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Video

Characterization and Potential of Dual Fuel Combustion in a Modern Diesel Engine

2011-12-05
Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, is a concept which promises the possibility to utilize CNG/biogas in a compression ignition engine maintaining a high compression ratio, made possible by the high knock resistance of methane, and the resulting benefits in thermal efficiency associated with Diesel combustion. Presenter Fredrik K�nigsson, AVL Sweden
Video

Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil in Presence of Crushed Seashell as a Support for Solid Heterogeneous Catalyst

2011-12-05
Developing relatively cheap and widely available resources for heterogeneous solid catalyst synthesis is a promising approach for biodiesel fuel industry. Seashell which is essentially calcium carbonate can be used as a basic support for transesterification heterogeneous catalysts. In the present investigation, the alcoholysis of waste frying oil has been carried out using seashell-supported K3 PO4 as solid catalyst. Presenter Essam Oun Al-Zaini, PhD student, UNSW
Video

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-05-23
The need for light-weighting of automotive structures has spurred on a tremendous amount of interest in and development of low cost carbon fiber composite materials and manufacturing. This presentation provides a description of the commercial carbon fiber concept compared to traditional aerospace and specialty carbon fiber products. A specific update is presented on the development and commercialization of new low cost carbon fiber based on lignin / PAN precursor technology. The second focus of the presentation is on carbon fiber composite manufacturing processes, including carbon SMC, RTM, prepregs, and thermoplastic processes. Advantages and disadvantages of these processes are discussed, especially related to low cost manufacturing. Presenter George Husman, Zoltek Companies Inc.
Video

Biodiesel Permeability in Polyethylene

2012-05-22
This paper reports solubility, diffusivity and permeability data for soy and rapeseed methyl esters in polyethylene together with comparisons with methyl oleate and linoleate. These data were used to discuss the reliability of predictive models for diffusion and solubility of additive type molecules into semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers. Presenter Emmanuel Richaud
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
The development of PM and NOx reduction system with the combination of DOC included DPF and SCR catalyst in addition to the AOC sub-assembly for NH3 slip protection is described. DPF regeneration strategy and manual regeneration functionality are introduced with using ITH, HCI device on the EUI based EGR, VGT 12.3L diesel engine at the CVS full dilution tunnel test bench. With this system, PM and NOx emission regulation for JPNL was satisfied and DPF regeneration process under steady state condition and transient condition (JE05 mode) were successfully fulfilled. Manual regeneration process was also confirmed and HCI control strategy was validated against the heat loss during transient regeneration mode. Presenter Seung-il Moon
Video

Development of High-Efficiency Rotary Engines

2012-05-10
In this presentation, we will explain how the traditional Miller Cycle - which has its limitations in the traditional four-stroke, Otto Cycle engine provides new opportunities for greater fuel efficiency gains and engine downsizing when incorporated in a split-cycle combustion process. Results will also be shared from studies showing how these implementations can provide both significant drops in fuel consumption and increases in power when incorporated into some of today's most economic vehicles. Presenter Stephen Scuderi, Scuderi Group LLC
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation into Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Parameters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1124
With recent increases in global fuel prices there has become a growing interest in expanding the use of diesel engines in the transportation industry. However, new engine development is costly and time intensive, requiring many hours of expensive engine tests. The ability to accurately predict an engine's performance based on existing models would reduce the expense involved in creating a new engine of different size. In the present study experimental results from two single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines were used to examine previously developed engine scaling models. The first scaling model was based on an equal spray penetration correlation. The second model considered both equal spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The engines used were a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine with a 2.44L displacement and a light-duty GM engine with a 0.48L displacement.
Journal Article

Modeling the Cold Start of the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1493
Optimization of the engine cold start is critical for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, since the emissions during the first 20 seconds of the cold start constitute more than 80% of the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for the entire EPA FTP75 drive cycle. However, Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine cold start optimization is very challenging due to the rapidly changing engine speed, cold thermal environment and low cranking fuel pressure. One approach to reduce HC emissions for DISI engines is to adopt retarded spark so that engines generate high heat fluxes for faster catalyst light-off during the cold idle. This approach typically degrades the engine combustion stability and presents additional challenges to the engine cold start. This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address these challenges for the Ford 3.5L V6 EcoBoost engine cold start.
Journal Article

Optimal Use of E85 in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1490
Ford Motor Company is introducing “EcoBoost” gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine technology in the 2010 Lincoln MKS. A logical enhancement of EcoBoost technology is the use of E85 for knock mitigation. The subject of this paper is the optimal use of E85 by using two fuel systems in the same EcoBoost engine: port fuel injection (PFI) of gasoline and direct injection (DI) of E85. Gasoline PFI is used for starting and light-medium load operation, while E85 DI is used only as required during high load operation to avoid knock. Direct injection of E85 (a commercially available blend of ∼85% ethanol and ∼15% gasoline) is extremely effective in suppressing knock, due to ethanol's high inherent octane and its high heat of vaporization, which results in substantial cooling of the charge. As a result, the compression ratio (CR) can be increased and higher boost levels can be used.
Journal Article

