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Technical Paper

Engine Fault Detection Using Vibration Signal Reconstruction in the Crank-Angle Domain

2011-05-17
2011-01-1660
Advanced engine test methods incorporate several different sensing and signal processing techniques for identifying and locating manufacturing or assembly defects of an engine. A successful engine test method therefore, requires advanced signal processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel signal processing technique to successfully detect a faulty internal combustion engine in a quantitative manner. Accelerometers are mounted on the cylinder head and lug surfaces while vibration signals are recorded during engine operation. Using the engine's cam angular position, the vibration signals are transformed from the time domain to the crank-angle domain. At the heart of the transformation lies interpolation. In this paper, linear, cubic spline and sinc interpolation methods are demonstrated for reconstructing vibration signals in the crank-angle domain.
Journal Article

Soot Emission Measurements and Validation of a Mean Value Soot Model for Common-Rail Diesel Engines during Transient Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1904
Measurements of the soot emissions and engine operating parameters from a diesel engine during transient operation were used to investigate the influence of transient operation on the soot emissions, as well as to validate a realtime mean value soot model (MVSM, [1]) for transient operation. To maximize the temporal resolution of the soot emission and engine parameter measurements (in particular EGR), fast instruments were used and their dynamic responses characterized and corrected. During tip-in transients, an increase in the soot emissions was observed due to a short term oxygen deficit compared to steady-state operation. No significant difference was seen between steady-state and transient operation for acceleration transients. When the MVSM was provided with inputs of sufficient temporal resolution, it was capable of reproducing the qualitative and, in part, quantitative soot emission trends.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemistry CFD Engine Combustion Solution with Ignition Progress Variable Library Approach

2009-06-15
2009-01-1898
This paper explains the principle and advantages of the Ignition Progress Variable Library (IPV-Library) approach and its use in predicting engine related premixed, non-premixed and compression ignited combustion events. The implementation of IPV-Library model in the engine-focused CFD code VECTIS is described. To demonstrate the application of the model in predicting various types of combustion, computational results from a 2-stroke HCCI engine, a premixed spark ignition engine and an HSDI diesel engine are presented, together with some comparisons with engine test data.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Model with Auto-ignition Process of Non-homogeneous Mixture

2009-06-15
2009-01-1897
Diesel combustion model for CFD simulation is established taking account of an auto-ignition process of non-homogeneous mixture. Authors revealed in their previous paper that the non-homogeneity of fuel-air mixture affected more on auto-ignition process such as its ignition delay or combustion duration than the turbulent mixing rate. Based on these results, novel diesel combustion model is proposed in this study. The transport calculation for local variation of fuel-air PDF is introduced and the chemical reaction rate is provided by the local non-homogeneity. Furthermore, this model is applied the RANS based CFD simulation of the spray combustion in a Diesel engine condition. The results show that the combustion process is well described for several engine operations.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuel Spray Impulse Measurement Device and Correlation with Time Resolved Mass Flow

2009-06-15
2009-01-1880
The fuel injection process plays an important role in the combustion and emission formation processes of the DI diesel engine. One important fuel spray characteristic is the spray impulse. The most commonly used method to measure fuel spray impulse is the impingement method where the fuel spray impinges perpendicularly on the surface of a force transducer. This work deals with the theoretical background of such measurements as well as with developing and testing some different impulse measurement setups. The measured impulse is compared to measurements of the instantaneous mass flow and theoretical flow calculations. When measuring the impulse by impingement on the transducer membrane a fuel temperature related measurement error was encountered. This problem was solved by gluing a strike plate to the transducer membrane. The plate shielded the membrane from direct contact with the fuel.
Journal Article

Development of a Direct Injection High Efficiency Liquid Phase LPG Spark Ignition Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1881
Direct Injection (DI) is believed to be one of the key strategies for maximizing the thermal efficiency of Spark Ignition (SI) engines and meet the ever-tightening emissions regulations. This paper explores the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) liquid phase fuel in a 1.5 liter SI four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder, and centrally located DI injector. The DI injector is a high pressure, fast actuating injector enabling precise multiple injections of the finely atomized fuel sprays. With DI technology, the injection timing can be set to avoid fuel bypassing the engine during valve overlap into the exhaust system prior to combustion. The fuel vaporization associated with DI reduces combustion chamber and charge temperatures, thereby reducing the tendency for knocking. Fuel atomization quality supports an efficient combustion process.
Technical Paper

