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Technical Paper

Virtual and Physical Testing for Design Engineering of Intelligent Vehicles

2009-01-21
2009-26-0065
The increasing contribution of electronic and mechatronic content to the vehicle value requires rethinking the vehicle design and engineering processes. The present paper describes an approach hereto, based on virtual and physical prototype testing of heterogeneous systems. A key element is the integration between 3D geometry-Based Models (FE, MBS) and 1D multi-physics system-theoretic models for simulating complex devices (hydraulics, actuators, specific sensors) and processes (combustion, thermal, flow). Embedding control laws paves the way to Model-ln-the-Loop (MIL) and Software-In-the-Loop (SIL) concepts. By linking the virtual models to hardware systems on a physical test-bench, the static and dynamic performance of the rest of the vehicle system (suspension, body…) can be represented, enabling “Hardware in the Loop testing” (HIL). The “Vehicle-in-the-Loop” (VIL) validation finally allows the evaluation of all system dependencies and system interconnections.
Journal Article

Investigation to Recognize Target Width using Millimeter Wave Radar

2011-04-12
2011-01-0440
In recent years the number of vehicles equipped with millimeter wave radar has been increasing due to the popularization of driving assistance systems such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and forward vehicle collision warning (FCW) systems. Consequently, high performance millimeter wave radar must be developed to support even more advanced driving assistance systems. The investigation described in this paper confirms that it is possible to use high range resolution radar to recognize the width of a target. In tests, a simulated radar signal was transmitted and received by a millimeter waveband network analyzer using a 1.6 meter-wide aluminum foil board as the target. When the range resolution was low, only one point of reflection from the board could be detected. However, when the range resolution was improved, then multiple points of reflection from the target could be detected.
Technical Paper

A Novel Laser Triangulation Sensor with Wide Dynamic Range

2011-04-12
2011-01-0994
Laser triangulation sensors suffer from the varied reflected light intensity which is due to the different object surface reflection characteristics. This varied reflected light intensity causes asymmetry of light spot shape, shifting of light spot center, and so on. This condition decreases the accuracy of measurement. Furthermore, it causes the linear CCD inside the sensor to go out of dynamic range, which is called blooming. Unlike plane CCD, linear CCD shows an asymmetry overflow phenomenon when blooming occurs. This phenomenon will limit the dynamic range and decrease the accuracy of laser triangulation sensor that is based on the linear CCD. However, we found the leading edge of light spot image on CCD array kept stable while scattering light intensity varied and the center of the light spot image shifted. Thus we designed a novel triangulation sensor which used the leading edge to indicate the location of light spot on the CCD, rather than using the center of light spot.
Technical Paper

Impact of Motor Capacitance on Vehicle Electrical System Transients

2011-04-12
2011-01-1009
The electrical architecture of today's automobiles employs a significant number of fractional horsepower motors to control wipers, windows, seats, etc. The typical motors are permanent magnet DC brush-commutated motors, often referred to as BM motors. These BM motors, while simple in design, have the inherent issue of creating short-duration, high-frequency electrical noise (caused by the constant interruption, or commutation, of the motor current). This electrical noise can readily lead to radio reception interference. In order to protect against this risk, a typical solution is to install a radio frequency (RF) filter internal to the motor. This filter generally includes a high-frequency ceramic or metal film capacitor across the motor terminals that connect to the vehicle electrical system.
Journal Article

Performance of Aftermarket (DSRC) Antennas Inside a Passenger Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1031
A vehicle's safety system capability can be enhanced by a cooperative Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) system in which vehicles communicate their driving status data, such as location and speed, using a common Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) protocol. The effectiveness of the V2V applications will depend on the number of the vehicles equipped. Market penetration significantly influences the effectiveness of V2V safety applications. Previous research indicated that it could take decades to reach 95% DSRC safety device penetration in the market if only the new vehicles are equipped with the DSRC transponders during manufacturing. In order to raise the market penetration of such technology in the foreseeable future and provide a safety benefit to the early adopters, a scenario that involves retrofit and aftermarket DSRC devices is suggested by U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT).
Technical Paper

Directions of Counteracting Manipulations of Digital Recorders in the Light of the Safety Functioning of the Digital Tachographs System

2013-01-09
2013-26-0017
A tachograph which belongs to the group of ORD devices is the oldest recorder (On Board Recording Devices), and the duty of taking it was led into the USA already in 1939. In order to solve all these problems, they led with Directive of Advice No. 2135/98 from 24 September 1998 of the August of 2004 from the beginning of in the area of the European Union, new type of registering setting up in the road transport - digital tachograph. In order to make it impossible to abuse, a complex system of keys was applied cryptological and of certificates, saved in grating and devices, letting for explicit determining entitlements of users and authenticities of data, cards and devices. In spite of using the most modern keys and securing systems, with respect to elements of the system of digital tachographs a lot of modus operandis were observed so that they registered wrong sizes.
Technical Paper

