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Journal Article

Simulating the Static and Dynamic Response of an Automotive Weatherstrip Component

2011-05-17
2011-01-1602
Understanding the resonant behavior of vehicle closures such as doors, hoods, trunks, and rear lift gates can be critical to achieve structure-borne noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance requirements, particularly below 100Hz. Nearly all closure systems have elastomer weatherstrip components that create a viscoelastic boundary condition along a continuous line around its perimeter and is capable of influencing the resonant behavior of the closure system. This paper outlines an approach to simulate the static and dynamic characteristics of a closed-cell Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) foam rubber weatherstrip component that is first subjected to a large-strain quasi-static preload with a small-strain sinusoidal dynamic load superimposed. An outline of a theoretical approach using “phi-functions” as developed by K.N. Morman Jr., and J.C.
Technical Paper

Differential Speed Based Bend Lighting in Adaptive Front lighting system

2009-12-13
2009-28-0022
Bend lighting is achieved in two ways: static bend lighting and dynamic bend lighting. In both these cases the turning angle of the vehicle is required. Mostly this angle is calculated from the steering angle or in some systems through GPS. The first method has many drawbacks like it is dependent on the type of steering (mechanical, hydraulic or electrical) so it can not be a universal system. In the other method GPS based bend lighting is a very expensive solution and also GPS cannot be accessed from everywhere at all instances. In this publication the difference in speed of front wheels of a vehicle while turning is used. By using the speed of the front two wheels the actual turning angle of the vehicle can be calculated. This method is better suitable as it is not dependent on the type of steering: mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or even a joystick. It also is independent of the ratios between the steering wheel, steering shaft and the attached gear.
Technical Paper

Polycarbonate Glazing Body Panels for Automotive Applications

2009-01-21
2009-26-0085
Polycarbonate glazing panels offers numerous advantages for automotive exterior body panel applications like quarter window, tailgate window, panoramic roof panel and full roof module. Exatec® 900 Glazing System (Polycarbonate with EXATEC™ coating) has the capability to meet the 10-year weatherability performance along with glass-like abrasion resistance. Polycarbonate glazing panel provides weight reduction up to 50% compared to sheet glass. Styling freedom can be achieved with ease of manufacturing with polycarbonate glazing panels. Part integration is possible to integrate rear spoiler, tail lamp to reduce the system level complexity and cost. Exatec® 900 Glazing system coating composition, Integration opportunities with PC panels to achieve weight reduction, thermal performance of PC panels, weathering performance of PC panels, acoustic sound transmission loss performance of PC performance is presented in detail.
Technical Paper

Light Weight Solitary Beam Design to Meet Low Speed Vehicle Damageability and RCAR Impact Requirements

2009-01-21
2009-26-0007
Bumper systems play an important role in energy management during vehicle accidents. Bumpers beams are generally designed to withstand impacts of up to 4 km/h (ECE42, FMVSS-581) and need to withstand low speed 15 km/h offset insurance crash tests to determine damageability and repairability features (RCAR-42) of vehicle design. Globalization of Automotive industry is forcing the designers to propose those designs, which can be introduced, to market quickly and which have lower costs and better quality. This paper presents work a novel design solution of a thermoplastic solitary bumper beam intended to reduce bumper weight and cost, meeting low speed damageability and RCAR impact requirements. A thermoplastic (PC/PBT) solitary beam is proposed that gives advantage of varied stiffness distribution along the vehicle width based on the impact requirements. Crash-Cans are designed at the corners and optimized for RCAR-42 requirement to insure minimum damage to vehicle front.
Technical Paper

Efficient and Cost Effective Energy Absorbers for Automotive Bumper: A Novel Energy Absorber

