Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Drive by Noise System and Corresponding Facility Upgrades for Test Efficiency, Data Quality and Customer Satisfaction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1611
An existing pass by noise data acquisition system was upgraded to provide the sophisticated data analysis techniques and test site efficiency required to comply with the current and future drive by noise regulations. Use of six sigma tool such as voice of the customer helped in defining the customer requirements which were then translated into the desired engineering characteristics using QFD. Pugh concept matrix narrowed down the best option suitable for the test site modifications taking into account the critical constraints such as test complexity, system cost & transparency to the existing drive by noise setup. Features of the new system include data telemetry, frequency analysis, portability and efficient data management through the use of advanced data acquisition system. Wireless mode of the data transmission helped significantly avoid most of the test site modifications, which in turn helped to reduce the overall system implementation cost.
Technical Paper

Synthesis of Drive-by Noise Based on Numerically Evaluated Source-Receiver Transfer Functions Employing the FMBEM

2011-05-17
2011-01-1610
Prediction of the drive-by noise level in the early design stage of an automotive vehicle is feasible if the source signatures and source-receiver transfer functions may be determined from simulations based on the available CAD/CAE models. This paper reports on the performance of a drive-by noise synthesis procedure in which the transfer functions are numerically evaluated by employing the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FMBEM). The proposed synthesis procedure first computes the steady-state receiver contributions of the sources as appearing from a number of vehicle positions along the drive path. In a second step, these contributions are then combined into a single transient signal from a moving vehicle for each source-receiver pair by means of a travel time correction.
Technical Paper

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Vehicle Interior Noise from Greenhouse Wind Noise Sources - Part II

2011-05-17
2011-01-1620
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (≻ 500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain mainly an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. This paper presents a computational approach that can be used to predict the vehicle interior noise from the greenhouse wind noise sources, during the early stages of the vehicle developmental process so that design changes can be made to improve the wind noise performance of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of the Measurement of the Diffuse Field Absorption Coefficient in Small Reverberation Rooms

2011-05-17
2011-01-1641
The Diffuse Field Absorption Coefficient (DFAC) is a physical quantity very often used in the automotive industry to assess the performance of sound absorbing multilayers. From a theoretical standpoint, such quantity is defined under rather ideal conditions: the multilayer is assumed to be infinite in extent and the exciting acoustic field is assumed to be perfectly diffuse. From a practical standpoint, in the automotive industry the DFAC is generally measured on samples having a relatively small size (of the order of 1m2) and using relatively small cabins (in the order of 6-7 m₃). It is well known that both these factors (the finite size of the sample and the small volume of the cabin) can have an influence on the results of the measurements, generating deviations from the theoretical DFAC.
Technical Paper

Density Optimization of Underhood Sound Absorber Applications

2011-05-17
2011-01-1634
Using advanced, multi-layer poro-elastic acoustical material modeling technologies, an example of acoustical performance optimization of an underhood sound absorber application is presented. In this case, a porous facing in combination with a fibrous sound absorber pad is optimized for maximum efficiency, which allows for dramatic reduction in pad density and weight. Overall sound absorption performance is shown to be equal or improved versus frequency relative to the incumbent design.
Technical Paper

Vehicle NVH Prediction Technique for Engine Downsizing

2011-05-17
2011-01-1565
As fuel prices continue to be unstable the drive towards more fuel efficient powertrains is increasing. For engine original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) this means engine downsizing coupled with alternative forms of power to create hybrid systems. Understanding the effect of engine downsizing on vehicle interior NVH is critical in the development of such systems. The objective of this work was to develop a vehicle model that could be used with analytical engine mount force data to predict the vehicle interior noise and vibration response. The approach used was based on the assumption that the largest contributor to interior noise and vibration below 200 Hz is dominated by engine mount forces. An experimental transfer path analysis on a Dodge Ram 2500 equipped with a Cummins ISB 6.7L engine was used to create the vehicle model. The vehicle model consisted of the engine mount forces and vehicle paths that define the interior noise and vibration.
Technical Paper

Dispersion of Test-Based NVH Characteristics at Various Trim Levels

2011-05-17
2011-01-1569
A broad measurement campaign was run at Volvo aiming at the evaluation of dispersion in test-based NVH characteristics of a car body and at the derivation of reference data for judging the accuracy of CAE predictions. Within this work 6, nominally identical, vehicles were tested. Tests included operational noise on Complete Vehicle (CV) level (road noise, engine noise and idling noise), NTF, VTF & Acoustic FRF measurements in CV, Trimmed Body (TB) & TB-Stripped (TBS) configurations. Additionally, modal analysis and NTF, VTF, AFRF tests were carried out on 4 BIPs of the same vehicle type. Further, limited tests were carried out on 28 vehicles of the same type. The aim of the work was to study the development of dispersion with increasing complexity of the test object, from the BIP to TB and CV.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Vibrations of and Energy Distributions in Car Body Structures