A Multi-dimensional Flamelet Model Framework Applied to Split-injection DI Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1917
A general model framework for investigating various injection strategies in compression ignition engines with both mixture and thermal inhomogeneities is presented using an extended representative interactive flamelet model. The equations describing evolution of chemistry are written for a scalar phase space of either one or two dimensions and an approach for modeling multiple injections is given. The combustion model is solved interactively with the turbulent flow field by coupling with a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The model is applied in the simulation of a split-injection diesel engine and results are compared to experimental data obtained from a single cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

Borderline Design of Crankshafts Based on Hybrid Simulation Technology

2009-06-15
2009-01-1918
This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.
Technical Paper

High Density-Low Temperature Combustion in Diesel Engine Based on Technologies of Variable Boost Pressure and Intake Valve Timing

2009-06-15
2009-01-1911
A concept of high density-low temperature combustion (HD-LTC) is put forward in this paper, showing potential of its high thermal efficiency and very low engine-out emissions by engine experimental and CFD modeling study. A single cylinder test engine has been built-up equipped with mechanisms of variable boost pressure and intake valve closing timing (IVCT). By delaying IVCT and raising boost pressure to certain values according to engine loads, the in-cylinder charge density is regulated much higher than in conventional engines. It is found that the high charge density can play the role of rising of heat capacity as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) does. Thereby low temperature combustion is realized with less EGR (about 18~19% oxygen concentration) to achieve very low NOx and soot emissions, which is extremely important at high and full loads.
Technical Paper

Transverse Vibration of a Composite Shaft

2009-05-19
2009-01-2066
The advantages of having higher stiffness to weight ratio and strength to weigh ratio that composite materials have resulted in an increased interest in them. In automotive engineering, the weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). The driveline of an automotive system can be a target for possible use of composite materials. The design of the driveshaft of an automotive system is primarily driven by its natural frequency. This paper presents an exact solution for the vibration of a composite driveshaft with intermediate joints. The joint is modeled as a frictionless internal hinge. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. Lumped masses are placed on each side of the joint to represent the joint mass. Equations of motion are developed using the appropriate boundary conditions and then solved exactly.
Journal Article

Vibration Analysis of Powertrain Mounting System with a Combination of Active and Passive Isolators with Spectrally-varying Properties

2009-05-19
2009-01-2034
Most of the prior work on active mounting systems has been conducted in the context of a single degree-of-freedom even though the vehicle powertrain is a six degree-of-freedom isolation system. We seek to overcome this deficiency by proposing a new six degree-of-freedom analytical model of the powertrain system with a combination of active and passive mounts. All stiffness and damping elements contain spectrally-varying properties and we examine powertrain motions when excited by an oscillating torque. Two methods are developed that describe the mount elements via a transfer function (in Laplace domain). New analytical formulations are verified by comparing the frequency responses with numerical results obtained by the direct inversion method (based on Voigt type mount model). Eigensolutions of a spectrally varying mounting system are also predicted by new models.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of a Three-Piece Automotive Shaft

2009-05-19
2009-01-2067
Drive shafts are major automotive components in rear wheel and four wheel drive vehicles. They can be made of single or multi-piece segments. The segments of a multi-piece driveshaft in automotive applications are joined using constant velocity or universal joints or a combination of both. The design of the driveshaft of an automotive system is primarily driven by its natural frequency. This paper uses an exact solution for the vibration of a three-piece driveshaft with multiple intermediate joints. The joint is modeled as a frictionless internal hinge. Thin beam theory is used. Exact solutions are found and used to study the vibrations of three piece shaft system. Natural frequencies and modes shapes are obtained. Numerical results obtained here are compared with those obtained using analytical tools (e.g. finite elements). The solution should be of value to engineers interested in the design and optimization of the system.
Technical Paper

Regression Equations for Predicting the Cetane Number of Biodiesel Fuel Based on Fuel Composition and Properties

2011-08-30
2011-01-1941
This study derives regression equations for predicting the cetane number of biodiesel fuels based on chemical analysis data. For conducting the regression analysis, 34 fuel samples with a wide variety of ignition qualities were made by mixing five kinds of biodiesels and five kinds of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) reagents. The relationship between the cetane number, measured in a constant-volume combustion chamber, and fuel properties such as iodine value, saponification number, and boiling point, was investigated. Based on the results, four regression equations were proposed and their accuracies were compared. The results show that the regression equation based on fuel composition gives a cetane number with high accuracy, whereas it can be only be approximately predicted from the iodine value.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Control Part I: L3 and V6 Engine Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0695
A frequency-domain approach to balancing of air-fuel ratio (A/F) in a multi-cylinder engine is described. The technique utilizes information from a single Wide-Range Air-Fuel ratio (WRAF) or a single switching (production) O₂ sensor installed in the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine to eliminate the imbalances. At the core of the proposed approach is the development of a simple novel method for the characterization of A/F imbalances among the cylinders. The proposed approach provides a direct objective metric for the characterization of the degree of A/F imbalances for diagnostic purposes as well as a methodology for the control of A/F imbalances among various cylinders. The fundamental computational requirement is based on the calculation of a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of the A/F signal as measured by a WRAF or a switching O₂ sensor.
Technical Paper

