Extrude Horn” treatment which makes round and smooth both inner surface of the sac and the entrance edge of the orifice. The trade-off between NOx, HC emissions and the combustion noise was improved by optimizing the injection rate in low speed and low load range.
Technical Paper

Form Trim Inject: A New Technology for Exterior Parts Decoration

To improve the decoration of exterior automotive parts, we developed a new technology called Form - Trim - Inject (FTI). FTI is a very low cost investment process based on Insert Molding. Films can be produced either by roller coating / induction process or co-extrusion process. This article shows some results concerning aspect and glossiness that we observed during many trials which were necessary to develop a new knowledge on this technology. Any color, surface appearance and any graphic can be achieved by using FTI. FTI is also a very good answer to V.O.C. issues
Technical Paper

Selecting Nylon-Based Plastics for Laser Welding Technology

Selecting thermoplastics for welded, under-the-hood, automotive parts strongly depends on the plastic material properties, part design, as well as the molding and joining / welding technology conditions. Laser transmission welding (LTW) requires preferential deposition of energy and subsequent melting and diffusion of the material in the interfacial / weld-plane zone. This is optimized when the laser beam is transmitted through the thermoplastic transparent part and absorbed by the adjoining part to be welded. Energy deposition can be controlled to some extent by adjusting laser power, choice of beam focussing optics, sweep rate, etc. The thermoplastic material properties and composition (reinforcements, fillers, additives, pigments, etc.) may have the greater influence and need to be characterized for optimum material selection for the transmission welding application.
Technical Paper

Refractory Metal-Lined Composites for Lightweight High-Performance Propulsion omponents

Requirements for advanced rocket propulsion systems are becoming increasingly more demanding. The use of high temperature capable materials in such systems, including applications in liquid rocket engines and solid rocket motors, offers potential benefits of increased performance and/or efficiency based on the engine operating cycle. For the ultimate in high temperature capability, refractory metals, ceramics, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), and carbon/carbon (C/C)composites each provide particularly beneficial attributes, but with selected limitations. Refractory metals are relatively tough and durable, provide impermeable structures, and can be conventionally fabricated, but are relatively dense, leading to heavyweight structures. Monolithic ceramics generally lack desired toughness and durability. CMCs offer substantially improved toughness over their monolithic counterparts and are relatively lightweight, but are permeable and difficult to join to conventional structures.
Technical Paper

‘A Comparative Study of the Integrity of Joints Between Multilayer Fuel Line Constructions and Different Connector ‘Barb’ Designs

With the advent of low evaporative emission requirements there has been the rapid adoption of multilayer extrusion technology into the production of Fuel and Vapour tubing used on Fuel systems on automobiles. Multilayer extrusion technology enables a manufacturer of Fuel and Vapour tubing to simultaneously co-extrude dissimilar thermoplastic materials in tubular form. This allows the manufacturer to combine expensive and brittle high performance evaporative emission ‘barrier’ polymers with lower cost engineering polymers. However, it is a well-known characteristic of these multilayer tube constructions that the joints between them and connector ‘barbs’ have lower joint integrity. Joint integrity is most often quantified by ‘Pull-off’ and leakage tests. Recent developments in LEV-II requirements for 2004 and beyond indicate that joint integrity will become a focus area for study and improvement.
Technical Paper

Collection Efficiency of Various Filter Media in Diesel Exhaust

Compliance of modern diesel engines with future European legislation for particulate emissions is possible only with the implementation of particulate traps known as Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) in the exhaust of diesel engines. The types of filter media that can be used for that purpose vary according to material and geometric configuration. In this paper a number of ceramic extruded filters (SiC and Cordierite) as well as cylindrical cartridges embedded with fibrous structures were tested in terms of their collection efficiency for diesel soot particulates by using a newly developed optical nano-particle sensor with an adjustable optical path and an electric mobility based instrument.
Technical Paper

Post-Machining Distortion of Formed Fuselage Frame Segments

Process development work was conducted to develop a machined fuselage frame concept for a small (5 abreast) commercial airplane. To minimize detail fabrication cost and to facilitate lean manufacturing, roll forming was identified as the preferred forming process. To reduce assembly costs, long frame segments were desired to minimize the number of frame splices. Since plate stock is limited to lengths of approximately 3.66 meters (12 feet), formed aluminum extrusions were selected as the raw material form. Roll forming and stretch forming process paths were screened for both J section and rectangular bar extrusions. The post machining distortion produced in formed extrusion and plate hog-out frame segments was compared to each other and to process standards governing allowable fit-up forces. As a result of this process development activity, a producible roll forming process path was developed.
Technical Paper

