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Technical Paper

Advanced Tire Noise Pass by Noise Solution Meets ISO 13325 and the Recently Updated ISO 362 Standards

2011-05-17
2011-01-1654
Pass by noise is a complex test that requires meeting several different standards with regard to the physical track layout, measurement systems, data acquisition, triggering, processing and analysis. Overview of the pertinent standards for Tire and Vehicle pass by testing is provided along with the description of development of an advanced solution to meet our specific needs. Key features of the solution are provided along with the lessons learned from our operation of the system at our facility and several other test tracks.
Technical Paper

Drive by Noise System and Corresponding Facility Upgrades for Test Efficiency, Data Quality and Customer Satisfaction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1611
An existing pass by noise data acquisition system was upgraded to provide the sophisticated data analysis techniques and test site efficiency required to comply with the current and future drive by noise regulations. Use of six sigma tool such as voice of the customer helped in defining the customer requirements which were then translated into the desired engineering characteristics using QFD. Pugh concept matrix narrowed down the best option suitable for the test site modifications taking into account the critical constraints such as test complexity, system cost & transparency to the existing drive by noise setup. Features of the new system include data telemetry, frequency analysis, portability and efficient data management through the use of advanced data acquisition system. Wireless mode of the data transmission helped significantly avoid most of the test site modifications, which in turn helped to reduce the overall system implementation cost.
Technical Paper

Technical Challenges for Vehicle 14V/28V Lithium Ion Battery Replacement

2011-04-12
2011-01-1375
Modern commercial and military vehicles are equipped with more electrical accessories and demand more power than ever before. This causes an increase in the weight of the battery as well as drives the battery to end of life when the vehicle is stationary with the engine off. Lithium ion batteries, which are known for their high power and energy to weight density, long cycle life, and low self-discharge rate, are considered to be an alternative for the replacement of existing Starting, Lighting, and Ignition (SLI) lead acid batteries. Lithium ion battery chemistry offers double the reserve time of the stock battery and a significantly greater number of charging and discharging cycles while providing weight savings. There is no acid inside a lithium ion battery to cause corrosion, which eliminates potential damage to a vehicle from chemical spills and poisonous gases.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Hybrid Energy Storage System for EV's

2011-04-12
2011-01-1376
Electric energy storage is among the most significant hurdles to deployment of electric vehicles (EVs). Present storage methods struggle to provide the capacity and the service life demanded by automotive use. Hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) use a combination of storage types, for example, different types of batteries and ultracapacitors, to tailor the characteristics of the storage system to each application. In addition to sizing the system for the intended application, a suitable strategy for the integration of the energy storage system must be adopted. In the present application, a HESS has been designed for the electrification of a 2004 Chrysler Pacifica, through consideration of a combination of high capacity batteries, high power batteries, and capacitors. Hybrid storage systems using batteries alone, batteries and capacitors, and dual batteries have been considered.
Technical Paper

Development of Lithium-Ion-Battery System for Hybrid System

2011-04-12
2011-01-1372
A battery module structure and a battery management system that is optimal for the structure were developed, in order to facilitate the work of equipping hybrid cars with lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that are expected to improve vehicle performance. This paper describes the structure of the LIB and the battery management system that is optimal for it. The battery module structure has cells with a sturdy holding structure and a highly efficient cooling system. The structure has enabled the improvement of battery pack system power output by 80% per unit weight and by 20% per unit volume compared to the previous model. The optimal management system prevents battery overcharge by detecting and controlling the state of charge (SOC) of each cell with a high degree of accuracy.
Journal Article

VOLTEC Battery System for Electric Vehicle with Extended Range

2011-04-12
2011-01-1373
Mid 2006 a study group at General Motors developed the concept for the electric vehicle with extended range (EREV),. The electric propulsion system should receive the electrical energy from a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and/or an auxiliary power unit (APU) which could either be a hydrogen fuel cell or an internal combustion engine (ICE) driven generator. The study result was the Chevrolet VOLT concept car in the North American Auto Show in Detroit in 2007. The paper describes the requirements, concepts, development and the performance of the battery used as RESS for the ICE type VOLTEC propulsion system version of the Chevrolet Volt. The key requirement for the RESS is to provide energy to drive an electric vehicle with “no compromised performance” for 40 miles. Extended Range Mode allows for this experience to continue beyond 40 miles.
Technical Paper

Test Center for Aging Analysis and Characterization of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1374
A test center for aging analysis and characterization of Lithium-Ion batteries for automotive applications is optimized by means of a dedicated cell tester. The new power tester offers high current magnitude with fast rise time in order to generate arbitrary charge and discharge waveforms, which are identical to real power net signals in vehicles. Upcoming hybrid and electrical cars show fast current transients due to the implemented power electronics like inverter or DC/DC converter. The various test procedures consider single and coupled effects from current profile, state of charge and temperature. They are simultaneously applied on several cells in order to derive statistical significance. Comprehensive safely functions on both the hardware and the software level ensure proper operation of the complex system.
Technical Paper