Equilibrium Mechanism Based Linear Curve Fitting Method and Its Application

2011-04-12
2011-01-0785
The equilibrium mechanism, which can be considered as the basis of least squares method for linear curve fitting, is investigated in this paper. Both conventional methods, such as vertical offsets method, and total least squares methods, such as perpendicular offsets method, are examined. It is found that both methods have the equilibrium bases. However, the conventional methods may give inaccurate prediction if using vertical offsets method to fit data with variation in horizontal direction or using horizontal offsets method to fit data with variation in vertical direction while the perpendicular method can give best fit solution to data with variation in both vertical and horizontal directions. The application of these methods is also presented in fatigue S-N curve data analysis and two-parameter Weibull distribution in exhaust component fatigue life prediction.
Technical Paper

System of the Automatic Preventive On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of Car Engines on the Basis of the New Methods of Preventive Diagnostics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0747
This paper introduces architecture of an integrated system of preventive diagnostics and mathematical and computational methods, based on which such a system is being developed. The present work aims to: describe the methods of preventive diagnostics based on mathematical models and computing algorithms, allowing to detect the hidden harbingers of engine dysfunctions and future failures; describe the architecture of the system of preventive diagnostics, its further evolution; describe the process of integration of preventive diagnostics system to the car engine. A necessary condition for the development system of preventive diagnosis is the condition of their economic efficiency, including the requirement of low cost sensors and computing systems of diagnostics.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Airflow through Check Valve of Vacuum Pump for Automotive Application

2011-04-12
2011-01-0411
Vacuum pumps are predominantly used in diesel engines of passenger cars and trucks for generating vacuum in servo brake applications. With the emission norms getting stringent, there is a need for vacuum signal for EGR actuation, turbo-charger waste gate actuation and other servo applications. These multi-functional applications of vacuum pumps and the functional criticality in application like braking system demand an effective and reliable performance. In gasoline engines, the vacuum generated in the intake manifold is tapped for braking. The recent technology of gasoline direct injection compels the use of vacuum pump in gasoline engines also due to scarce vacuum in intake manifold. The performance of the vacuum pump is highly dependent on the opening and closing of the check valve sub-system, which is positioned between the vacuum reservoir and the pump at the suction side.
Technical Paper

Metrics for Quantifying and Evaluating Ability of Electronic Control System Architectures to Accommodate Changes

2011-04-12
2011-01-0447
Recent trends in the automotive industry show growing demands for the introduction of new in-vehicle features (e.g., smart-phone integration, adaptive cruise control, etc.) at increasing rates and with reduced time-to-market. New technological developments (e.g., in-vehicle Ethernet, multi-core technologies, AUTOSAR standardized software architectures, smart video and radar sensors, etc.) provide opportunities as well as challenges to automotive designers for introducing and implementing new features at lower costs, and with increased safety and security. As a result, the design of Electrical/Electronic (E/E) architectures is becoming increasingly challenging as several hardware resources are needed. In our earlier work, we have provided top-level definitions for three relevant metrics that can be used to evaluate E/E architecture alternatives in the early stages of the design process: flexibility, scalability and expandability.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024

2011-04-12
2011-01-1345
Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. Operating costs included in the calculation tool include fuel, maintenance, tires, and repairs; ownership costs include insurance, registration, taxes and fees, depreciation, financing, and tax credits.
Technical Paper

Shape Optimization of a Single Cylinder Engine Crankshaft

2011-04-12
2011-01-1077
Due to increasing demand for environment friendly vehicles with better fuel economy and strict legislations on greenhouse gas emissions, lightweight design has become one of the most important issues concerning the automobile industry. Within the scope of this work lightweight design potentials that a conventional single cylinder engine crankshaft offers are researched through utilization of structural optimization techniques. The objective of the study is to reduce mass and moment of inertia of the crankshaft with the least possible effect on the stiffness and strength. For precise definition of boundary conditions and loading scenarios multi body simulations are integrated into the optimization process. The loading conditions are updated at the beginning of each optimization loop, in which a multi body simulation of the output structure from the previous optimization loop is carried out.
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