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Technical Paper

ZF EcoLife - The latest Generation of Powershift Automatics for Transit Buses

2011-04-12
2011-01-1423
The megatrends "reduction of emissions" and "fuel consumption reduction" play a predominant role in the development of powertrains. For transit buses this implies both the reduction of emissions and pollutions of the internal combustion engine, and, on the other hand, a further reduction of noise and brake dust. Also very important is the reduction of both fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions. For all these targets the actual developments on the engine side have led to great improvements in the last decades, but what can be mentioned for the other components of the powertrain, especially looking for transmissions? First of all the relevant trends for transit buses have to be considered: A large increase of the torque of the combustion engines during the last years has a big impact on the development of transmissions for buses.
Technical Paper

Gen2 GF6 Transmission Hardware and Controls Updates

2011-04-12
2011-01-1428
In an effort to increase fuel economy and improve shift quality - the GF6 family of General Motors transmissions has been analyzed for potential enhancements. The focus of this analysis was to improve fuel economy, while increasing downshift responsiveness, and manual mode sport delays. This paper describes a variety of the hardware philosophy changes, and control methods which have contributed to the next generation of GM clutch-to-clutch 6-speed transmissions. These changes to hardware and controls have led to a composite fuel economy improvement of 4.5% with no changes to shift or torque-converter scheduling. In addition, the downshift responsiveness has been significantly improved to reduce delay times by approximately 50% while virtually eliminating the dependency on engine torque reductions - ultimately allowing for stacked downshifts to progress with minimal, if any, time between shifts. Additionally, “tap shift” delays have been significantly decreased to levels near 150 ms.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Combustion Phase Optimization of a PFI Gasoline Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1415
Combustion control is assuming a crucial role in reducing engine tailpipe emissions and maximizing performance. The number of actuations influencing the combustion is increasing, and, as a consequence, the control parameters calibrations is becoming challenging. One of the most effective factors influencing performance and efficiency is the combustion phasing: gasoline engines Electronic Control Units (ECU) manage the Spark Advance (SA) in order to set the optimal combustion phase. SA optimal values are usually determined by means of calibration procedures carried out on the test bench by changing SA values while monitoring Brake and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP, IMEP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and pollutant emissions. The effect of SA on combustion is stochastic, due to the cycle-to-cycle variation: the analysis of mean values requires many engine cycles to be significant of the performance obtained with the given control setting.
Journal Article

On-Target Rapid Prototyping: A Practical Approach for Bootstrapping Production ECU Software Development

2011-09-13
2011-01-2267
Rapid control prototyping (RCP) is a widely used technique for verifying a controller's functional behavior. Typically, RCP uses a target processor with ample processing power and memory, which makes the technique attractive for engineers exploring new concepts. However, a large gap often exists between the RCP target and the production ECU in terms of the available code generation technology, the supporting tool chain, and I/O hardware. Consequently, significant work is required when migrating a controller from RCP to production. Furthermore, due to cost constraints, RCP systems are difficult to deploy in large numbers for fleet testing or preproduction trials. In response to the challenges associated with RCP, automotive engineers are moving towards a technique called on-target rapid prototyping (OTRP).
Technical Paper

Maturity Level and Variant Validation of Mechatronic Systems in Commercial Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2263
Driver assistance systems (e.g. the emergency brake assist Active Brake Assist2, or ABA2 for short, in the Mercedes-Benz Actros) are becoming increasingly common in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. Due to the close interconnection with drivetrain and suspension control systems, the integration and validation of the functions make the most exacting demands on processes and tools involved in mechatronics development. In addition to a multi-stage test process focusing on the functions of the driver assistance systems (software), the “electrical” aspects (hardware) also form part of holistic maturity level validation. The test process is supported by state-of-the-art, high-performance tools (e.g. automatable component test benches and overall vehicle HiL systems) which, in particular, allow quick and accurate configuration in line with different vehicle variants.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Implementing HIL Systems for ECU Validation and Verification for Commercial Vehicle Applications

2011-09-13
2011-01-2261
Currently, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing is the defacto standard for ECU verification and validation at the majority of the Commercial Vehicle OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. HIL Testing is used to shorten development and testing time for both engine and machine control systems. In order to use this process, many of these companies have to develop and maintain expertise in the area of Model-based development (MBD). This paper introduces an approach which allows for the effective use of HIL systems without having to directly work in a MBD environment. Many HIL tests can be done with stimulus and response analysis of the ECUs, given core knowledge of the expected behavior of its control software and I/O subsystems. For hardware interface and diagnostics validation, this open-loop testing of the controller may suffice. It is important to provide the tester with capabilities to easily modify these stimuli and evaluate the responses.
Journal Article

