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Characterization and Potential of Dual Fuel Combustion in a Modern Diesel Engine

2011-12-05
Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, is a concept which promises the possibility to utilize CNG/biogas in a compression ignition engine maintaining a high compression ratio, made possible by the high knock resistance of methane, and the resulting benefits in thermal efficiency associated with Diesel combustion. Presenter Fredrik K�nigsson, AVL Sweden
Journal Article

Speciated Engine-Out Organic Gas Emissions from a PFI-SI Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

2009-11-02
2009-01-2673
Engine-out HC emissions from a PFI spark ignition engine were measured using a gas chromatograph and a flame ionization detector (FID). Two port fuel injectors were used respectively for ethanol and gasoline so that the delivered fuel was comprised of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (by volume) of ethanol. Tests were run at 1.5, 3.8 and 7.5 bar NIMEP and two speeds (1500 and 2500 rpm). The main species identified with pure gasoline were partial reaction products (e.g. methane and ethyne) and aromatics, whereas with ethanol/gasoline mixtures, substantial amounts of ethanol and acetaldehyde were detected. Indeed, using pure ethanol, 74% of total HC moles were oxygenates. In addition, the molar ratio of ethanol to acetaldehyde was determined to be 5.5 to 1. The amount (as mole fraction of total HC moles) of exhaust aromatics decreased linearly with increasing ethanol in the fuel, while oxygenate species correspondingly increased.
Journal Article

A Study of Controlled Auto-Ignition in Small Natural Gas Engines

2013-10-15
2013-32-9098
Research has been conducted on Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) engine with natural gas. CAI engine has the potential to be highly efficient and to produce low emissions. CAI engine is potentially applicable to automobile engine. However due to narrow operating range, CAI engine for automobile engine which require various speed and load in real world operation is still remaining at research level. In comparison some natural gas engines for electricity generation only require continuous operation at constant load. There is possibility of efficiency enhancement by CAI combustion which is running same speed at constant load. Since natural gas is primary consisting of methane (CH4), high auto-ignition temperature is required to occur stable auto-ignition. Usually additional intake heat required to keep stable auto-ignition. To keep high compression temperature, single cylinder natural gas engine with high compression ratio (CR=26) was constructed.
Journal Article

Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

2014-04-01
2014-01-1188
Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed.
Journal Article

Fuel Design Concept for Robust Ignition in HCCI Engine and Its Application to Optimize Methane-Based Blend

2014-04-01
2014-01-1286
A fuel design concept for an HCCI engine based on chemical kinetics to optimize the heat release profile and achieve robust ignition was proposed, and applied to the design of the optimal methane-based blend. Ignition process chemistry of each single-component of natural gas, methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and isobutane, was analyzed using detailed chemical kinetic computations. Ethane exhibits low ignitability, close to that of methane, when the initial temperature is below 800 K, but higher ignitability, close to those of propane, n-butane and isobutane, when the initial temperature is above 1100 K. Furthermore, ethane shows a higher heat release rate during the late stage of the ignition process. If the early stage of an ignition process takes place during the compression stroke, this kind of heat release profile is desirable in an HCCI engine to reduce cycle-to-cycle variation during the expansion stroke.
Journal Article

Determination of Supersonic Inlet Boundaries for Gaseous Engines Based on Detailed RANS and LES Simulations

2013-09-08
2013-24-0004
The combustion of gaseous fuels like methane in internal combustion engines is an interesting alternative to the conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. Reasons are the availability of the resource and the significant advantage in terms of CO2 emissions due to the beneficial C/H ratio. One difficulty of gaseous fuels is the preparation of the gas/air mixtures for all operation points, since the volumetric energy density of the fuel is lower compared to conventional liquid fuels. Low-pressure port-injected systems suffer from substantially reduced volumetric efficiencies. Direct injection systems avoid such losses; in order to deliver enough fuel into the cylinder, high pressures are however needed for the gas injection which forces the fuel to enter the cylinder at supersonic speed followed by a Mach disk. The detailed modeling of these physical effects is very challenging, since the fluid velocities and pressure and velocity gradients at the Mach disc are very high.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Speciation Data for Hydrocarbons using Data Science