ZF EcoLife - The latest Generation of Powershift Automatics for Transit Buses

2011-04-12
2011-01-1423
The megatrends "reduction of emissions" and "fuel consumption reduction" play a predominant role in the development of powertrains. For transit buses this implies both the reduction of emissions and pollutions of the internal combustion engine, and, on the other hand, a further reduction of noise and brake dust. Also very important is the reduction of both fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions. For all these targets the actual developments on the engine side have led to great improvements in the last decades, but what can be mentioned for the other components of the powertrain, especially looking for transmissions? First of all the relevant trends for transit buses have to be considered: A large increase of the torque of the combustion engines during the last years has a big impact on the development of transmissions for buses.
Technical Paper

Optimal Feedback Control with in-Cylinder Pressure Sensor under Engine Start Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1422
In-cylinder pressure sensor, which provides the means for precise combustion control to achieve improved fuel economy, lower emissions, higher comfort, additional diagnostic functions etc., is becoming a necessity in future diesel engines, especially for chemical-kinetics dominated PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) or LTC (Low Temperature Combustion) engines. In this paper, new control strategy is investigated to utilize in-cylinder pressure information into engine start process, in order to guarantee the success of engine start and in the meantime prevent penalty of fuel economy or pollutant emissions due to excessive fuel injection. An engine start acceleration model is established to analyze the engine start process. “In-cylinder Combustion Analysis Tool” (i-CAT), is used to acquire and process the in-cylinder pressure data and deliver the combustion indices to ECU (Engine Control Unit). Feedback control is accomplished in ECU based on this information.
Technical Paper

Gen2 GF6 Transmission Hardware and Controls Updates

2011-04-12
2011-01-1428
In an effort to increase fuel economy and improve shift quality - the GF6 family of General Motors transmissions has been analyzed for potential enhancements. The focus of this analysis was to improve fuel economy, while increasing downshift responsiveness, and manual mode sport delays. This paper describes a variety of the hardware philosophy changes, and control methods which have contributed to the next generation of GM clutch-to-clutch 6-speed transmissions. These changes to hardware and controls have led to a composite fuel economy improvement of 4.5% with no changes to shift or torque-converter scheduling. In addition, the downshift responsiveness has been significantly improved to reduce delay times by approximately 50% while virtually eliminating the dependency on engine torque reductions - ultimately allowing for stacked downshifts to progress with minimal, if any, time between shifts. Additionally, “tap shift” delays have been significantly decreased to levels near 150 ms.
Technical Paper

Application of the Frequency and JTFA Analyses of the Accompanying Processes for OBD Combustion Process Monitor Design in Turbocharged CI Direct Injection Engines of HDV Non-Road Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1412
The paper describes the problem of the combustion process diagnostics dedicated for CI engines with direct injection of HDV vehicles in the aspect of misfire detection monitor application for OBD and EOBD systems. The monitor is based on the vibroacoustic signal utilization. Because of that, frequency method and the method of time-frequency parameterization map a(t,f) of vibration accelerations generated by combustion engine were used. The above article is directed to get a diagnostic monitor that would detect faults and incorrect runs in the combustion process (including also its lack) in the real time with the help of vibration accelerations estimators. Point estimators of the process and research stages and conditions are presented. The signal analyses and limits of a method use, criteria of the process qualification and its accuracy were also write down.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Combustion Phase Optimization of a PFI Gasoline Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1415
Combustion control is assuming a crucial role in reducing engine tailpipe emissions and maximizing performance. The number of actuations influencing the combustion is increasing, and, as a consequence, the control parameters calibrations is becoming challenging. One of the most effective factors influencing performance and efficiency is the combustion phasing: gasoline engines Electronic Control Units (ECU) manage the Spark Advance (SA) in order to set the optimal combustion phase. SA optimal values are usually determined by means of calibration procedures carried out on the test bench by changing SA values while monitoring Brake and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP, IMEP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and pollutant emissions. The effect of SA on combustion is stochastic, due to the cycle-to-cycle variation: the analysis of mean values requires many engine cycles to be significant of the performance obtained with the given control setting.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of the Combustion Process in Compression-Ignition Direct Injection Engines of Non-Road Vehicles with the Use of Vibroacoustic Processes in the Point of View of the OBD III Engine Diagnostics

2011-04-12
2011-01-1416
The paper presents a new method for assessment of combustion process correctness taking place in CI engines, based on the expanded vibroacoustic signal analysis. The method uses chosen non-linear, spectrum and time-frequency analyses of the signal. Diagnostics of the correctness of the above main engine process and misfire detection for engines at exploitation conditions with the use of the various methods of the accompanying processes analysis was the aim of the presented analyses. Possibility of the method application to combustion process assessment of the CI engines was verified, algorithms of misfire detection for the each method are described, quantity point estimators of processes and conditions of the OBD diagnostics realization were obtained, methodology of the measurement process, limits of the methods use and their diagnostic accuracy in the point of view of the combustion OBD III engine monitor design are also presented.
Technical Paper