Combustion System Optimization of a Low Compression-Ratio PCCI Diesel Engine for Light-Duty Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-1464
A new combustion system with a low compression ratio (CR), specifically oriented towards the exploitment of partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) diesel engines, has been developed and tested. The work is part of a cooperative research program between Politecnico di Torino (PT) and GM Powertrain Europe (GMPT-E) in the frame of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) diesel combustion-system design and control. The baseline engine is derived from the GM 2.0L 4-cylinder in-line, 4-valve-per-cylinder EU5 engine. It features a CR of 16.5, a single stage VGT turbocharger and a second generation Common Rail (1600 bar). A newly designed combustion bowl was applied. It features a central dome and a large inlet diameter, in order to maximize the air utilization factor at high load and to tolerate advanced injection timings at partial load. Two different piston prototypes were manufactured by changing the internal volume of the new bowl so as to reach CR targets of 15.5 and 15.
Journal Article

Enabling Flex Fuel Vehicle Emissions Testing – Test Cell Modifications and Data Improvements

2009-04-20
2009-01-1523
The challenges of flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) emissions measurements have recently come to the forefront for the emissions testing community. The proliferation of ethanol blended gasoline in fractions as high as 85% has placed a new challenge in the path of accurate measures of NMHC and NMOG emissions. Test methods need modification to cope with excess amounts of water in the exhaust, assure transfer and capture of oxygenated compounds to integrated measurement systems (impinger and cartridge measurements) and provide modal emission rates of oxygenated species. Current test methods fall short of addressing these challenges. This presentation will discuss the challenges to FFV testing, modifications made to Ford Motor Company’s Vehicle Emissions Research Laboratory test cells, and demonstrate the improvements in recovery of oxygenated species from the vehicle exhaust system for both regulatory measurements and development measurements.
Journal Article

Analysis of Compromising Degree of an Internal Combustion Engine Using Biodiesel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0895
This work intends to present a study about the application of a standard methodology for the evaluation of the mechanical components compromise as result of the use of biodiesel, based on the lubricating oil analyses. The fuel oil that will be analyzed is produced in PUCRS' Faculty of Chemistry. As we know, the physical-chemical analysis of lubricating oils can indicate a series of parameters that allow valuing the quality and the compromising degree of the mechanical engine components. The results of these analyses will be based on tests in an Electronic Microscopy. This type of analysis will allow us to determine the quality of the lubricating oil, degradation and contamination with metal materials (mechanical compromising). The work presupposes the functioning of Diesel engine cycle with several proportions of biodiesel (B2, B5, B10, B20 and B100).
Journal Article

Treatment of Vehicle Emissions from the Combustion of E85 and Gasoline with Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Traps

2009-04-20
2009-01-1080
Ethanol has been gaining attention as a partial substitute in North American pump gasoline in amounts up to 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, or what is commonly known as “E85”. The problems with E85 fuel for cold start emissions relative to gasoline fuel are the lower energy density and vapor pressure for combustion. Each contributes to excess E85 fuel injected during cold start for comparable combustion quality and drivability to gasoline. The excess emissions occur before the first three-way catalyst (TWC) converter is warmed-up and active for engine-out exhaust conversion. The treatment of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions from the combustion of E85 and gasoline was evaluated using several different zeolite based hydrocarbon (HC) traps coated with different precious metal loadings and ratios. These catalyzed HC traps were evaluated in a flow reactor and also on a gasoline Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) with experimental flexible fuel capability.
Journal Article

Advanced Control System of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

2009-04-20
2009-01-1063
A dual piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. This compact VCR system uses the inertia force and hydraulic pressure accompanying the reciprocating motion of the piston to raise and lower the outer piston and switches the compression ratio in two stages. For the torque characteristic enhancement and the knocking prevention when the compression ratio is being switched, it is necessary to carry out engine controls based on accurate compression ratio judgment. In order to accurately judge compression ratio switching timing, a control system employing the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was used to analyze vibration generated during the compression ratio switching. Also, in order to realize smooth torque characteristics, an ignition timing control system that separately controls each cylinder and simultaneously performs knocking control was constructed.
Journal Article

Detailed Unburned Hydrocarbon Investigations in a Highly-Dilute Diesel Low Temperature Combustion Regime

2009-04-20
2009-01-0928
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) in a highly-dilute diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) regime. This research concentrates on understanding the mechanisms that control the formation of UHC via experiments and simulations in a 0.48L signal-cylinder light duty engine operating at 2000 r/min and 5.5 bar IMEP with multiple injections. A multi-gas FTIR along with other gas and smoke emissions instruments are used to measure exhaust UHC species and other emissions. Controlled experiments in the single-cylinder engine are then combined with three computational tools, namely heat release analysis of measured cylinder pressure, analysis of spray trajectory with a phenomenological spray model using in-cylinder thermodynamics [1], and KIVA-3V Chemkin CFD computations recently tested at LTC conditions [2].
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Analysis of SI Engine Operation on Variable Composition Biogas-Hydrogen Blends Using a Quasi-Dimensional, Multi-Zone Combustion Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-0931
In this work, a quasi-dimensional, multi-zone combustion model is analytically presented, for the prediction of performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions of a homogeneous charge spark ignition (SI) engine, fueled with biogas-H2 blends of variable composition. The combustion model is incorporated into a closed cycle simulation code, which is also fully described. Combustion is modeled on the basis of turbulent entrainment theory and flame stretch concepts. In this context, the entrainment speed, by which unburned gas enters the flame region, is simulated by the turbulent burning velocity of a flamelet model. A flame stretch submodel is also included, in order to assess the flame response on the combined effects of curvature, turbulent strain and nonunity Lewis number mixture. As far as the burned gas is concerned, this is treated using a multi-zone thermodynamic formulation, to account for the spatial distribution of temperature and NO concentration inside the burned volume.
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