2009-01-21
2009-26-0009
During recent years, the development of new vehicles has to cope with continuously emerging requirements, implemented by new legislation and consumer test (eg. EuroNCAP) to insure occupant and pedestrian protection as well as new insurance classification test to improve vehicle damageability and repairability. These conflicting requirements have pose significant challenge to car manufacturers and designers to tune the vehicle front styling to meet pedestrian norm at the same time reduce damage to vehicle structure to minimize repair cost. Today Indian automotive OEM's are expanding their arms in global platform and need to design compliant vehicle front structure to meet these regulations requirements. Bumper is the first component that will come in contact during pedestrian or car-to-car impact and has a main role in damping the impact and minimize the injury. This paper explores injection molded thermoplastic energy absorber solution to meet pedestrian safety.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fretting Corrosion on Lift Glass

2011-04-12
2011-01-1434
The electrical architecture design of a rear back glass defrost grid system encompasses many critical criteria that must be integrated into the design. For example, the defrost clip location and interface to the glass must meet all vehicle performance requirements. If the defrost clip to the glass interface is not resistant to vibration and relative movement, detachment and loss of function can occur. This paper describes a back glass defrost clip with a solder joint that is robust to manufacturing variations and customer usage conditions. A designed experiment using Design for Six Sigma methodologies was performed to understand the effects of the attachment interface to the electrical wiring pigtail, and parameters that affect performance. The working constraints, testing set up, validation, and root cause investigation of the clip detachment phenomenon is covered in this paper.
Journal Article

Role of Predictive Engineering in the Design Evolution of a Thermoplastic Fender for a Compact SUV

2011-04-12
2011-01-0768
Automotive fenders is one such example where specialized thermoplastic material Noryl GTX* (blend of Polyphenyleneoxide (PPO) + Polyamide (PA)) has successfully replaced metal by meeting functional requirements. The evolution of a fender design to fulfill these requirements is often obtained through a combination of unique material properties and predictive engineering backed design process that accounts for fender behavior during the various phases of its lifecycle. This paper gives an overview of the collaborative design process between Mitsubishi Motors Corporation and SABIC Innovative Plastics and the role of predictive engineering in the evolution of a thermoplastic fender design of Mitsubishi Motors Corporation's compact SUV RVR fender launched recently. While significant predictive work was done on manufacturing and use stage design aspects, the focus of this paper is the design work related to identifying support configuration during the paint bake cycle.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Strain on Stainless Steel Surface Finish

2011-04-12
2011-01-0774
The bright surface finish of exterior automotive moldings made from stainless steel can become hazed and reflections distorted as a result of forming done during the manufacturing processes. Bright moldings are frequently used to give styling differentiation accents to vehicle exteriors. Stainless steel provides cost effective differentiation with a material that is durable and relatively easy to form to shapes desired by the stylist. Because of the desirable attributes of stainless steel, an understanding of the threshold of unacceptable surface appearance is necessary to maximize showroom appeal and avoid customer complaints that result in warranty claims. This paper quantifies the effect that manufacturing strain and strain rate have on the surface finish of 436M2 stainless steel. Controlled experiments were conducted on production grade stainless steel strips subjected to a variety of strain and strain rates typical of manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

Windshield Wiper System Design Integration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0239
This paper presents development work on the design and analysis of the windshield wiper system. Three design categories are presented: geometrical design, wiper module and motor kinetics, and snow block structural analysis method. A comprehensive structural analysis method is outlined to determine the wiper system capability for continuous operation under a snow blocked condition. By using this design and analysis method, a robust windshield wiper system will be achieved.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Wiping Noises and NVH Design Consideration in a Wiper System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1916
As automobiles become increasingly quieter, the wiper operation noise becomes more noticeable by the customer. This paper deals with the experimental approach and the methodology to investigate the Friction induced wiping noise. Role of design in a wiper system plays a very imperative task in meeting the performance of wipers but at the same time it does not cater to the NVH issues. Some of the important design parameters which affect the NVH properties of the wiper system are highlighted in this paper. For better understanding of the system some of the best in class vehicles for SUV category were tested and compared with our test vehicle. In this study more importance given to analytical part which is more important to investigate and in depth study of the friction induced noise. For analytical study some techniques such as time frequency domain i.e. Wavelet transforms, frequency domain and time domain where extensively used.
Technical Paper

Influence of Tinted Windshield Glass and its Orientation on Visual Performance of Driver During Night Time and its Effect on Road Safety

