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Particle Emissions from Combustion Sources, 2013

2013-04-09
The 16 papers in this technical paper collection covers particle emissions from combustion engines including measurement and testing methods, effects of changes in fuel composition, environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions.
Collection

Particle Emissions from Combustion Sources, 2014

2014-04-01
This technical paper collection includes papers on PM measurement methods, soot generation, alternative methods of PM mass determination, in-cylinder contol of emissions, the effects of EGR, biodiesel fuels, duel fuel systems, soot emissions modeling, PM emissions from gasoline engines, including GDI, ethanol effects, and modeling.
Collection

Particle Emissions from Combustion Sources, 2015

2015-04-14
This technical paper collection focuses on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Papers also cover the topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
Collection

Particle Emissions from Combustion Sources, 2018

2018-04-03
Papers in this collection focus on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles, plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions, are also addressed. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
Collection

Particle Emissions from Combustion Sources, 2017

2017-03-28
Papers in this collection focus on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement and testing methods, and the effects of changes in fuel composition. Topics of the environmental and health effects of elemental carbon and organic carbon that constitutes solid cored particles, plus the environmental and health effects of secondary organic aerosol emissions, are also addressed. This includes particulate emissions from both gasoline and diesel engines.
Video

PM Sensors

2012-02-01
Watlow and EmiSense Technologies, LLC are commercializing an improved electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor that has real-time measurement capability and improved sensitivity. To demonstrate the capability of this improved sensor of on board diagnostics (OBD) for failure detection of diesel particle filters (DPF), independent measurements were performed by university of California Riverside (UCR) and by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to characterize the engine PM emissions and to compare with the PM sensor response. In situ PM measurements from PM sensors correlate well with real-time gravimetric measurements. In addition, particle size and particle number data are presented and discussed.Due to an improved design update, the sensitivity of the sensor could have been significantly increased.
Video

Monitoring of Diesel Particulate Filter Using Soot Sensor for EU6 OBD

2012-02-01
Many manufactures are currently working on solutions to fulfill CARB MY 13 requirements for monitoring of diesel particulate filters using a soot sensor. Europe might follow by introducing new OBD limits with EU6 regulation. In this presentation we show results from a study investigating the monitoring capability of a soot sensor in combination with EU6 emission calibration and the OBD matriculate mass limit as proposed in EC 595/2009. A defective diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been detected on roller test bench and under normal driving conditions on public roads. Calibrating a precise soot model is the key factor for the reliability of the particulate filter diagnosis using a soot sensor. Presenter Thomas Czarnecki, Bosch Engineering GmbH
Video

New Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnosis

2012-02-16
The presentation describes technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. As in other years, the reader will find a wide range of topics from various parts of the world. This is reflective of the worldwide scope and effort to reduce diesel exhaust emissions. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) technologies as well as sensors and other emissions related developments. Presenter Atsuo Kondo, NGK Insulators, Ltd.
Video

Exhaust Particle Sensor for OBD Application

2012-02-16
This session focuses on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement methods and fuel effects. Presenter Leonidas D. Ntziachristos, Aristotle University Thessaloniki
Video

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

2012-06-18
The aim of this paper is to analyse the quantitative impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulphur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulphur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulphur level. The Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
Video

Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Emissions and DPF Regeneration Management in a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-06-18
Biofuel usage is increasingly expanding thanks to its significant contribution to a well-to-wheel (WTW) reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, stringent emission standards make mandatory the use of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for the particulate emissions control. The different physical properties and chemical composition of biofuels impact the overall engine behaviour. In particular, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value (LHV). More specifically, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value, respectively. The particle emissions, in fact, are lower mainly because of the higher oxygen content. Subsequently less frequent regenerations are required.
Video

