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Journal Article

Investigation of the Acoustic Performance of After Treatment Devices

2011-05-17
2011-01-1562
Diesel engines produce harmful exhaust emissions and high exhaust noise levels. One way of mitigating both exhaust emissions and noise is via the use of after treatment devices such as Catalytic Converters (CC), Selective Catalytic Reducers (SCR), Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC), and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). The objective of this investigation is to characterize and simulate the acoustic performance of different types of filters so that maximum benefit can be achieved. A number of after treatment device configurations for trucks were selected and measured. A measurement campaign was conducted to characterize the two-port transfer matrix of these devices. The simulation was performed using the two-port theory where the two-port models are limited to the plane wave range in the filter cavity.
Journal Article

Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) - Diesel-like Efficiency with Low CO2 Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1386
A single-cylinder engine was used to study the potential of a high-efficiency combustion concept called gasoline direct-injection compression-ignition (GDCI). Low temperature combustion was achieved using multiple injections, intake boost, and moderate EGR to reduce engine-out NOx and PM emissions engine for stringent emissions standards. This combustion strategy benefits from the relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of regular unleaded gasoline fuel. Tests were conducted at 6 bar IMEP - 1500 rpm using various injection strategies with low-to-moderate injection pressure. Results showed that triple injection GDCI achieved about 8 percent greater indicated thermal efficiency and about 14 percent lower specific CO2 emissions relative to diesel baseline tests on the same engine. Heat release rates and combustion noise could be controlled with a multiple-late injection strategy for controlled fuel-air stratification. Estimated heat losses were significantly reduced.
Technical Paper

Identifying Optimal Operating Points in Terms of Engineering Constraints and Regulated Emissions in Modern Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1388
In recent decades, “physics-based” gas-dynamics simulation tools have been employed to reduce development timescales of IC engines by enabling engineers to carry out parametric examinations and optimisation of alternative engine geometry and operating strategy configurations using desktop PCs. However to date, these models have proved inadequate for optimisation of in-cylinder combustion and emissions characteristics thus extending development timescales through additional experimental development efforts. This research paper describes how a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) with reduced chemistry can be employed to successfully determine in-cylinder pressure, heat release and emissions trends from a diesel fuelled engine operated in compression ignition direct injection mode using computations which are completed in 147 seconds per cycle.
Journal Article

Effects of Post-Injection Strategies on Near-Injector Over-Lean Mixtures and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emission in a Heavy-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1383
Post-injection strategies aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) were investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high dilution (12.7% intake oxygen) where UHC emissions are problematic. Exhaust gas measurements showed that a carefully selected post injection reduced engine-out load-specific UHC emissions by 20% compared to operation with a single injection in the same load range. High-speed in-cylinder chemiluminescence imaging revealed that without a post injection, most of the chemiluminescence emission occurs close to the bowl wall, with no significant chemiluminescence signal within 27 mm of the injector. Previous studies have shown that over-leaning in this near-injector region after the end of injection causes the local equivalence ratio to fall below the ignitability limit.
Technical Paper

Injector Tip Design Improvement of the Diesel Injectors

2011-04-12
2011-01-1397
Parameters of the fuel economy and the exhaust gases pollution of the high-speed diesel engines, with unshared and half-shared combustion chambers, are predetermined by processes of fuel spray and fuel-air mixture creation. The parameters of these processes (fuel spraying and development of flame structure dynamic) appreciably depend from design features of a flowing part of the injector tips. The major parameters of the injector tips design are the spraying nozzles length and the ratio of the length these nozzles to their diameters. The experimental research of the D-245.12C type diesel engine has been carried out. Fuel injectors of the diesel engine were equipped with injector tips of different spray nozzles lengths. The experimental data show improvement fuel efficiency, reduction of emissions and smoke due to optimization of geometries in the injector tip.
Journal Article

Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

2011-04-12
2011-01-1393
A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
Journal Article

Development of Di-Air - A New Diesel deNOx System by Adsorbed Intermediate Reductants

2011-08-30
2011-01-2089
An unprecedented phenomenon that achieves high NOx conversion was found over an NSR catalyst. This phenomenon occurs when continuous short cycle injections of hydrocarbons (HCs) are supplied at a predetermined concentration in lean conditions. Furthermore, this phenomenon has a wider range of applicability for different catalyst temperatures (up to 800 degrees Celsius) and SVs, and for extending thermal and sulfur durability than a conventional NOx storage and reduction system. This paper analyzes the reaction mechanism and concludes it to be highly active HC-deNOx by intermediates generated from adsorbed NOx over the base catalysts and HCs partially oxidized by oscillated HC injection. Subsequently, a high performance deNOx system named Di-Air (diesel NOx aftertreatment by adsorbed intermediate reductants) was demonstrated that applies this concept to high speed driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Non-Catalyzed DPF from Viewpoint of Back Pressure in Ash loading State