2021-09-05
2021-24-0081
Strict regulations on air pollution motivates clean combustion research for fossil fuels. To numerically mimic real gasoline fuel reactivity, surrogates are proposed to facilitate advanced engine design and predict emissions by chemical kinetic modelling. However, chemical kinetic models could not accurately predict non-regular emissions, e.g. aldehydes, ketones and unsaturated hydrocarbons, which are important air pollutants. In this work, we propose to use machine-learning algorithms to achieve better predictions. Combustion chemistry of fuels constituting of 10 neat fuels, 6 primary reference fuels (PRF) and 6 FGX surrogates were tested in a jet stirred reactor. Experimental data were collected in the same setup to maintain data uniformity and consistency under following conditions: residence time at 1.0 second, fuel concentration at 0.25%, equivalence ratio at 1.0, and temperature range from 750 to 1100K.
Technical Paper

Under-Expanded Jets Characterization by Means of CFD Numerical Simulation Using an Open FOAM Density-Based Solver

2021-09-05
2021-24-0057
Among the others, natural gas (NG) is regarded as a potential solution to enhance the environmental performance of internal combustion engines. Low carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, worldwide relatively homogeneous distribution and reduced price are the reason as, lately, many researchers efforts have been put in this area. In particular, this work focuses on the characterization of the injection process inside a constant volume chamber (CVC), which could provide a contribution to the development of direct injection technologies for a gaseous fuel. Direct injection of a gaseous fuel involves the presence of under-expanded jets whose knowledge is fundamental to achieve the proper mixture formation prior to the combustion ignition. For this reason, a density based solver was developed within the OpenFOAM library in order to simulate the jet issued from an injector suitable for direct injection of methane.
Technical Paper

High Load Lean SI-Combustion Analysis of DI Methane and Gasoline Using Optical Diagnostics with Endoscope

2021-09-05
2021-24-0046
Homogeneous lean spark-ignited combustion is known for its thermodynamic advantages over conventional stoichiometric combustion but remains a challenge due to combustion instability, engine knock and NOx emissions especially at higher engine loads above the naturally aspirated limit. Investigations have shown that lean combustion can partly suppress knock, which is why the concept may be particularly advantageous in high load, boosted operation in downsized engines with high compression ratios. However, the authors have previously shown that this is not true for all cases due to the appearance of a lean load limit, which is defined by the convergence of the knock limit and combustion stability limit. Therefore, further research has been conducted with the alternative and potentially renewable fuel methane which has higher resistance to autoignition compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Three Way Catalyst Behavior Under Steady and Transient Operations in a Stoichiometric Natural Gas Fueled Engine

2021-09-05
2021-24-0074
Methane abatement in the exhaust gas of natural gas engines is much more challenging in respect to the oxidation of other higher order hydrocarbons. Under steady state λ sweep, the methane conversion efficiency is high at exact stoichiometric, and decreases steeply under both slightly rich and slightly lean conditions. Transient lean to rich transitions can improve methane conversion at the rich side. Previous experimental work has attributed the enhanced methane conversion to activation of methane steam reforming. The steam reforming rate, however, attenuates over time and the methane conversion rate gradually converges to the low steady state values. In this work, a reactor model is established to predict steady state and transient transition characteristics of a three-way catalyst (TWC) mounted in the exhaust of a natural gas heavy-duty engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of In-Cylinder Tumble/Swirl Flow on Mixing, Turbulence and Combustion of Methane in SI Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2013
In the present work, the in-cylinder tumble/swirl flow and its effect on the homogeneity, turbulence, and combustion of methane are investigated in a canted valve engine using ANSYS. The study is focused on the impact of initial swirl and tumble on the charge preparation, turbulent kinetic energy, and combustion of methane. The flow simulation was performed in ANSYS using hybrid mesh for cold flow simulation to study the tumble/swirl flow variation. For combustion simulation, a 2D axisymmetric model was used with an initial swirl and tumble ratio for studying the effect on premixed combustion. The flow simulation was performed for suction and compression to see the variation in the swirl and tumble with crank position and engine speed. The combustion simulation was performed only for compression and power stroke to save the computation time. The results depict that the flow inside the cylinder plays a significant role in the preparation of a homogeneous charge.
Technical Paper