2011-05-17
2011-01-1573
A general numerical method, the so-called Fourier Spectral Element Method (FSEM), is described for the dynamic analysis of complex systems such as car body structures. In this method, a complex dynamic system is viewed as an assembly of a number of fundamental structural components such as beams, plates, and shells. Over each structural component, the basic solution variables (typically, the displacements) are sought as a continuous function in the form of an improved Fourier series expansion which is mathematically guaranteed to converge absolutely and uniformly over the solution domain of interest. Accordingly, the Fourier coefficients are considered as the generalized coordinates and determined using the powerful Rayleigh-Ritz method. Since this method does not involve any assumption or an introduction of any artificial model parameters, it is broadly applicable to the whole frequency range which is usually divided into low, mid, and high frequency regions.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Acoustics of Squeak and Rattle

2011-05-17
2011-01-1585
This paper discusses the development of a computationally efficient numerical method for predicting the acoustics of rattle events upfront in the design cycle. The method combines Finite Elements, Boundary Elements and SEA and enables the loudness of a large number of rattle events to be efficiently predicted across a broad frequency range. A low frequency random vibro-acoustic model is used in conjunction with various closed form analytical expressions in order to quickly predict impact probabilities and locations. An existing method has been extended to estimate the statistics of the contact forces across a broad frequency range. Finally, broadband acoustic radiation is predicted using standard low, mid and high frequency vibro-acoustic methods and used to estimate impact loudness. The approach is discussed and a number of validation examples are presented.
Technical Paper

Simulations Based Approach for Vehicle Idle NVH Optimization at Early Stage of Product Development

2011-05-17
2011-01-1591
The noise and vibration performance of diesel fueled automotives is critical for overall customer comfort. The stationary vehicle with engine running idle (Vehicle Idle) is a very common operating condition in city driving cycle. Hence it is most common comfort assessment criteria for diesel vehicles. Simulations and optimization of it in an early stage of product development cycle is priority for all OEMs. In vehicle idle condition, powertrain is the only major source of Noise and Vibrations. The key to First Time Right Idle NVH simulations and optimization remains being able to optimize all Transfer paths, from powertrain mounts to Driver Ear. This Paper talks about the approach established for simulations and optimization of powertrain forces entering in to frame by optimizing powertrain mount hard points and stiffness. Powertrain forces optimized through set process are further used to predict the vehicle passenger compartment noise and steering vibrations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Flow Induced Noise in a Passenger Car Exhaust System - An Experimental and Numerical Approach

2011-05-17
2011-01-1528
A muffler or silencer is an integral part of the exhaust system and is a device used to prevent sound from reaching the openings of the exhaust duct and radiating as far field noise. Different acoustical design and analysis techniques are used to predict the acoustical performance of exhaust systems. Flow noise from exhaust tail pipe is one of the major noise sources in a vehicle. Flow noise is generated mainly during fast acceleration operating condition due to complex flow behavior. In this paper, we have studied the detailed flow field and tried to establish an analyses procedure for flow noise prediction. The flow analysis is carried out in commercial CFD solver Star CCM+. The transient engine boundary conditions are obtained from the experimental testing. The flow noise generated from the muffler was calculated by acoustic analogy of Lighthill using the above boundary conditions.
Journal Article

Prediction of Surge in a Turbocharger Compression System vs. Measurements

2011-05-17
2011-01-1527
The unsteady surge behavior of a turbocharger compression system is studied computationally by employing a one-dimensional engine simulation code. The system modeled represents a new turbocharger test stand consisting of a compressor inlet duct breathing from ambient, a centrifugal compressor, an exit duct connected to an adjustable-volume plenum, followed by another duct which incorporates a control valve and an orifice flow meter before exhausting to ambient. Characteristics of mild and deep surge are captured as the mass flow rate is reduced below the stability limit, including discrete sound peaks at low frequencies along with their amplitudes in the compressor (downstream) duct and plenum. The predictions are then compared with the experimental results obtained from the cold stand placed in a hemi-anechoic room.
Journal Article

Experimental and Calculation Analysis of Rotational Vibration for an Engine Front End Accessory Drive System

2011-05-17
2011-01-1534
Experimental methods for measuring static and dynamic characteristics of an engine Frond End Accessory Drive System (FEADS) are presented. The static performance of a FEADS is the static tension of the belt, and the dynamic properties of a FEADS are transverse vibration of belt, and rotational vibration performances that include rotational response of pulleys and tensioner arm, dynamic tension of belt span, slip factor between belt and pulley. A mathematical model and calculation method for rotational vibration analysis of a 8 pulley-belt FEADS is established. In the model, creeping effect of a belt on pulley wrap arc, viscous damping and dry friction of a tensioner are considered. In calculation of dynamic performances of the FEADS, the excitation torques with multi-frequency components from crankshaft torsional vibration are obtained from the measurement.
Technical Paper

Torsional Analysis of Different Powertrain Configurations for Torque and Combustion Phase Evaluation

