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Technical Paper

Engine Fault Detection Using Vibration Signal Reconstruction in the Crank-Angle Domain

2011-05-17
2011-01-1660
Advanced engine test methods incorporate several different sensing and signal processing techniques for identifying and locating manufacturing or assembly defects of an engine. A successful engine test method therefore, requires advanced signal processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel signal processing technique to successfully detect a faulty internal combustion engine in a quantitative manner. Accelerometers are mounted on the cylinder head and lug surfaces while vibration signals are recorded during engine operation. Using the engine's cam angular position, the vibration signals are transformed from the time domain to the crank-angle domain. At the heart of the transformation lies interpolation. In this paper, linear, cubic spline and sinc interpolation methods are demonstrated for reconstructing vibration signals in the crank-angle domain.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element Method for Effective Reduction of Speaker-Borne Squeak and Rattle Noise in Automotive Doors

2011-05-17
2011-01-1583
Increasing sound quality with advanced audio technology has raised the bar for perceived quality targets for minimal interior noise and maximal speaker sound quality in a passenger vehicle. Speaker-borne structural vibrations and the associated squeak and rattle have been among the most frequent concerns in the perceived audio quality degradation in a vehicle. Digital detection of squeak and rattle issues due to the speaker-borne structural vibrations during the digital vehicle development phase has been a challenge due to the physical complexity involved. Recently, an effective finite element method has been developed to address structure-borne noise [1] and has been applied for detecting the issues of squeak and rattle in passenger vehicles due to vehicle-borne vibrations at vehicle, component and subcomponent levels [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8].
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis of Light Vehicle Cab's Hydraulic Mount Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction Method

2011-05-17
2011-01-1604
Hyperelastic model constants of rubber material are predicted based on test date. The fluid-structure interaction model of light vehicle cab's hydraulic mount is established. Static characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed by quasi-static method. In dynamic characteristics analysis, the flow model of fluid is set to turbulent K-Epsilon RNG. The dynamic stiffness and loss angle of the hydraulic mount are presented via the finite element model. The simulations of static and dynamic characteristics agree well with corresponding test results. The effects of main structure parameters to the dynamic characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed based on the finite element model.
Journal Article

Simulating the Static and Dynamic Response of an Automotive Weatherstrip Component

2011-05-17
2011-01-1602
Understanding the resonant behavior of vehicle closures such as doors, hoods, trunks, and rear lift gates can be critical to achieve structure-borne noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance requirements, particularly below 100Hz. Nearly all closure systems have elastomer weatherstrip components that create a viscoelastic boundary condition along a continuous line around its perimeter and is capable of influencing the resonant behavior of the closure system. This paper outlines an approach to simulate the static and dynamic characteristics of a closed-cell Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) foam rubber weatherstrip component that is first subjected to a large-strain quasi-static preload with a small-strain sinusoidal dynamic load superimposed. An outline of a theoretical approach using “phi-functions” as developed by K.N. Morman Jr., and J.C.
Journal Article

Three-pass Perforated Tube Muffler with End-resonator

2011-05-17
2011-01-1529
The one-dimensional analytical approach, three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) are developed to predict and analyze the acoustic attenuation performance of three-pass perforated tube muffler with end-resonator. For an elliptical muffler, the predictions of transmission loss from the FEM and BEM agree well each other throughout the frequency range of interest, while the one-dimensional analytical solution shows a reasonable agreement with the numerical predictions at lower frequencies and deviates at higher frequencies. The FEM is then used to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters and internal structure on the acoustic attenuation performance of three-pass perforated tube muffler with end-resonator.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Fitted Piston Compression Ring: Modal Behaviour and Frictional Assessment

2011-05-17
2011-01-1535
Piston compression rings are thin, incomplete circular structures which are subject to complex motions during a typical 4-stroke internal combustion engine cycle. Ring dynamics comprises its inertial motion relative to the piston, within the confine of its seating groove. There are also elastodynamic modes, such as the ring in-plane motions. A number of modes can be excited, dependent on the net applied force. The latter includes the ring tension and cylinder pressure loading, both of which act outwards on the ring and conform it to the cylinder bore. There is also the radial inward force as the result of ring-bore conjunctional pressure (i.e. contact force). Under transient conditions, the inward and outward forces do not equilibrate, resulting in the small inertial radial motion of the ring.
Journal Article

An Analysis of Floating Piston Pin

2011-04-12
2011-01-1407
Presented in the paper is a comprehensive analysis for floating piston pin. It is more challenging because it is a special type of journal bearing where the rotation of the journal is coupled with the friction between the journal and the bearing. In this analysis, the multi-degree freedom mass-conserving mixed-EHD equations are solved to determine the coupled pin rotation and friction. Other bearing characteristics, such as minimum film thickness, pin secondary motions in both connecting-rod small-end bearing and piston pin-boss bearing, power loss etc are also determined. The mechanism for floating pin to have better scuffing resistance is discovered. The theoretical and numerical model is implemented in the GM internal software FLARE (Friction and Lubrication Analysis for Reciprocating Engines).
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of the Combustion Process in Compression-Ignition Direct Injection Engines of Non-Road Vehicles with the Use of Vibroacoustic Processes in the Point of View of the OBD III Engine Diagnostics

