All internal combustion piston engines emit solid nanoparticles. Some are soot particles resulting from incomplete combustion of fuels, or lube oil. Some particles are metal compounds, most probably metal oxides. A major source of metal compound particles is engine abrasion. The lube oil transports these abraded particles into the combustion zone. There they are partially vaporized and ultrafine oxide particles formed through nucleation . Other sources are the metallic additives to the lube oil, metallic additives in the fuel, and debris from the catalytic coatings in the exhaust-gas emission control devices. The formation process results in extremely fine particles, typically smaller than 50 nm. Thus they intrude through the alveolar membranes directly into the human organism. The consequent health risk necessitates a careful investigation of these emissions and effective curtailment.
For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.
Over the past several years the FZG A/8.3/90 test method has been used to evaluate current qualified aviation lubricants. The results of the effort have been summarized in this document as a historical reference to document the findings made from the committee.
Aviation oils provide thin lubricating films between highly stressed bearing, gear and other lubricated contacts. The stresses and shear rates cause rapid rheological changes in the oil which affect the traction (friction) between the surfaces. Thin film dynamic forces are associated with the molecular structure of the oil provided by the oil supplier. Traction force divided by the normal load (i.e. traction coefficient) can be viewed as a fundamental property of aviation oil. Its value is a function of stress, temperature and shear rate. Appropriate measurements are made under dynamic conditions to characterize aviation oil products for engineering design purposes and service performance prediction.
The automotive lubricants arena has undergone significant changes since the first edition of this book was published in 1996. This second edition includes updated and expanded details of these changes, and provides a solid foundation to this important element of automotive engineering. Chapters include: Introduction and Fundamentals Practical Experiences with Lubricant Problems Performance Levels, Classification, and Specification Blending, Storage, Purchase, and Use The Future and more
In order to meet the stringent emission norms like EU6 and EU7 together with CAFÉ/CAFC norms, down-sizing of the engine is one of the thrust areas of focus among the OEMs. To this end, keeping the engine size small but to achieve the required power output, advanced Turbo charged Gasoline Direct Injection engine technology (TGDI) has emerged. However, TGDI technology is susceptible to an abnormal combustion phenomenon termed as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) event. This event happens prior to the intended combustion, which causes the catastrophic engine damage. Several studies in terms of simulation and experiments to understand this phenomenon are reported in the literature. The main factors influencing this occurrence are found to be engine design and calibration, fuel types and engine oil formulation (in terms of calcium content).
Editor-in-Chief: Nadir Yilmaz, Ph.D., Howard University, USA Indexed in ESCI (Emerging Sources Citation Index, Web of Science) Engineering Village (Ei Compendex) JSTOR Sustainability Collection Scopus 3.4 2019CiteScore 63rd percentile Powered by Author Resources Call for Papers Library Recommendation Form Published Volumes Subscription Options Aims and Scope The SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants is a leading international scholarly journal providing reports of research with focus on fuels and lubricants in automotive engineering. The Journal aims to be the primary source of information for comprehensive and innovative research in the areas of fuels, lubricants, additives, and catalysts, by providing a peer-reviewed platform for academicians, scientists, and industrial researchers to present their work.
Call for Papers for Special Issue on Autonomous Fleets and Optimization Call for Papers for Special Issue on Recent Advances in Vehicle Cabin Air Quality Measurement, Control, and Development of Test Methods Editor-in-Chief: Corina Sandu, Ph.D., Virginia Tech, USA Indexed in ESCI (Emerging Sources Citation Index, Web of Science) Engineering Village (Ei Compendex) Scopus 2.2 2019CiteScore 62nd percentile Powered by Author Resources Call for Papers Library Recommendation Form Published Volumes Subscription Options Aims and Scope The SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles is to showcase state-of-the-art engineering research by promoting high-quality theoretical and applied investigations. The Journal achieves this goal by publishing only those peer-reviewed scientific articles on the design, modeling, controlling, and testing of commercial vehicles that bring strong empirical and theoretical contributions to the current and future body of knowledge.