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Technical Paper

The Texas Project, Part 4 - Final Results: Emissions and Fuel Economy of CNG and LPG Conversions of Light-Duty Vehicles

1998-10-19
982446
The Texas Project was a multi-year study of aftermarket conversions of a variety of light-duty vehicles to CNG or LPG. Emissions and fuel economy when using these fuels are compared to the results for the same vehicles operating on certification gasoline and Federal Phase 1 RFG. Since 1993, 1,040 tests were conducted on 10 models, totally 86 light-duty vehicles. The potential for each vehicle model/kit combination to attain LEV certification was assessed. Also, comparisons of emissions and fuel economy between converted vehicles when operating on gasoline and nominally identical un-converted gasoline control vehicles were analyzed. Additional evaluations were performed for a subfleet that was subjected to exhaust speciations for operation over the Federal Test Procedure cycle and also for off-cycle tests.
Technical Paper

The Texas Project, Part 5 - Economic Analysis: CNG and LPG Conversions of Light-Duty Vehicle Fleets

1998-10-19
982447
The Texas Project was a multi-year study of aftermarket conversions of a variety of light-duty vehicles to CNG or LPG. One aspect of this project was to examine the factors that influence the economics of fleet conversions to these alternative fuels. The present analysis did not include longer-term effects (such as possible increases in exhaust system life or increases in tire wear). Additionally, assumptions were required to estimate the costs of repairs to the alternative fuel system and engine. Other factors considered include conversion cost, fuel prices, annual alternative fuel tax (as applied for the state of Texas), annual miles accumulated, and the percent miles traveled while using the alternative fuel for dual fuel conversions.
Technical Paper

The Texas Project: Part 2 - Control System Characteristics of Aftermarket CNG and LNG Conversions for Light-Duty Vehicles

1996-10-01
962099
The Texas Project involves the conversion of light-duty vehicles, up to and heavy light-duty trucks, to bi-fueled vehicles using commercially available aftermarket CNG and LPG conversion systems. The test fleet includes 68 dual fueled conversions. Virtually every type of aftermarket conversion technology for CNG and LPG was evaluated: eight different CNG and seven different LPG conversion “kits”, all of which are modern systems incorporating closed-loop control. The kits were installed and calibrated according to the manufacturer's guidelines and recommendations. The emissions when operating on the alternative fuel were compared to those when operating on certification gasoline to determine the “success” of the conversion. Many of these conversions, performed according to the manufacturer's requirements, were not “successful” (worse emissions than for gasoline operation). In almost all cases, the problem was NOx emissions that were too high when operating on the alternative fuel.
Technical Paper

The Texas Project: Part 3 - Off-Cycle Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on CNG, LPG, Federal Phase 1 Reformulated Gasoline, and/or Low Sulfur Certification Gasoline

1996-10-01
962100
Off-cycle emissions from seven different types of 1994 light-duty vehicles were examined The test fleet consisted of 19 individual vehicles including a passenger car, two makes of light light-duty trucks, and five types of heavy light-duty trucks The driving cycles used for these tests were the US06(hard acceleration, high speed) cycle and the 20 °F FTP (the “Cold FTP”) Conventional FTPs were done for comparison Each vehicle was usually operated on at least two of the following CNG, LPG, Federal Phase 1 reformulated gasoline (FP1 RFG), and a low sulfur certification gasoline For both the conventional FTP and the US06 cycles, the alternative fuels produce statistically significant benefits in Ozone Forming Potential and exhaust toxics but the NOx emissions are not statistically different from those when operating on FP1 RFG with at least 90% confidence During Cold FTP tests, the emissions of CO and of toxics when operating on FP1 RFG are not statistically different from those when operating on a low sulfur certification gasoline In contrast the alternative fuels produce statistically significant benefits in the emissions of both CO and toxics compared to either of the gasolines during Cold FTP tests The Reactivity Adjustment Factor calculated from the present conventional FTP results for CNG agrees closely with the CARB value However, the present RAF for LPG is about half CARB s value, which is believed to be a consequence of the low propene in Texas LPG compared to the high propene in California LPG The effects of the test type on the emissions are also discussed
Technical Paper

CNG Compositions in Texas and the Effects of Composition on Emissions, Fuel Economy, and Driveability of NGVs

1996-10-01
962097
A survey of the CNG compositions within NGV driving range of Houston was performed. It was found that the statistics for the Texas CNGs were very similar to those from a previous national survey Based upon the present survey results, two extremes of CNG composition were chosen for a study of the effects of composition on emissions, fuel economy, and driveability. Two other CNG compositions were also included to provide for comparisons with the recently completed Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) and to extend the AQIRP database. One of the vehicles used in the AQIRP study was also used in the present investigation. Correlations were investigated for the relationships between the CNG composition and tailpipe emissions, fuel economy, and driveability.
Technical Paper

The Texas Project: Part 1 - Emissions and Fuel Economy of Aftermarket CNG and LPG Conversions of Light-Duty Vehicles

1996-10-01
962098
The Texas Project is a multi-year study of the emissions and fuel economy of aftermarket conversions of light-duty vehicles, including passenger cars, light light-duty trucks, and heavy light-duty trucks. The test fleet, consisting of 86 mostly 1994 model year vehicles, includes eight different types of light-duty vehicles that have been converted to dual fueled operation for either CNG or LPG and corresponding gasoline controls. Virtually every type of aftermarket conversion technology (referred to as a “kit” for convenience) is represented in the test matrix: eight different CNG kits and seven different LPG kits, all of which have closed loop control systems. One goal of The Texas Project is to evaluate the different kits for each of the applications. One method used for evaluating the different kits was by assessing their potential for attaining LEV certification for each of the vehicle applications.
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