2011-08-30
2011-01-2091
Back pressure of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) varies with accumulation of soot and/or ash. Soot can be cleaned in a high temperature oxidation (regeneration) process. But ash which is incombustible particulate matter derived from lubricant oil, engine wear, etc. cannot be cleaned from DPF without mechanical ash removal process and influences the back pressure perpetually. Design and control of DPF involving variation of the back pressure with ash accumulation will provide further improvement of fuel consumption and reliable operation in extended vehicle life time. Nevertheless, empirical investigations concerning ash accumulation are few because of the long testing time due to the slow accumulation rate, i.e. 0.5 - 2mg/mile [19]. In this investigation, four different designs of Cordierite (Cd) DPF were subjected to an accelerated ash accumulation test which is utilizing artificial ash powder.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Applying Raw Fuel Injection Technique for Reducing Methane in Aftertreatment of Diesel Dual Fuel Engines Operating under Medium Load Conditions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2093
Towards the effort of using natural gas as an alternative fuel for a diesel engine, the concept of Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) engine has been shown as a strong candidate. Typically, DDF's engine-out emission species such as soot and nitrogen oxides are decreased while carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are increased. The aftertreatment system is required in order to reduce these pollutant emissions from DDF engines. Additionally, DDF engine exhaust has a wide temperature span and is rich in oxygen, which makes HC emissions, especially methane (CH₄), difficult to treat. Until now, it is widely accepted that the key parameter influencing methane oxidation in a catalytic converter is high exhaust temperature. However, a comprehensive understanding of what variables in real DDF engine exhausts most influencing a catalytic converter performance are yet to be explored.
Technical Paper

Fuel Sulfur Effect on Nano-PM Formation from Diffusion Flame

2011-08-30
2011-01-2055
Recently, for reduction of PM emission from diesel engine, low sulfur diesel fuel was introduced and commercialized. There are some reports for effect of fuel sulfur on PM characteristics by using engine dynamometer tests. However, it is difficult to understand mechanism of PM formation and effect of fuel sulfur on PM formation process. Thus, investigation by a simple flame is effective way for understanding detail PM formation process. In this paper, effect of sulfur content in fuel on PM characteristics was investigated by using laboratory-scale PM generator. Test fuels were diesel and surrogate diesel fuel, and sulfur concentration in the surrogate fuel was controlled with thiophene addition. Effects of fuel sulfur on PM were clarified with characteristics of PM obtained from PM number distribution measurements and PM compositions analysis.
Technical Paper

De-NOx Characteristics of a Combined System of LNT and SCR according to Space Velocity

2011-08-30
2011-01-2088
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the adsorption and desorption characteristics of only LNT and SCR catalysts with respect to SV (Space Velocity) and the de-NOx performance of a combined system of LNT and SCR according to the SV. The adsorption time to reach NOx concentration of 500 ppm at SV = 14,000 1/h of the LNT catalyst was about 1,000 sec. The physically and chemically absorbed NH₃ on the SCR catalyst desorbed in same concentration though various SVs. The NOx conversion of the LNT decreased with SV increased in range of 350° or lower temperature, the formation quantity of NH₃ increased as SV increased in the lower temperature range. The NOx conversion of the SCR with SV = 14,000 1/h showed 95% at 320°, the effect of SV on the NOx conversion was not so much. The NOx conversion of the combined system of LNT and SCR with fresh catalysts appeared maximum value of 70% and hydrothermal aging at 900° decreased about to 25% below range of 300°.
Technical Paper

Transient Behavior of VOCs Emission and Particle Size Distribution during Active Regeneration of Diesel Particulate Filter Equipped Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2087
In order to reduce fine particle emission, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has begun to be equipped to a diesel engine. During regeneration of DPF, nanoparticles are known to be formed downstream of DPF. VOCs emission during regeneration is of interest in view of toxicity and formation mechanism of nanoparticles. A heavy duty diesel engine equipped with DPF was investigated to measure particle and VOCs emissions using PTR-TOFMS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer). PTR-TOFMS is a new on-line mass spectrometer using chemical ionization and its application to engine exhaust measurements is new. During active regeneration of the DPF, fine particle emission was increased by nucleation. But VOCs as well as THC emissions increased prior to particle increase. After the regeneration the particle and VOCs emissions decreased immediately to the level of normal operation.
Journal Article

Novel Nondestructive Imaging Analysis for Catalyst Washcoat Loading and DPF Soot Distribution Using Terahertz Wave Computed Tomography