2011-05-17
2011-01-1544
This paper presents the results of several studies, performed on different powertrain configurations, aimed at analyzing the correlations existing between torque and speed frequency components in an internal combustion engine. Engine speed fluctuations depend in fact on torque delivered by each cylinder, therefore it is easy to understand how these two quantities are directly connected. The presented methodology allows identifying a dynamic model, expressed as a transfer function that depends only on the structure of the engine-driveline system. The identified model can be used to obtain information about torque delivered by the engine and combustion positioning within the engine cycle starting from engine speed measurement. The speed signal is picked up directly from the sensor facing the toothed wheel that is already mounted on the engine for control purposes.
Journal Article

Nonlinear Characteristics Study and Parameter Optimization of DMF-RS

2011-05-17
2011-01-1550
Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) has better damping capacity than the conventional Clutch Torsional Damper (CTD), and is more suitable for diesel engine, Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) and hybrid vehicles. Dual Mass Flywheel-Radial Spring (DMF-RS) is a DMF that has a specific structure. In the light of working principal and static analysis, the hard nonlinear torsional stiffness of DMF-RS is derived in this paper, which is very important to a driveline damper. On this basis, a simulation model is developed to analyze the dynamic response of DMF and CTD excited by idle engine; the comparison of the two dampers reveals that the DMF has better damping capacity, high-frequency filter ability and can reduce crankshaft load.
Technical Paper

Driveline Boom Interior Noise Prediction Based on Multi Body Simulation

2011-05-17
2011-01-1556
It is important to develop powertrain NVH characteristics with the goal of ultimately influencing/improving the in-vehicle NVH behavior since this is what matters to the end customer. One development tool called dB(VINS) based on a process called Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) is used for determining interior vehicle noise based on powertrain level measurements (mount vibration and radiated noise) in combination with standardized vehicle transfer functions. Although this method is not intended to replace a complete transfer path analysis and does not take any vehicle specific sensitivity into account, it allows for powertrain-induced interior vehicle noise assessments without having an actual test vehicle available. Such a technique allows for vehicle centric powertrain NVH development right from an early vehicle development stage.
Technical Paper

Using Multiple Injection Strategies in Diesel PCCI Combustion: Potential to Extend Engine Load, Improve Trade-off of Emissions and Efficiency

2011-04-12
2011-01-1396
The Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) engine has the potential to reduce soot and NOx emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency at part load conditions. However, several technical barriers must be overcome. Notably ways must be found to control ignition timing, expand its limited operation range and limit the rate of heat release. In this paper, comparing with single fuel injection, the superiority of multiple-pulse fuel injection in extending engine load, improve emissions and thermal efficiency trade-off using high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and boost in diesel PCCI combustion is studied by engine experiments and simulation study. It was found that EGR can delay the start of hot temperature reactions, reduce the reaction speed to avoid knock combustion in high load, is a very useful method to expand high load limit of PCCI. EGR can reduce the NOx emission to a very small value in PCCI.
Journal Article

Two-Dimensional In-Cylinder Soot Volume Fractions in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion Mode

2011-04-12
2011-01-1390
Soot Volume Fraction (SVF) measurements were performed in an IFP Energies nouvelles optical single cylinder Diesel engine operated in Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) conditions. The engine was equipped with a sapphire liner, a dedicated flat bowl piston and a six-hole common-rail high pressure injector. The piston design included four quartz windows allowing optical access into the bowl. The aim of this work was to study soot formation and oxidation during the LTC Diesel combustion process and to build a database providing soot formation and oxidation data under a set of engine conditions to help developing and testing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. Two complementary optical diagnostic techniques were combined: Planar Laser Induced Incandescence (PLII) and Laser Extinction Method (LEM).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Hybrid Energy Storage System for EV's

2011-04-12
2011-01-1376
Electric energy storage is among the most significant hurdles to deployment of electric vehicles (EVs). Present storage methods struggle to provide the capacity and the service life demanded by automotive use. Hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) use a combination of storage types, for example, different types of batteries and ultracapacitors, to tailor the characteristics of the storage system to each application. In addition to sizing the system for the intended application, a suitable strategy for the integration of the energy storage system must be adopted. In the present application, a HESS has been designed for the electrification of a 2004 Chrysler Pacifica, through consideration of a combination of high capacity batteries, high power batteries, and capacitors. Hybrid storage systems using batteries alone, batteries and capacitors, and dual batteries have been considered.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Modelling with Artificial Neural Networks

2011-04-12
2011-01-1417
More and more stringent emission regulations require advanced control technologies for combustion engines. This goes along with increased monitoring requirements of engine behaviour. In case of emissions behaviour and fuel consumption the actual combustion efficiency is of highest interest. A key parameter of combustion conditions is the in-cylinder pressure during engine cycle. The measurement and detection is difficult and cost intensive. Hence, modelling of in-cylinder conditions is a promising approach for finding optimum control behaviour. However, on-line controller design requires real-time scenarios which are difficult to model and current modelling approaches are either time consuming or inaccurate. This paper presents a new approach of in-cylinder condition prediction. Rather than reconstructing in-cylinder pressure signals from vibration transferred signals through cylinder heads or rods this approach predicts the conditions.
X