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High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company

Metal Oxide Particle Emissions from Diesel and Petrol Engines

All internal combustion piston engines emit solid nanoparticles. Some are soot particles resulting from incomplete combustion of fuels, or lube oil. Some particles are metal compounds, most probably metal oxides. A major source of metal compound particles is engine abrasion. The lube oil transports these abraded particles into the combustion zone. There they are partially vaporized and ultrafine oxide particles formed through nucleation [1]. Other sources are the metallic additives to the lube oil, metallic additives in the fuel, and debris from the catalytic coatings in the exhaust-gas emission control devices. The formation process results in extremely fine particles, typically smaller than 50 nm. Thus they intrude through the alveolar membranes directly into the human organism. The consequent health risk necessitates a careful investigation of these emissions and effective curtailment.

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

For internal combustion engines and industrial machinery, it is well recognized that the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption and extending service life is through lubricant development. This presentation summarizes our recent R&D achievements on developing a new class of candidate lubricants or oil additives ionic liquids (ILs). Features of ILs making them attractive for lubrication include high thermal stability, low vapor pressure, non-flammability, and intrinsic high polarity. When used as neat lubricants, selected ILs demonstrated lower friction under elastohydrodynamic lubrication and less wear at boundary lubrication benchmarked against fully-formulated engine oils in our bench tests. More encouragingly, a group of non-corrosive, oil-miscible ILs has recently been developed and demonstrated multiple additive functionalities including anti-wear and friction modifier when blended into hydrocarbon base oils.

FZG Test Review

Over the past several years the FZG A/8.3/90 test method has been used to evaluate current qualified aviation lubricants. The results of the effort have been summarized in this document as a historical reference to document the findings made from the committee.

Traction Coefficient Measurement

Aviation oils provide thin lubricating films between highly stressed bearing, gear and other lubricated contacts. The stresses and shear rates cause rapid rheological changes in the oil which affect the traction (friction) between the surfaces. Thin film dynamic forces are associated with the molecular structure of the oil provided by the oil supplier. Traction force divided by the normal load (i.e. traction coefficient) can be viewed as a fundamental property of aviation oil. Its value is a function of stress, temperature and shear rate. Appropriate measurements are made under dynamic conditions to characterize aviation oil products for engineering design purposes and service performance prediction.

Acid Assay of Polyol Ester Lubricants

This test method describes the procedure for the determination of the composition of the base stock of polyol ester lubricants by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).

Automotive Lubricants Reference Book, Second Edition

The automotive lubricants arena has undergone significant changes since the first edition of this book was published in 1996. This second edition includes updated and expanded details of these changes, and provides a solid foundation to this important element of automotive engineering. Chapters include: Introduction and Fundamentals Practical Experiences with Lubricant Problems Performance Levels, Classification, and Specification Blending, Storage, Purchase, and Use The Future and more
Technical Paper

NVH Comfort of Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles

The most appreciated driving characteristics of electric vehicles are the quietness and spontaneous torque rise of the powertrain. The application of range extenders (REX) with internal combustion engines (ICEs) to increase the driving range is a favourable solution regarding costs and weight, especially in comparison with larger battery capacities. However, the NVH integration of a REX is challenging, if the generally silent driving characteristics of electric vehicles shall remain preserved. This paper analyses key NVH aspects for a REX design and integration to fulfil the high expectations regarding noise and vibration comfort in an electric vehicle environment. The ICE for a REX is typically dimensioned for lower power outputs, incorporating a low number of cylinder units, which is even more challenging concerning the NVH integration. The basic REX concept is evaluated by considering power and fuel efficiency demands in combination with an interior noise forecast.
Technical Paper

Advanced Methods to Handle LSPI in TGDI Engines

In order to meet the stringent emission norms like EU6 and EU7 together with CAFÉ/CAFC norms, down-sizing of the engine is one of the thrust areas of focus among the OEMs. To this end, keeping the engine size small but to achieve the required power output, advanced Turbo charged Gasoline Direct Injection engine technology (TGDI) has emerged. However, TGDI technology is susceptible to an abnormal combustion phenomenon termed as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) event. This event happens prior to the intended combustion, which causes the catastrophic engine damage. Several studies in terms of simulation and experiments to understand this phenomenon are reported in the literature. The main factors influencing this occurrence are found to be engine design and calibration, fuel types and engine oil formulation (in terms of calcium content).
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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Editor-in-Chief: Nadir Yilmaz, Ph.D., Howard University, USA Indexed in ESCI (Emerging Sources Citation Index, Web of Science) Engineering Village (Ei Compendex) JSTOR Sustainability Collection Scopus 3.4 2019CiteScore 63rd percentile Powered by Author Resources Call for Papers Library Recommendation Form Published Volumes Subscription Options Aims and Scope The SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants is a leading international scholarly journal providing reports of research with focus on fuels and lubricants in automotive engineering. The Journal aims to be the primary source of information for comprehensive and innovative research in the areas of fuels, lubricants, additives, and catalysts, by providing a peer-reviewed platform for academicians, scientists, and industrial researchers to present their work.
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SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Call for Papers for Special Issue on Autonomous Fleets and Optimization Call for Papers for Special Issue on Recent Advances in Vehicle Cabin Air Quality Measurement, Control, and Development of Test Methods Editor-in-Chief: Corina Sandu, Ph.D., Virginia Tech, USA Indexed in ESCI (Emerging Sources Citation Index, Web of Science) Engineering Village (Ei Compendex) Scopus 2.2 2019CiteScore 62nd percentile Powered by Author Resources Call for Papers Library Recommendation Form Published Volumes Subscription Options Aims and Scope The SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles is to showcase state-of-the-art engineering research by promoting high-quality theoretical and applied investigations. The Journal achieves this goal by publishing only those peer-reviewed scientific articles on the design, modeling, controlling, and testing of commercial vehicles that bring strong empirical and theoretical contributions to the current and future body of knowledge.
Technical Paper

Sludge and Varnish Evaluation of Polyether Amine Gasoline Fuel Additives at “Complete Fuel System Cleaner” Aftermarket Fuel Additive Concentrations

Sludge and Varnish deposits that can build up in the crankcase originate in large part from fuel and fuel components that enter the crankcase through blow-by. These deposits can lead to a variety of engine issues including piston skirt deposits, cylinder bore scuffing, stuck lifters and oil filter plugging. A test has been developed to evaluate the contribution of “Complete Fuel System Cleaner” (CFSC) aftermarket fuel additives to crankcase sludge and varnish deposit formation. CFSC aftermarket fuel additives are typically formulated with polyether amine (PEA) chemistry and at concentrations that exceed 2000ppm. Three different commercially-available CFSC products were tested, containing two different classes of PEA chemistry - propylene oxide-based PEA (“PO-PEA”) and butylene oxide-based PEA (“BO-PEA”). Two of the three products contained the same PO-PEA chemistry, but at different concentrations, to show the effect of additive dosage.