2013-01-09
2013-26-0033
Visibility through windscreen along with front lighting system is one of the most important elements of road safety. Windscreen also provides the good visibility to driver to drive safely during night time. As per the rule windscreen visual light transmission should be minimum 70%. Windshields are made-up of tinted glass which produces light transmission varying from 70% to 95%. Windscreen installation is various from vehicle to vehicle, the visual light transmittance at different installation angle and its effect to the visibility are not fully understood. Vehicle headlamps and front fog lamps are evaluated for the illumination without consideration of driver's visibility with the combination of wind screen and its installation angle. This paper describes the effect of different ranges of tinted wind shield glass on driver's visibility at various installation angle of windshield along with the headlamp illumination.
Technical Paper

Night Time Vehicle Detection for Adaptive Beam and Collision Avoidance Systems

2013-01-09
2013-26-0024
This paper presents a novel and effective night time vehicle detection system for detecting vehicles in front of the camera-assisted host car. The proposed algorithm works for both oncoming vehicles (Head light detection) and preceding vehicles (Tail light detection). Image processing techniques are applied to the input frames captured by the forward looking camera fitted behind the windshield screen of the host car just near to the rear view mirror. The system uses a novel segmentation technique based on adaptive fuzzy logic, a novel statistical mean intensity measure and ‘confirmation - elimination’ based classification algorithm, and state of the art mutually independent feature based objects detection algorithm based on correlation matrix generation for the light objects identified in the scene.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Front Air - Dam Design Based on Aerodynamic and Fuel Economy Simulations

2013-01-09
2013-26-0063
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used extensively in the optimization of modern passenger car to meet the ever growing need of higher fuel economy, better engine and underbody cooling. One of the way to achieve better fuel economy is to reduce the vehicle overall resistance to flow, know as drag. Vehicle drag is a complex phenomenon governed by vehicle styling, component shape, layout and driving velocity and road conditions. To reduce the drag a lot of aero-parts are used these days such as air-dam, skirts, spoiler, undercover, dams etc. However the design of these aero-parts must be optimized to get the desired result as their addition alone does not guarantee improvement in performance. This paper aims at studying the effect of air-dam height and position on vehicle aerodynamics. Also the effect of air-dam addition was verified using fuel economy simulations.
Technical Paper

Self Adaptive Front Lighting Mechanism for the Fixed Headlamp Mounted Two Wheelers

2013-01-09
2013-26-0065
A sports segment two wheelers should never compromise in styling, performance and safety. One of the styling and performance improving feature is adding fairing to the vehicle with the headlamp fixed in it. The headlamp will not rotate with the steering system causing visibility issues to the rider during cornering. In order to correct these visibility issues, a self adaptive front lighting mechanism has been constructed to rotate the headlamp about its vertical and longitudinal axes during cornering based on the steering angle and the vehicle lean angle. Visibility area has been increased significantly towards the inner side of the corner. This system works mechanically to make it affordable in Indian market.
Journal Article

Analysis of Friction Induced Stability, Bifurcation, Chaos, Stick-slip Vibration and their Impacts on Wiping Effect of Automotive Wiper System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0021
A 2 DOF nonlinear dynamic model of the automotive wiper system is established. Complex eigenvalues are calculated based on the complex modal theory, and the system stability as well as its dependence on wiping velocity is analyzed. Bifurcation characteristics of frictional self-excited vibration and stick-slip vibration relative to wiping velocity are studied through numerical analysis. Research of nonlinear vibration characteristics under various wiping velocities is conducted by means of phase trajectories, Poincaré map and frequency spectrum. The pervasive stick-slip vibration during wiping is confirmed, and its temporal and spatial distributions are analyzed by way of time history and contour map. Duty ratio of stick vibration and statistics of scraping residual are introduced as quantitative indexes for wiping effect evaluation. Results indicate that the negative slop of frictional-velocity characteristic is the root cause of system instability.
Technical Paper

Laminated Composite of Sisal and Curaua Fibers to Different Settings for Use in Bumper Cars