Investigating GSM Interference in Automotive Sound Systems Using State of the Art Electromagnetic Simulation

2013-10-07
2013-36-0198
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) is one of the major concerns today in the automotive industry. The main reason is that vehicles are using and depending more on electronic technology. The causes of electromagnetic interference problems are not only related to the ever-increasing number of embedded electronics systems in vehicles, but also to external electronic devices that are brought in to automobiles by drivers and passengers (e.g. cell phone, MP3 players, Bluetooth devices, portable video games). Even though these problems can cause serious issues on safety systems like the airbag, their symptoms are often noticed in a less harm way in the sound system. A very common EMI problem in automotive sound systems is a particular noise caused by devices that uses GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) technology. Most of the cell phones and vehicle locators rely on GSM technology.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development in Upstream Design Phases of Automotive Electronic Products

2014-04-01
2014-01-0757
Abstract With the development of car electronics, increasing numbers of ECUs are mounted in vehicles and “function integration” and “unification of mechanical and electronic” are moving forward. In order for DENSO to supply customers with the optimum of these increasingly complex products, we use simulations from upstream processes, where there is a lack of design information, and are proceeding with the construction of virtual development environments in order to create products. This paper discusses these development techniques.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Response Determination of Electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

2013-11-27
2013-01-2799
The automotive electronic systems are composed of two major mechanical elements: an equipment housing or enclosure, and a printed circuit board (PCB) assembly. The PCB is made up of alternating layers of copper and FR-4 glass epoxy laminated together. An estimation of the mechanical reliability of a PCB in an electronic system is considered to be an important part of the overall reliability estimate of the entire system and vibration is often one of the key causes of system and component failures. As different kind of electronic components (like transformers, capacitors, chips etc) are mounted on both sides of the PCB using solder joints, adhesive etc, various complexities are encountered while modeling them for analysis. For avoiding those, simple PCBs without any components are considered for the present study. This paper focuses on the methodology to understand and predict the dynamic behavior of the system using various mechanical tests and simulations.
Technical Paper

Technology Driven Sustainable Agriculture Solution

2013-11-27
2013-01-2755
Paddy farming in India needs extensive water usage. Due to the rapidly declining ground water and ever increasing monsoon uncertainty, there is significant drive on water conservation for paddy farming through sustainable agriculture practices. The wide variability of irrigation water in Indian rice field, as high as 160 mm, necessitates an extra 100 mm of water in the field to provide complete water coverage. This is primarily due to inaccurate manual land leveling, often practiced in Indian paddy farming. In the present work, architecture of laser land leveler has been created by integrating low cost electronics, hydraulics and GPS technology. This paper will provide an overview of the current practices and suitable operating mode to meet the future demand on land leveling. The presentation would compare the laser land leveler with GPS land leveler solution architectures. The technological differences along with individual merits and limitations would be detailed.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Architecture for Advanced Environmental and Physiological Monitoring

2005-07-11
2005-01-2874
The fundamental objective of this paper is to overview an integrated hardware and software architecture for advanced environmental and physiological monitoring. The proposed architecture is currently being considered as a recommended standard by the International Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The architecture provides the necessary infrastructure to enable research and engineering personnel the capability to incorporate disparate monitoring devices and sensors into a single wireless data assimilation system. The long-term objective is to achieve safer long-duration human space travel by using wireless radio frequency (RF) technology to enable easily deployable monitoring systems.
Technical Paper

Energy Management for Controlling Hybrid Systems

2005-09-07
2005-01-3454
This paper deals with the design and the implementation of an energy management system for the on-board electrical system in the car. Based on the principle of an open market all participants (suppliers and consumers) can trade with the power offered or required depending on a virtual price. The system easily allows to control different driving situations by willful intervention in the Cost-Power-functions (CPF), representing each market participant and at the same time guarantees quasi stationary stability of the power system itself. The usability of the system is being verified by simulating a hybrid power system (168V/12V) using Dymola/Modelica.
Technical Paper

Constant Power Load Characteristics in Multi-Converter Automotive Power Electronic Intensive Systems