Investigation of Compressor Whoosh Noise in Automotive Turbochargers

2009-05-19
2009-01-2053
With swelling gasoline prices, automotive OEMs have taken different approaches to improve vehicle fuel economy. One trend is to down-size the engine and to add turbo charging. One of the challenges in utilizing the turbocharger in passenger cars is to control the added NVH issues associated with this hardware, especially for the North American market where turbocharger use is scarce in gasoline engines. In this paper, the authors review an investigation on turbocharger related “whoosh” noise on a V6 engine. The whoosh noise, also called surge noise, is caused by the compressor working at or near surge conditions. Whoosh noise is a broad frequency band flow noise typically found during throttle tip-in conditions, but sometimes found even at steady state driving conditions. The root cause of whoosh noise and the detection methods are discussed in this paper. The countermeasures to reduce whoosh noises are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of DBW Throttle Body for V4 Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0056
For the throttle bodies for sport motorcycles, there is a need for a design giving importance to drivability and precise control. At the same time, various devices such as idle control and duct control are necessary in order to conform to recent environmental regulations. However, these added functions lead to an increase in the number of components, thus leading to disadvantages in both cost and weight. Therefore we have developed a throttle body where DBW (Drive By Wire) has been used to consolidate such parts, and functions. For the drive actuator, a modified actuator device from a passenger car DBW system was incorporated into a multi-cylinder link structure. In addition, specifications such as the gear ratios and the operation torque were optimized in order to satisfy the operability required for motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Steer Control on Motorcycle between Rider and Active Support Torque

2009-11-03
2009-32-0060
In this research, we aim at the construction of a steering cooperation-type front-wheel steering control system to reduce the rider's steering load by stabilizing the behavior of the motorcycle when turbulence in the direction of a roll occurs during low-speed driving. Finally, a front-wheel steering control system that considers cooperation with a rider's steering based on the experimental result is constructed, and the utility is verified by simulation.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Electronic Control Unit for Low-Emission Motorcycle Engines: A Solution Based on the Integration of Analog Functions

2009-11-03
2009-32-0073
The high level of pollution in urban areas and the growing significance of emissions from two-wheel vehicles is forcing many governments to enact stricter pollution regulations for these small motorcycle engines. In order to satisfy these new stringent exhaust emission levels, manufacturers are considering replacing traditional mechanical carburetors with electronic controls, but the strict target costs for two-wheel vehicles requires manufacturers to develop innovative designs for these electronics. This paper presents a new solution to reduce the total cost of the small engine electronic control unit: It is based on the integration of many necessary analog functions into a single chip.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Engine Management System for Small Handheld Low Emission Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0019
In the handheld industry the carburetor controlled 2-stroke engine is still the mostly used power source. The current carburetor as a fixed geometric and hydraulic system is not capable of compensating varying fuel specifications. Electronic engine management systems offer the adjustment of varying ambient conditions and fuel qualities. State of the art systems of common vehicle applications use various sensors and actuators which increase the complexity and the costs of the engine. A smart alternative is an engine control based upon processing of already existing information in a small handheld engine. This paper presents the concept, the configuration and the design parameters of such a system.
Technical Paper

New Functional Safety Standard WD ISO 26262 and the potential impact on the ECU development for the Indian market

2009-12-13
2009-28-0021
There is a significant growth in the Automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU) market in India with strong consumer emphasis for enhanced safety features and the requirements for compliance to emission regulations. The availability of better highways and intra-city roads has facilitated quick access to destinations and customers are more inclined to owning fast, yet safe cars. Emission norms and safety regulations will also push penetration levels of ECUs. This paper gives illustrations of the vehicle functionality, the identified hazards or risks associated and the safety functions required to meet the safety goal. It shows how Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Solutions Limited (RBEI) address these requirements on development processes and the new functionalities to be introduced to comply with the safety guidelines for the vehicles produced for the Indian and global market
Technical Paper

Reliability Engineering in Automotive Industry for the Local Market

2009-12-13
2009-28-0026
As complexity in automotive electronics is increasing, the need for robust and failure free electrical control units (ECUs) is increasing even more. This paper addresses the special requirements of automotive applications in the emerging market. A variety of international standards on reliability tests for automotive components exist. These standards mainly based on experiences from European, American or Japanese automotive applications. The differences will be pointed out for typical Engine ECU acting as the “brain” of the Engine (refer Figure 1). It will be shown that the approach “test fit the application” rather than the former procedure “test-to pass after standards” will be a knowledge-based solution.
Technical Paper

Robust PID Controller With Computational Intelligent-Based Decision Maker for Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor in Electric Vehicle for Indian Roads

2009-12-13
2009-28-0043
The PID Controller is most commonly used for industrial applications. The novel approach of development of a transfer function for BLDC-based Electric Vehicle Drive according to various Indian conditions has been done. Moreover fuzzy decision maker has also been developed which takes into account Vehicles parameters, Motor parameters and Road conditions. The performance analysis of Fuzzy Decision Maker (FDM) with PID as well as robust PID controller has been analyzed. This is to quantify that robust PID controller is better for Electric Vehicles with Fuzzy Decision Maker.
Technical Paper