Metal Oxide Particle Emissions from Diesel and Petrol Engines

2012-06-18
All internal combustion piston engines emit solid nanoparticles. Some are soot particles resulting from incomplete combustion of fuels, or lube oil. Some particles are metal compounds, most probably metal oxides. A major source of metal compound particles is engine abrasion. The lube oil transports these abraded particles into the combustion zone. There they are partially vaporized and ultrafine oxide particles formed through nucleation [1]. Other sources are the metallic additives to the lube oil, metallic additives in the fuel, and debris from the catalytic coatings in the exhaust-gas emission control devices. The formation process results in extremely fine particles, typically smaller than 50 nm. Thus they intrude through the alveolar membranes directly into the human organism. The consequent health risk necessitates a careful investigation of these emissions and effective curtailment.
Video

On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

2012-06-18
Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

On the effects of Turbocharger on Particle Number and Size Distribution in a Heavy - Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0007
Particles emitted from internal combustion engines have adverse health effects. The severity varies based on the particle size as they deposit at different parts in the respiratory system. After-treatment systems are employed to control the particle emissions from combustion engines. The design of the after-treatment system depends on the nature of particle size distribution at the upstream and is important to evaluate. In heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines, the turbocharger turbine is an important component affecting the flow and particles. The turbine wheel and housing influence particle number and size could potentially be used in reducing particle number or changing the distribution to become more favourable for filtration. This work evaluates the effect of HD diesel engine’s turbine on non-volatile particle number and size distribution.
Book

Alternative Diesel Fuels

2004-01-01
A key topic of many technical discussions has been the development of alternative fuels to power the compression ignition engine. Reasons for this include the desire to reduce the dependency on petroleum-based fuel and, at the same time, to reduce the particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions. Also, there has been interest generated in the diesel engine because of the reduction in greenhouse gases that has been proposed during the 2008-2012 time frame in Europe and the regulations that affect diesel engines in the United States.
Book

Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment 2000-2007

2008-04-01
Diesel engines continue to be widely used in heavy-duty commercial applications around the world, and they are also gaining popularity in light-duty applications such as passenger cars. With this comes increased concern for and regulation of diesel emissions - most notably particulate matter (PM) and nitric oxide (NOx) emissions. As the restrictions grow tighter, exhaust aftertreatment technologies must become more efficient and reliable. The 55 SAE technical papers in this compilation will guide engineers in their efforts to meet these new regulations, by summarizing the latest diesel exhaust aftertreatment technology for both light- and heavy-duty applications.
Technical Paper

Fuel Dosing on a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for After-treatment System Heating on a Heavy Duty Engine Powered by Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers

2020-09-15
2020-01-2157
Renewable energies support efforts for restricting climate change. As power supply by solar and wind energy are subject to temporal and local fluctuations, electricity based fuels (e-fuels) offer a bridge technology for storage and distribution of carbon neutral energies. For air pollution control, the production of tailored fuels with raw pollutant emissions on a low level is meaningful. Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (OME) offer the property of sustainability on the one hand, because the reactants of production are hydrogen and carbon dioxide, and air pollution control on the other hand in consequence of soot-free combustion. Therefore, high Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rates are a promising measure for nitric oxides (NOx) reduction without increasing particle emissions because of the resolved soot-NOx trade-off. However, EGR rates in direction of stoichiometric combustion in OME operation reveals other trade-offs like methane emission.
Technical Paper

Numerical Methods on VVA and VCR Concepts for Fuel Economy Improvement of a Commercial CNG Truck

2020-09-15
2020-01-2083
Natural gas has been used in spark-ignition (SI) engines of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) due to its resource availability and stable price compared to gasoline. It has the potential to reduce carbon monoxide emissions from the SI engines due to its high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio. However, short running distance is an issue of the NGVs. In this work, methodologies to improve the fuel economy of a commercial heavy-duty truck under the Japanese Heavy-Duty Driving Cycle (JE05) is proposed by numerical 1D-CFD modeling. The main objective is a comparative analysis to find an optimal fuel economy under three variable mechanisms, variable valve timing (VVT), variable valve actuation (VVA), and variable compression ratio (VCR). Experimental data are taken from a six-cylinder turbocharged SI engine fueled by city gas 13A. The 9.83 L production engine is a CR11 type with a multi-point injection system operated under a stoichiometric mixture.
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