New Battery Monitoring Unit for HEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery

2011-08-30
2011-01-1740
Lithium-ion batteries have higher energy content and power density than Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, but require carefully management for durability and safety. Unlike NiMH batteries, which are controlled on a battery unit basis, each lithium-ion cell generates a different voltage. Typically, the complex controllers required to equalize individual cell voltages are large and costly. We have developed a low-cost battery monitoring unit that performs the same function with a proprietary cell-voltage equalizing system. This new unit also offers various innovative technologies, such as detecting overcharge and over-discharge, fault diagnosis and the measurement of the batteries internal resistance to monitor degradation.
Technical Paper

Introduction of 2011 CIVIC Hybrid system

2011-08-30
2011-01-1748
Technologies related to electrical systems for the 2011 hybrid model have been developed. In order to increase energy recovery during driving, improvements were made compared to the 2006 model in terms of motor output increase and high-efficiency range expansion. In consideration of vehicle control associated with the use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as well as reliability, a system to control effective use of battery performance was developed which involves detection of battery conditions. Control of energy management was optimized compared to nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries through the use of higher-output LIBs and a high-output motor.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wear in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines: Part I - Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology

2011-08-30
2011-01-2114
This paper is first in a series of papers designed to investigate wear processes in modern heavy duty diesel engines. The objective of the series is to discuss the effects that engine drive cycle, lubricant formulations and in-service ageing of lubricants have on wear of critical engine components. In this paper, the Radioactive Tracer Technology technique was used to study the steady state wear behavior of a number of contacting surfaces in a Caterpillar 1P engine, as a function of the drive cycle. A test protocol consisting of 7 modes or stages was used to simulate a variety of drive cycles. The results from this work provide useful insights into the wear behavior of these surfaces under a variety of speed and load conditions.
Technical Paper

Study on Measurement Method of Driving Force Using New Type Wheel Torque Meter in On-road Driving

2011-08-30
2011-01-2061
Exhaust emissions behavior from a vehicle under road driving condition is affected by a driving force of a vehicle. It is impossible to measure the driving force by an existing torque meter under this on-road driving condition. This study reports the development and verification of the wheel torque meter which is possible to measure driving force under the on-road driving condition and has enough strength and accuracy. The wheel torque meter developed in this study consists of a torque detector with a strain gauge type torque transducer, a telemeter receiver and a data logger. The strain gauge type torque transducer is equipped between hub and wheel at the drive axle tire, because of the narrow width of this transducer, and it is possible to be placed against vehicle without significant conversion of the vehicle. Because of these characters, this transducer is possible to be used for an on-road driving vehicle.
Journal Article

Development of an On-Board PM Sensor for the OBD System Based on an Electrochemical Polarization

2011-08-30
2011-01-2059
An on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor, consisting of a gas-permeable electrochemical cell with a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte, was developed to assist the on-board diagnostics (OBD) system of a vehicle. Exhaust is pumped from the anode side to the cathode side and PM deposited on the anode is instantly oxidized by the catalytic effects of the metal component of the electrode at temperatures higher than 350°C. The PM oxidation reaction occurs at the three-phase boundary between the anode, electrolyte and gas phase, and causes a slight change in the bulk average oxygen concentration, which produces electrochemical polarization by the difference in oxygen partial pressures between the anode and cathode. The developed PM sensor has a detection limit of 2 mg/m₃, at which level will enable PM detection in the OBD system according to the EURO VI regulation.
Journal Article

Modelling of Soot Oxidation by NO2 in a Diesel Particulate Filter

2011-08-30
2011-01-2083
Two approaches were adopted to study soot oxidation by NO₂; firstly microreactor tests were performed on soot produced by a soot generator over a range of NO₂ concentrations and temperatures. This enabled measurement to be made under well-controlled conditions. Secondly, soot oxidation measurements were made on an engine bench to obtain data under more realistic, if less controlled, conditions. In the microreactor work NO₂ consumption by soot oxidation and the selectivity of the soot oxidation to CO and CO₂ were measured. The latter was found to vary only slightly with temperature and to be independent of NO₂ concentration. By modeling this data using a 1-dimensional model, rate equations for the soot-NO₂ reaction were determined. These were then tested against the engine data. The soot used in this study was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, N₂ physisorption and transmission electron microscopy.
Technical Paper

Analysis of In-cylinder Flow and Fuel Vapor Concentration Distribution in Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2052
This paper details the air-fuel mixing process in a gasoline direct injection (DI) engine. Laser measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) were employed on the optical engine with a transparent cylinder to analyze the in-cylinder flow and fuel vapor concentration. In addition, firing tests were conducted using an actual engine. Test results showed that the multi-stage injection is effective for air-fuel mixing and improvement of combustion stability.
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