Virtual and Physical Testing for Design Engineering of Intelligent Vehicles

2009-01-21
2009-26-0065
The increasing contribution of electronic and mechatronic content to the vehicle value requires rethinking the vehicle design and engineering processes. The present paper describes an approach hereto, based on virtual and physical prototype testing of heterogeneous systems. A key element is the integration between 3D geometry-Based Models (FE, MBS) and 1D multi-physics system-theoretic models for simulating complex devices (hydraulics, actuators, specific sensors) and processes (combustion, thermal, flow). Embedding control laws paves the way to Model-ln-the-Loop (MIL) and Software-In-the-Loop (SIL) concepts. By linking the virtual models to hardware systems on a physical test-bench, the static and dynamic performance of the rest of the vehicle system (suspension, body…) can be represented, enabling “Hardware in the Loop testing” (HIL). The “Vehicle-in-the-Loop” (VIL) validation finally allows the evaluation of all system dependencies and system interconnections.
Technical Paper

Control System Development for Retrofit Automated Manual Transmissions

2009-12-13
2009-28-0001
For transmission suppliers tooled primarily for producing manual transmissions, retrofitting a manual transmission with actuators and a controller is business viable. It offers a low cost convenience for the consumer without losing fuel economy when compared to torque converter type automatics. For heavy duty truck fleets even the estimated 3% gain in fuel economy that the Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) offers over the manual transmission can result in lower operational costs. This paper provides a case study using a light duty transmission retrofitted with electric actuation for gears and the clutch. A high level description of the control algorithms and hardware is included. Clutch control is the most significant component of the AMT controller and it is addressed in detail during operations such as vehicle launch from rest, launch from coast and launch on grades.
Technical Paper

Propulsion Control Governor Calibration for Speed Limiting of ECU Controlled SUV - A DOE Approach

2009-01-21
2009-26-0081
Speed Limiting Devices (SLDs) are incorporated on commercial and taxi segment vehicles to enhance road safety of masses and vehicles as well. They are electronic as well as mechanical type. Electronic control is achieved by programming suitable parameters in an Electronic Control Unit (ECU). In the other case, the fuel pump is controlled mechanically or electrically [1]. In electronically controlled vehicles, Proportional-Integral (PI) control governor is calibrated in the vehicle ECU itself to attain the required vehicle set speed. Prior to Design of Experiments (DOE) exercises, 6 sets of vehicle trials were performed. Analysis of the DOE gave appropriate results and suitable validation concluded. The PI calibration was done in such a way that one set of control parameters are sufficient for a range of vehicle set speeds. The advantage of DOE is two-fold.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Virtual Instrumentation Concept on Tests Rigs

2009-01-21
2009-26-0078
Tractor is used as a farm machine for various agricultural applications and non-agricultural applications. These are like land and soil preparation, harvesting, goods transport vehicle for short distances and also as low cost construction equipment. The usage pattern is scattered and largely depends on type of operation, region, and operator driving habits. Due to larger range of usage pattern, there are many challenges for tractor testing and evaluation. The evaluation process starts with field load data acquisition, followed by development of test load cycles and test facilities to simulate the field load conditions in lab with adequate acceleration. Traditionally for testing of transmission, hydraulics, brake, clutch, gear shifting mechanism, engine test beds are mechatronics (mechanical and electronics) system. These systems having fix specifications so it's not possible to change the configuration.
Technical Paper

ABS/ESP ECU Testing with Sophisticated HIL Simulation Methods

2009-01-21
2009-26-0079
Taking ABS/ESP as an example, the paper will show different configurations of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) test systems, namely the ABS/ESP ECU HIL and the brake system HIL. The HIL simulation will be demonstrated with the vehicle dynamics simulation environment CarMaker. CarMaker maps realistically all subcomponents of the vehicle like suspension, steering, braking, tires, masses and aerodynamics. Using it, longitudinal, lateral and vertical dynamic scenarios can be simulated with sophisticated driver, traffic and 3D road models in a full test automation process. Functions, failures, failsafe methods, security functions and the performance of the control systems can be analyzed and evaluated comprehensively. This will be illustrated with concrete simulation examples with different vehicle/engine options, equipment levels, tire conditions and changing environmental conditions (road conditions, cross wind).
Technical Paper

Efficient and Cost Effective Driver for HVAC Blower

2009-01-21
2009-26-0076
The Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning system (HVAC) blower is present in every car today. In most vehicles and especially in the mid to low cost segment, typically 250W blower motor is driven by a MOSFET used as a variable resistance. Generally seen as cost effective solution, this linear driving mode will generate a peak power loss of 80W to 100W. A more efficient way to drive a motor is to use PWM control. This solution already exists today but was always seen as too expensive for blower motors and thus reserved for mid to high range vehicles. A PWM controlled solution able to replace the existing linear module will be presented. The system cost is kept similar because no microcontroller is needed in the module embedded in or very close to the blower motor. Electrical, thermal and EMC characterization will also be shown.
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