2005-09-07
2005-01-3451
Intensifying demands for higher fuel economy from one hand and environmental concerns from the other are driving advanced automotive power systems to be more electric. As a result, automotive electrical systems with higher capacity and more complexity are needed to cope with this expanding electrification trend. As different electrical applications and loads are being introduced in automobiles, multi-converter intensive power electronic systems are emerging as the next generation of the advanced automotive electrical systems. In fact, power electronic converters and electric motor drives are inevitable parts of more electric automotive power systems. When power electronic converters and electric motor drives are tightly regulated to improve system performance and efficiency, they present negative impedance characteristics of constant power loads to the entire automotive electrical system. This destabilizing effect may cause system instability.
Technical Paper

Design of a Diversity-Antenna Receiver System as Applied to the Satellite Radio Service

2006-04-03
2006-01-0479
As Satellite Digital Audio Radio Services (SDARS) become more prevalent and more mature, automotive vehicle manufacturers (original equipment manufacturers or OEMs) desire to bury receive antennas into vehicles so that they can defer questions of appearance to vehicle stylists. When OEM introductions of SDARS products initially occurred (MY2002 on select Cadillac products), the technology was insufficiently mature to both meet time-to-market and styling concerns, so stylists were forced to defer to receiver designers. With the advent of SDARS diversity antenna systems, it is now possible to allow receiver designers to hand back questions of vehicle appearance to the stylists.
Technical Paper

A New Design Principle of Active Receiving Antennas Applied with a High Impedance Amplifier-Diversity-Module in a Compact Multi-Band-Antenna-System on a Plastic Trunk Lid

2006-04-03
2006-01-0480
In vehicles such as e.g. cabriolets, parts of the skin are made of plastics as e.g. the trunk lid. This enables the integration of a 4-antenna-FM-diversity system with an excellent quality of reception. As antenna elements for mobile FM- and TV-reception a novel ring wire structure with 2 switching elements is used. An advanced concept of high input impedance amplifiers leads to a satisfying effective antenna height. Since the antenna structure is only placed along the rim of the dielectric trunk lid there is space left inside the given area for additional low profile antennas for example for AM, GPS, SDARS, GSM and PCS.
Technical Paper

Developing Safe Software Solutions for X-By-Wire Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0599
A promising technology for active safety is “X-by-Wire”, where mechanical and electromechanical components are replaced by electronic functions. One of the reasons for this is to have more than the driver input in the command chain, and also include some degree of intervention by the control system in case the driver behaviour is likely to put the car at risk. The adoption of a small number of computing nodes is a clear trend in vehicle design. A wide range of functions that are now distributed in the form of separate modules will instead be integrated. This approach will overcome the physical constraints of electrical and mechanical components and the costs of many separate electronic modules with their own power supplies.
Technical Paper

Application of electric oil pumps on automotive systems

2005-11-22
2005-01-4086
On the conventional automotive lubrication systems, the oil delivered to engine always depends on engine speed for its functioning and performance. The oil pump promotes the circulation of the lubricant fluid through the galleries where it is desired that the lubrication occur. The fluid besides having the lubricant function also contributes for the cooling of the engine and the systems where it is used. The oil pump used in the engines lubrication is driven by crankshaft or for intermediary of a chain when the pump is located inside crankcase of the engine. When the oil pump is used for the movement of actuators, for example, power steering pump generally is driven by belt. This means that, the bigger engine speed, greater the capacity of fluid displacement. Using the electric oil pump, we will continue to circulate the fluid under pressure, however in an intelligent way, therefore the fluid flow will be controlled electrically independently of the engine functioning.
Technical Paper

Independent Acceleration System

2005-11-22
2005-01-4069
: Due to high cost of railway fuel and mine train operation under irregular tracks it was created a system which allows the engineer of the trail locomotive an independent point-to-point acceleration. This is made by a jumper cable. This use the common jumper socket used nowadays on railway, and so, there is no need for change. With this system the growing of transported cargo weigh was kept with decrease of use of fuel. This electronic device was named “SAI-Independent Acceleration System” and it was development by MRS Electrical Engineering Technicians at home shop. Those electronics was assembled in the total MRS road-locomotive fleet and is assumed to allow savings of 5% in fuel costs.
Technical Paper

Semiconductors Compound Films with Optoeletronic Appliqued

2005-11-22
2005-01-4090
The project has as objective to make the system of epitaxial growth Hot Wall Beam Epitaxy (HWBE) enter in operation for the attainment of composites semiconductors IV-VI family crystalline films, over Barium Fluoride (BaF2) substrates. The advantage in the use of BaF2 as substrate is its good marriage of the crystallographic arrangement with the film composites used, that are: Lead Telluride (PbTe) and Lead Telluride with Tin (PbSnTe), chosen because they possess optic properties and mainly the energy of the forbidden band (Eg) narrow. It can thus be used as P-N junctions, which are the infrared detectors that work with the wavelength (λ) range - 5 μm < λ < 14 μm.
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