2011-04-12
2011-01-1416
The paper presents a new method for assessment of combustion process correctness taking place in CI engines, based on the expanded vibroacoustic signal analysis. The method uses chosen non-linear, spectrum and time-frequency analyses of the signal. Diagnostics of the correctness of the above main engine process and misfire detection for engines at exploitation conditions with the use of the various methods of the accompanying processes analysis was the aim of the presented analyses. Possibility of the method application to combustion process assessment of the CI engines was verified, algorithms of misfire detection for the each method are described, quantity point estimators of processes and conditions of the OBD diagnostics realization were obtained, methodology of the measurement process, limits of the methods use and their diagnostic accuracy in the point of view of the combustion OBD III engine monitor design are also presented.
Journal Article

Structural Optimization Method and Techniques to Reduce Radiation Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1505
A methodology to optimize sound pressure responses of a structure, producing a radiation noise due to structural vibration, is presented. The method involves a finite element analysis module to calculate structural vibration, an optimization module to perform sensitivity analysis and structural optimization, and an acoustic module to compute acoustic transfer vectors. The proposed design system is successfully implemented and is demonstrated in the paper using several example problems.
Journal Article

Vibration Transmission Analysis of Automotive Body for Reduction of Booming Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1691
This paper presents progressive techniques based on the previous SAE papers [1], [2] for vibration transmission analysis (VTA) on finite element (FE) model using Transfer Path Analysis (TPA). The techniques are: 1) a contribution calculation technique for structure with manifold and continuous transfer paths: 2) a visualization technique of the influence degree for efficient derivation of measures for response reduction. In VTA, influence degree of each DOF is calculated based on TPA. In order to understand characteristics of vibration transmission (VT) easily and visually by engineers, magnitude of influence degree is expressed by replacement to magnitude of displacement in the diagram of FE vibration shape. This visualization technique is applied to an automotive body structure. The proposed techniques are applied to automotive body structure consisting of members and panels. The members are such as pillars, cross members and side members, which are the main VT paths.
Journal Article

A FE Based Procedure for Optimal Design of Damping Package, with Presence of the Insulation Trim

2011-05-17
2011-01-1693
Typically, in the automotive industry, the design of the body damping treatment package with respect to NVH targets is carried out in such a way to achieve panel mobility targets, within given weight and cost constraints. Vibration mobility reduction can be efficiently achieved thanks to dedicated CAE FE tools, which can take into account the properties of damping composites, and also, which can provide their optimal location on the body structure, for a minimal added mass and a maximized efficiency. This need has led to the development of different numerical design and optimization strategies, all based on the modeling of the damping composites by mean of equivalent shell representations, which is a versatile solution for the full vehicle simulation with various damping layouts.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Stiffened Panels Using the Energy Finite Element Analysis

2011-05-17
2011-01-1696
Stiffened panels are encountered in many engineering systems since the stiffeners comprise the mechanism which provides support and rigidity to the panel's skin. Either a mechanical excitation or an acoustic load can be applied on a stiffened panel creating vibration that is transmitted in all panel components. Mechanical excitation tends to be localized in nature, originating from operating machinery mounted on the panel, while the acoustic excitation tends to be distributed over the entire panel, since it typically originates from an external acoustic source which creates an acoustic field impinging on the entire panel. In the Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) various degrees of fidelity are possible when modeling the response of a stiffened panel. In this paper, the theoretical background and the corresponding implications associated with each alternative modeling approach are presented first.
Journal Article

Finite Element Model for Spot Welds Using Multi-Point Constraints and its Dynamic Characteristics

2011-05-17
2011-01-1697
In this paper, we focus on the ACM2 (Area Contact Model 2) model as a simplified spot weld model suitable for vibration analysis and reveal its dynamic characteristics. First, the theoretical background of the multi-point constraint (MPC) used in the ACM2 model is explained. Next, we examine in detail the effect of the mesh pattern surrounding a spot weld on the modal properties (natural frequency and mode shape) of a spot welded structure. Finally, an appropriate mesh size in the area of the spot weld for the ACM2 model is presented. As an example, we used two steel plates joined by three spot welds. The results show that the configuration and size of the patch (group of shell elements in the ACM2 model) significantly affect the modal properties of the model. When the centers of the patch and the solid element that represent the spot weld are coincident, the natural frequencies monotonically increase with the patch size.
Journal Article

Application of Boundary Characteristic Orthogonal Polynomials on Vibration of Circular Plates with Circular Eccentric Holes