Development of 980N/mm2 Class Ultra High Strength Steel Suitable for Mechanical Joining

Suitability of ultra high strength steels (UHSS) for mechanical joining was investigated. When mechanical joining was applied to conventional 980N/mm2-class UHSSs having dual phase microstructure (ferrite and martensite), surface cracking occurred. Additionally cleaving inside mechanical joints was also observed in cases involving joining of dual phase steel by tools with larger clearance than designed. This cleaving causes a serious decrease in joint strength. Resistance to surface cracking and inside cleaving depends on the metallurgical structure of UHSS. Single martensite phase is superior for preventing the occurrence of defects in mechanical joining. This is because of its excellent local formability, which can be evaluated by the hole-expanding test using a machined hole specimen. Besides superior resistance to cracking and inside cleaving, single martensite phase steel exhibited higher mechanical joint strength than dual phase steel in cross tensile test.
Technical Paper

A New Combustion Chamber Concept for Low Emissions in Small DI Diesel Engines

This study proposes a new combustion chamber concept for small DI diesel engines. Reduction of fuel adhering to the cavity wall, improvements in mixture formation, and an optimum distribution of mixture inside and outside the cavity are the main characteristics of the combustion chamber. The spray formation and it's distribution inside and outside the combustion chamber was investigated photographically in a small DI diesel engine with transparent cylinder and piston. Optimization of the fuel spray distribution inside and outside the cavity was attempted by changing the shape of the cavity entrance and the location where spray impinges on the lip. In addition improvements in the mixture formation of the impinging spray and reductions in the fuel adhering to the cavity wall were attempted by introducing a small step on the cavity side wall. The results were confirmed by analyzing the combustion and emission in an actual DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Applying Retrofit Radiation Shielding to the ISS

Currently, the exposure limits outlined for crews of the ISS (International Space Station) are based on two principles. The first is that the excess risk to that crewmember be maintained at a level below 3%. The second is that radiation protection personnel must adhere to the ALARA (As Low As Reasonable Achievable) principle. This principle would mandate that for any exposure, the risk incurred as a result be weighed against the social and economic benefits of the activity. An ancillary conclusion of this principle is that if it is possible to lower an exposure through relatively low cost, while not hindering the benefits, then that type of precaution should be pursued. With this in mind, the Space and Life Science Directorate at NASA’s center for manned spaceflight, Johnson Space Center in Houston, has undertaken a project to retrofit radiation shielding into those portions of the ISS where crews are expected to spend larger amounts of time.
Technical Paper

Design engineering with foams and plastics to enhance vehicle safety

Foams and Thermoplastics are materials that have an increasing use to obtain safer and lighter cars. Utilizing the integration potential of plastics, considerable cost efficiencies are obtained. A key element is that predictive modelling is used to achieve optimum system solutions. In this paper both foams and plastic solutions are presented in different applications in the car providing energy-absorbing capabilities and therefore enhancing the safety performance. The first area is that of structural foams in the car body cavities to enhance crash performance. The second area concerns integrated thermoplastic structures in the interior for absorbing impact energy while providing aesthetics and other functionality. The third is that of innovative thermoplastic extruded foam with superior energy efficiency characteristics, applied in head impact environment in the interior of the car as well as potentially in pedestrian safety solutions.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Behaviour of Sn-Pb and Sn-Ag Soldering Alloys for Printed Circuit Boards of the Automotive Industry

In the present work, a comparative study of the constitutive equations describing the flow behaviour at relatively high homologous temperatures of eutectic tin-lead and tin-silver alloys is carried out. For this purpose uniaxial compression tests were performed on the latter two alloys at diverse strain rates and temperatures. Results showed that at relatively low temperatures the deformation response can be considered to be controlled by the same mechanism. However, the tin-lead eutectic, displayed superplastic behaviour at high temperatures.
Technical Paper

Leaner Manufacturing with Precoated High Strength Steels

The car manufacturing process benefits from a competition between different materials that have to fulfil such demands as lightweight, comfort and safety. For ecological and economical reasons low vehicle weights minimise the energy consumption necessary for transportation. High strength steels enable to lower body weight by reducing sheet thickness and increase car safety by excellent crash behaviour. A very important contribution to vehicle safety and value maintenance during the whole life cycle is the use of galvanised steel sheets to prevent corrosion and premature failure of crash relevant body components. Up to date the high standards in corrosion protection and appearance of the exposed car body in the automotive industry are verified by extensive surface coating processes, applied to the body in white by batch processes. Continuous coil coating of galvanised sheet steel is an extremely efficient alternative to the currently used surface finishing processes.