2013-10-07
2013-36-0603
The use of composite materials reinforced with natural fibers has been widely studied in recent research seen the availability of feedstock and mainly because the productions facility, low cost and because they are biodegradable. In order to expand the applications of composite materials, this paper proposed to develop hybrid laminar composites associating natural fibers as jute, sisal and curaua in an array of type resin polyester and compare them with commercial bumpers available on the market. The sisal and curaua fibers were manually cut into lengths of 50 mm and then were arranged and incorporated separately with the polyester resin and the jute fiber cut, as a blanket in length 400 × 400 mm2 adopting for that a simple and manual manufacture process. Finally, it was executed a tensile test in hybrid laminated, and then a comparative study of tensile properties of different laminated hybrid composites, jute-sisal, jute-curaua and between the results of the commercial bumpers.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lighting System for Pedestrian Pre-Collision System Testing under Dark Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0819
Abstract According to pedestrian crash data from 2010-2011 the U.S. General Estimates System (GES) and the Fatality Analysis Report System (FARS), more than 39% of pedestrian crash cases occurred at night and poor lighting conditions. The percentage of pedestrian fatalities in night conditions is over 77%. Therefore, evaluating the performance of pedestrian pre-collision systems (PCS) at night is an essential part of the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation. The Transportation Active Safety Institute (TASI) of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) is conducting research for the establishment of PCS test scenarios and procedures in collaboration with Toyota's Collaborative Safety Research Center. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of a reconfigurable road lighting system to support the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation for night road lighting conditions.
Technical Paper

Comparative CFD Study of Outside Rearview Mirror Removal and Outside Rearview Cameras Proposals on a Current Production Car

2013-10-07
2013-36-0298
This study refers to the Computational Fluid Dynamics, demonstrating a comparative between the drag coefficient and the frontal area of a current production car with the same values obtained from a conceptual proposal of removing the outside rearview mirrors of this same vehicle. Both cases were simulated in a virtual wind tunnel with moving ground and rotating wheels condition at speed of 100 kph, aiming to represent the best way a car moving on a highway. The main objective of this paper is improving the efficiency of automotive vehicles by replacing the current outside rearview mirror for cameras placed in smaller structures. The first simulation showed that by removing the outside rearview mirrors both the frontal area of the car and the drag coefficient, which has direct influence on fuel economy calculation, are smaller compared to current solution.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study for the Virtual and Physical Behavior of External Trim Component in Frontal Impact Test Caused by the Water in a Street Partly Flooded

2013-10-07
2013-36-0310
The rainy season in Brazil brings a significant increase in the rate of repair in external trim components. Many injuries are caused by the collision of the vehicle front, with puddles of water. The objective of this work is to establish a correlation between the results obtained through experimental tests and those obtained through virtual calculations, analyzing the behavior of components made of plastic in a vehicle when exposed to mechanical solicitations from frontal impact, at a given speed, in a partially flooded transit route. In the methodology used, the variables collected in test track and mechanical properties, of the materials involved obtained in the laboratory, were used as parameters of the virtual simulation of the event. The final correlation aims better understanding of the mechanical solicitations associated with the phenomenon, to improve design in future projects, whose main focus is the performance of the component.
Technical Paper

Ergonomics Method Research Vehicle Mirrors Effectiveness 3D Universal Model Impact Classification

2013-11-27
2013-01-2765
Determining vehicle mirrors effectiveness is the present novel ergonomic method in this research about how its performance affects School Bus safety. The unique impact classification system developed in advance achieves unique mathematic algorithm count for vehicle impact structure in a 3-dimensional vehicle model. The paper discusses principle experimental data-base language conversion in an Excel algorithm and with a, - factor plan observation diagram. Given the definition of accident in commercial motor vehicle applications, the study conducts a field collision follow-up record. The study based on factual data of a 50 fleet units, in observation between 2007 and 2009. This study classified the statistical spreading impact zones analysis in a 3-dimensional vehicle model calculation. Results are there discussed in paper in the ergonomic concept of hygienic operator performance responsibility.
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