2011-05-17
2011-01-1688
A new approach is proposed to solve for the eigen-values and eigen-functions of circular plates with circular holes by using the Rayleigh Ritz Method. In this method, the spatial solution is expanded into separable functions in terms of polar coordinates. While trigonometric functions are used along the circumferential direction, the Boundary Characteristic Orthogonal Polynomials build the radial shape functions. Written in terms of the assumed functions, the potential and kinetic energies are modified in order to account for the holes. Although the proposed approach is applicable for plates with different boundary conditions and different hole shapes, the free vibration of a clamped circular plate with circular holes is considered in the present study. The edges of the holes are free. Four different case studies are carried out. The results of the Rayleigh Ritz Method are compared with those available in the literature.
Technical Paper

FEM Evaluation of Elastic Wedge Method for Damping of Structural Vibrations at Low Frequencies

2011-05-17
2011-01-1689
This paper presents new results regarding damping of structural vibrations using the elastic wedge method. An elastic wedge is a plate, or a rod, whose thickness decreases smoothly towards zero. Flexural vibration energy accumulates at the thinner edge and thus, effective damping can be easily achieved. The method has been proposed to reduce flexural vibrations of structures in the high frequency range, like vibration of turbine blades. In this research, the application of the elastic wedge method to reduce structural vibration in low frequency ranges is investigated using FEM. The structure under analysis is a heavy machinery bed structure. Two rod elastic wedges are attached to that bed. The target frequency range to be damped is between 150 and 250Hz. The results show that the elastic wedge method can effectively reduce the structural vibration of the bed in the target frequency range.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Structural Acoustic Radiation for Compressor Considering Airflow Pulsed Load

2011-05-17
2011-01-1722
A coupled vibro-acoustic of a compressor modeling process was demonstrated for predicting the acoustic radiation from a vibrating compressor structure based on dynamic response data. FEM based modal analysis of the compressor was performed and the result was compared with experimental data, for the purpose of validating the FE model. Modal based force response analysis was conducted to calculate the compressor's surface vibration velocity on radiating structure, using the load which caused by mechanical excitation as input data. In addition, due to the coolant had oscillating gas pressure, the gas pulsed load was also considered during the dynamic response analysis. The surface vibration velocity solution of the compressor provided the necessary boundary condition input into a finite element/boundary element acoustic code for predicting acoustic radiation.
Technical Paper

An integrated framework of real and micro simulated driving cycles to evaluate a new emissions factors model

2011-08-30
2011-01-2063
Transport activities contribute significantly to air pollution. For this reason any policy or plan, carried out by administration or institution, requires the assessment of its impact on the emissions. To assess the overall pollutant production from transport, it is necessary to calculate emission factors. For this aim several methods exist which only use the average speed of the traffic stream, which can be theoretically obtained by vehicles flow and density on the road. Recently, a new statistical approach has been developed capable to consider more attributes than the simple mean speed to characterize driving behaviour, not only in the determination of driving cycles but also in the emission modelling. In this context, a meso scale emission model, named KEM, Kinematic Emission Model, able to calculate emission factor was developed. However, it is necessary to consider that the input to this model is, in any case, the driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA): A Comparison Between VDA-Approach Versus QS-9000

2011-09-13
2011-01-2280
The Failure Mode and Effects Analysis is a quality method used by the automotive industry to ensure perfect quality of products before an introduction into mass production. Two industry standards are established on the market: on the one hand the approach by VDA (in German: Verband der Automobilindustrie) on the other hand the method according to QS-9000. If somebody is familiar with one method, working with the other one will result in misunderstanding and communication problems. Both standards do have the same principal ambition but the execution is totally different as common word definitions like “Function, Failure Modes, Effects and Causes” are interpreted differently. As a consequence information can be found in different columns of the chosen format sheet. For a better understanding of the two approaches the existing case study shown by VDA will be taken as an example to describe the equivalent steps according to QS-9000.
Journal Article

Soot Emission Measurements and Validation of a Mean Value Soot Model for Common-Rail Diesel Engines during Transient Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1904
Measurements of the soot emissions and engine operating parameters from a diesel engine during transient operation were used to investigate the influence of transient operation on the soot emissions, as well as to validate a realtime mean value soot model (MVSM, [1]) for transient operation. To maximize the temporal resolution of the soot emission and engine parameter measurements (in particular EGR), fast instruments were used and their dynamic responses characterized and corrected. During tip-in transients, an increase in the soot emissions was observed due to a short term oxygen deficit compared to steady-state operation. No significant difference was seen between steady-state and transient operation for acceleration transients. When the MVSM was provided with inputs of sufficient temporal resolution, it was capable of reproducing the qualitative and, in part, quantitative soot emission trends.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemistry CFD Engine Combustion Solution with Ignition Progress Variable Library Approach

2009-06-15
2009-01-1898
This paper explains the principle and advantages of the Ignition Progress Variable Library (IPV-Library) approach and its use in predicting engine related premixed, non-premixed and compression ignited combustion events. The implementation of IPV-Library model in the engine-focused CFD code VECTIS is described. To demonstrate the application of the model in predicting various types of combustion, computational results from a 2-stroke HCCI engine, a premixed spark ignition engine and an HSDI diesel engine are presented, together with some comparisons with engine test data.
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