2011-08-30
2011-01-2064
This paper describes a three-dimensional (3D) visualization framework using terahertz (THz) waves for quantitative analysis of the distribution of catalyst washcoat loading and diesel particulate filter (DPF) soot deposits. THz waves, which are electromagnetic waves located between infrared and microwave in the electromagnetic spectrum, have good directivity and moderate resolution. Accordingly, a computed tomography (CT) technique has been developed to image the interior of an object using the spectral information of THz waves. This THz wave CT technique can be used to analyze the interior of various target objects, and has good penetrability of ceramic substances used as catalysts in automobiles. Against this background, a method using THz CT for nondestructive analysis of catalyst washcoat loading and the density distribution of soot was developed, and this framework was evaluated.
Technical Paper

HC and CO Formation Factors in a PCI Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1889
Since the mixture become relative lean and homogeneous when ignition occurs in PCI engines, NOx and PM can be reduced simultaneously. However, HC and CO emissions in PCI engines are higher by one order than conventional direct injection diesel engines. The influence factors of HC and CO emissions for conventional direct-injection diesel engines have been analyzed by a lot of studies. In spite of the mechanism of HC formation in PCI would different to conventional direct-injection diesel because of injection timing in PCI engine is considerably earlier than that of a conventional diesel engine, there are not many works on HC and CO emissions of PCI engine. In this study, the characteristics of HC and CO emissions in a PCI engine were investigated by changing combustion chamber geometry (cavity diameter), topland volume, and injection timing. At the same time, the simulations of spray and air-fuel mixture formation were conducted by using GTT code.
Technical Paper

An Engine Test to Assess the Effect of Fuels and Lubricating Oils on Soot Loading of Diesel Particulate Filters

2009-06-15
2009-01-1871
A test procedure was set up in our laboratories to evaluate the propensity of fuels and lubricating oils towards the soot accumulation in Diesel Particulate Filters. The experimental work was carried out with the use of a passenger car diesel engine, retrofitted with an aftertreatment system composed by an oxidation catalyst and a DPF. The soot propensity was evaluated by means of repeated measurements of differential exhaust backpressure gradient, during a running period at mid load and speed. The specific fuel consumption gradient was also measured to find a correlation between both the variables. After each soot loading period, a burning off period at full load was operated for the purpose of filter regeneration. A two-phase experiment was undertaken to assess repeatability and discrimination capability of the test procedure. During the first experimental phase, repeated tests were conducted on a fuel matrix containing some surrogate fuels.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions when First Generation Meets Next Generation Biodiesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1935
Limits on the total future potential of biodiesel fuel due to the availability of raw materials mean that ambitious 20% fuel replacement targets will need to be met by the use of both first and next generation biodiesel fuels. The use of higher percentage biodiesel blends requires engine recalibration, as it affects engine performance, combustion patterns and emissions. Previous work has shown that the combustion of 50:50 blends of biodiesel fuels (first generation RME and next generation synthetic fuel) can give diesel fuel-like performance (i.e. in-cylinder pressure, fuel injection and heat release patterns). This means engine recalibration can be avoided, plus a reduction in all the regulated emissions. Using a 30% biodiesel blend (with different first and next generation proportions) mixed with Diesel may be a more realistic future fuel.
Journal Article

Effect of Mesh Structure in the KIVA-4 Code with a Less Mesh Dependent Spray Model for DI Diesel Engine Simulations

2009-06-15
2009-01-1937
Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed.
Technical Paper

System Optimization of Turbo-Compound Engine (First Report: Compressor and Turbine Pressure Ratio)

2009-06-15
2009-01-1940
A turbo-compound engine system is considered to be an effective way to improve the thermal efficiency of diesel engine. In this study, the sensitivity of the design parameters of turbo-compound system, such as the compressor pressure ratio and the turbine expansion ratio, has been analyzed using a numerical analysis. And the potential of the improving effects of the thermal efficiency by turbo-compound system has been also examined. As the results, it was found that there are the optimum values of compressor pressure ratio and turbine expansion ratio to maximize the thermal efficiency of turbo-compound engine.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

2009-06-15
2009-01-1939
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Active Regenerative DPF Using a Plasma Assisted Burner

2009-06-15
2009-01-1926
Plasma burner for the regeneration of active DPF system is proposed. Plasma used in this work is rotating arc that is optimized for burner application. Electric power required to operate plasma burner is less than 200W and is not dependent on the engine size. In this plasma burner, plasma plays multiple roles including heater for fuel vaporization, mixer, partial reformer, igniter and flame holder. These special functions enable the burner to sustain stable flame even in ultra rich condition where a flame is never possible to be sustained in conventional burner. Air flow rate required to operate the burner is 50~100 liter/min regardless of the amount of fuel where the amount of fuel usage depends on the target temperature. Road test showed successful operation over 20,000km run with 2.5, 5 and 8.5 ton truck satisfying mode condition for certification of Korea governmental retrofit program.
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