Performance of Bi-Fuel Ethanol-Methane SI-Engine for Stage V Non-Road Applications

2020-09-15
2020-01-2043
Due to agricultural engines’ high average workload and operation in rural areas, substituting internal combustion engines in non-road sector is still a challenge. Utilizing sustainable solutions are therefore in key position for decarbonizing the non-road sector. To this day, the diesel engines dominate the markets because of their high efficiency. However, the simplicity and cost effectiveness of the spark-ignited engines together with renewable fuels are suggested to bring several advantages compared to the diesel engine. E.g. ethanol and bio methane are relatively simple to produce from agricultural residuals and wastes, and the raw materials are easily available around the world. Additionally, stoichiometric engines would only require a three-way catalyst (TWC) to fulfil Stage V emission regulations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Aldehyde and Methane Emissions from Hydrous Ethanol and Gasoline Fueled SI Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2047
Use of ethanol as gasoline replacement can contribute to the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions. Depending on ethanol production, significant reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is possible. Concentration of certain species, such as unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde in the engine-out emissions are known to rise when ratio of ethanol to gasoline increases in the fuel. This research explores on hydrous ethanol fueled port-fuel injection (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engine emissions that contribute to photochemical formation of ozone, or so-called ozone precursors and the precursor of peroxyacetyl nitrates (PANs). The results are compared to engine operation on gasoline. Concentration obtained by FTIR gas analyzer, and mass-specific emissions of formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (MeCHO) and methane (CH4) under two engine speed, four load and two spark advance settings are analyzed and presented.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Negative PLIF and OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging of the Gas Exchange and Flame Jet from a Narrow Throat Pre-Chamber

2020-09-15
2020-01-2080
Pre-chamber combustion (PCC) is a promising engine combustion concept capable of extending the lean limit at part load. The engine experiments in the literature showed that the PCC could achieve higher engine thermal efficiency and much lower NOx emission than the spark-ignition engine. Improved understanding of the detailed flow and combustion physics of PCC is important for optimizing the PCC combustion. In this study, we investigated the gas exchange and flame jet from a narrow throat pre-chamber (PC) by only fueling the PC with methane in an optical engine. Simultaneous negative acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and OH* chemiluminescence imaging were applied to visualize the PC jet and flame jet from the PC, respectively. Results indicate a delay of the PC gas exchange relative to the built-up of the pressure difference (△ P) between PC and the main chamber (MC). This should be due to the gas inertia inside the PC and the resistance of the PC nozzle.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Imaging of Main-Chamber Combustion of a Narrow Throat Pre-Chamber under Lean Conditions

2020-09-15
2020-01-2081
Pre-chamber combustion (PCC) allows an extension on the lean limit of an internal combustion engine (ICE). This combustion mode provides lower NOx emissions and shorter combustion durations that lead to a higher indicated efficiency. In the present work, a narrow throat pre-chamber was tested, which has a unique nozzle area distribution in two rows of six nozzle holes each. Tests were carried out in a modified heavy-duty engine for optical visualization. Methane was used as fuel for both the pre-chamber and the main chamber. Seven operating points were tested, including passive pre-chamber mode as a limit condition, to study the effect of pre- and main-chamber fuel addition on the pre-chamber jets and the main chamber combustion via chemiluminescence imaging. A typical cycle of one of the tested conditions is explained through the captured images. Observations of the typical cycle reveal a predominant presence of only six jets (from the lower row), with well-defined jet structures.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Replacement of E10, E85, and Methane with Gasoline in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion: A Comparison of Alternative Fuels Using Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Strategy

2020-06-15
2020-01-5061
The Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) strategy is a novel Low-Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy that is used to minimize nitrogen oxides (NOX) and soot emissions to near zero. Methane and ethanol blends are the most conventional alternatives to gasoline used in the RCCI strategy. In this paper, a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (3D-CFD) model was developed and validated against the experimental data at the load of 6.5 bar Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) and 1300 rpm. E10, E85, and methane were replaced with gasoline to investigate their effects on emissions and performance. In order to make a fair comparison between cases, combustion phasing (CA50) and cylinder energy and boundary conditions were considered constant. Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC) was also investigated with the constant cylinder energy to make a comparison between all RCCI cases and CDC.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Evaluation of Directly Injected Methane Using a High-Speed Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurement System

2020-09-15
2020-01-2106
The usage of alternative fuels inside internal combustion engines (ICE), is one promising approach to meet the higher requirements concerning the efficiency and emission of modern combustion systems. The injection and mixture formation of such fuels has a major impact on the subsequent combustion as well as the formation of pollutants. To rate the influence and to gain a better understanding of those new alternatives a basic understanding of these dominant processes is mandatory. The principle of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is a well-known method to display and evaluate fuel distributions inside combustion chambers. A suiting online calibration routine allows the visualization of air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ) two-dimensionally during different operation modes. As cyclic variations can become a more critical issue while using alternative fuels, cycle- resolved test series become more and more important.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Characterization of High-Pressure Methane Jets for Direct Injection in Internal Combustion Engines

2020-09-15
2020-01-2124
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is regarded as a promising fuel for spark-ignited (SI) internal combustion engines (ICE) to improve engine thermal efficiency and reduce both carbon dioxide and pollutant emissions. Significant advantages of CNG are higher-octane number, higher hydrogen to carbon ratio, and lower energy-specific CO2 emissions compared with gasoline. More, it can be produced in renewable ways, and is more widespread and cheaper than conventional liquid fossil fuels. In this regard, the direct injection of CNG engines can be considered a promising technology for highly efficient and low-emission future engines. This work reports an experimental and numerical characterization of high-pressure methane jets from a multi-hole injector for direct injection engines.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Regeneration of Lean NOX Trap Using Dimethyl Ether

2020-04-14
2020-01-1354
The ever-stringent emission regulations are major challenges for the diesel fueled engines in automotive industry. The applications of advanced after-treatment technologies as well as alternative fuels [1] are considered as promising methodology to reduce exhaust emission from compression ignition (CI) engines. Using dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel has been extensively studied by many researchers and automotive manufactures since DME has demonstrated enormous potential in terms of emission reduction, such as low CO emission, and soot and sulfur free. However, the effect of employing DME in a lean NOX trap (LNT) based after-treatment system has not been fully addressed yet. In this work, investigations of the long breathing LNT system using DME as a reductant were performed on a heated after-treatment flow bench with simulated engine exhaust condition.
Journal Article

Desulfation of Pd-based Oxidation Catalysts for Lean-burn Natural Gas and Dual-fuel Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0991
Lean-burn natural gas (NG) engines are used world-wide for both stationary power generation and mobile applications ranging from passenger cars to Class 8 line-haul trucks. With the recent introduction of hydraulic fracturing gas extraction technology and increasing availability of natural gas, these engines are receiving more attention. However, the reduction of unburned hydrocarbon emissions from lean-burn NG and dual-fuel (diesel and natural gas) engines is particularly challenging due to the stability of the predominant short-chain alkane species released (e.g., methane, ethane, and propane). Supported Pd-based oxidation catalysts are generally considered the most active materials for the complete oxidation of low molecular weight alkanes at temperatures typical of lean-burn NG exhaust. However, these catalysts rapidly degrade under realistic exhaust conditions with high water vapor concentrations and traces of sulfur.
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