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Journal Article

Spray Formation and Combustion Analysis in an Optical Single Cylinder Engine Operating with Fresh and Aged Biodiesel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1381
The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the impact of both fresh and highly oxidized RME at two levels of blending on spray formation and combustion in modern automotive diesel engines. The tests were performed on an optical single-cylinder engine sharing combustion system configuration with the 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application. Two blends (B50 and B100) blending were tested for both fresh and aged RME and compared with commercial diesel fuel in two different operating points typical of NEDC (1500rpm/2bar BMEP and 2000rpm/5bar BMEP). The experimental activity was devoted to an in-depth investigation of the spray density, breakup and penetration, mixture formation, combustion and soot formation, by means of optical techniques.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1391
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Technical Paper

Spray Combustion of Biodiesel and Diesel in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

2011-04-12
2011-01-1380
This paper investigates the combustion of biodiesel and diesel in an optical accessible constant volume chamber that can simulate the conditions in compression ignition engines. The high-pressure and high-temperature environment in the chamber was generated by a controlled premixed combustion with desired content of oxygen left. A common rail and an injector with 160 degree included angle were used to deliver the fuel. Ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel from used cook oil were used in this paper. High speed imaging of natural luminosity from the flame was used to study the combustion flame in a time resolved manner. A combination of high speed and intensified imaging of OH chemiluminescence was employed to identify reaction zones. This method has the advantage of capturing the global pictures, thus allowing the studying of jet-to-jet variations, while it does not sacrifice the time-resolved resolution.
Technical Paper

Use of Exhaust Valve Timing Advance for High Natural Gas Utilization in Low-Load Diesel Dual Fuel Operation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1767
The current study examined diesel dual fuel (DDF) operations in a four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine under low load conditions. Experiments were performed to investigate effects of diesel injection timings and exhaust valve timing advance for DDF operations under high levels of natural gas utilization. Results showed that diesel injection timings played an important role in DDF combustion. Increasing the ratio of natural gas to total fuel resulted in greater amounts of HC and CO emissions. Advancing the exhaust valve timing increased the internal EGR, raised the in-cylinder temperature at IVC, and improved the combustion efficiency. To maximize the ratio of natural gas to total fuel, a combination of proper exhaust valve timing advance and a tuned timing of diesel injection should be employed to avoid excessive HC and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Trends in Vehicle Technologies Based on Alternative Fuels: Battery Electric Vehicles and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

2011-08-30
2011-01-1743
The burgeoning energy and environmental crisis calls for a pressing need to develop alternative fuels which can replace fossil fuels in the near future. This paper enlists and reviews various vehicle programs based on alternative fuels, focusing mainly on battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). Firstly we state prominent vehicle programs undertaken by different manufacturers worldwide in BEVs and FCEVs. This is followed by a comparison of vehicle specifications and features highlighting the evident improvements in their utility that have followed with time. A comprehensive analysis of the observed technological trends in the last two decades has been conducted by us. We discuss the patterns of development in the pivotal areas of BEV technology i.e. the battery and the motor in detail.
Journal Article

Smoothing HCCI Heat Release with Vaporization-Cooling-Induced Thermal Stratification using Ethanol

2011-08-30
2011-01-1760
Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Microkinetic Modelling for Propane Oxidation in Channel Flows of a Silver-Based Automotive Catalytic Converter

2011-08-30
2011-01-2094
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate chemical reactions and transport phenomena occurring in a single channel of a honeycomb-type automotive catalytic converter under lean burn combustion. Microkinetic analysis is adopted to develop a detailed elementary reaction mechanism for propane oxidation on a silver catalyst. Activation energies are calculated based on the theory of the Unity Bond Index-Quadratic Exponential Potential (UBI-QEP) method. The order-of-magnitude of the pre-exponential factors is obtained from Transition State Theory (TST). Sensitivity analysis is applied to identify the important elementary steps and refine the pre-exponential factors of these reactions. These pre-exponential factors depend on inlet temperatures and propane concentration; therefore optimised pre-exponential factors are written in polynomial forms. The results of numerical simulations are validated by comparison with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) on Particulate Filters of Diesel Cars

2011-08-30
2011-01-2096
When a new type of fuel is introduced, it is necessary to ensure that exhaust gas aftertreatment systems work properly with these fuels. Today diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an inherent part of current diesel engine's exhaust gas aftertreatment system due to stringent exhaust emission limits. The functioning of DPF depends on the composition of soot particulates of exhaust gas, whereas the type of soot depends on the fuel used. To avoid clogging, DPF has to be regenerated regularly. This regeneration is usually increasing fuel consumption, so the longer the regeneration interval is, the better is fuel economy. Fuel quality and engine-out particulate emissions are important factors affecting to the need of regeneration. Renewable fuels burn cleanly and produce less particulate emissions than ordinary diesel fuel. Therefore, the increase of exhaust backpressure is slower enabling longer regeneration frequency.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Applying Raw Fuel Injection Technique for Reducing Methane in Aftertreatment of Diesel Dual Fuel Engines Operating under Medium Load Conditions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2093
Towards the effort of using natural gas as an alternative fuel for a diesel engine, the concept of Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) engine has been shown as a strong candidate. Typically, DDF's engine-out emission species such as soot and nitrogen oxides are decreased while carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are increased. The aftertreatment system is required in order to reduce these pollutant emissions from DDF engines. Additionally, DDF engine exhaust has a wide temperature span and is rich in oxygen, which makes HC emissions, especially methane (CH₄), difficult to treat. Until now, it is widely accepted that the key parameter influencing methane oxidation in a catalytic converter is high exhaust temperature. However, a comprehensive understanding of what variables in real DDF engine exhausts most influencing a catalytic converter performance are yet to be explored.
Technical Paper

Impacts on Engine Oil Performance by the Use of Waste Cooking Oil as Diesel Fuel

2011-08-30
2011-01-2115
Technical impacts on engine oil performance by the use of waste cooking oil as bio-diesel fuel (BDF) are not well understood while the industry has made significant progress in studies on quality specifications and infrastructure. The authors, who consist of a consortium organized by Japan Lubricating Oil Society (JALOS), examined technical effects of waste cooking oil as BDF on engine oil performance such as wear and high temperature corrosion using vehicle fleets and bench tests to identify technical issues of engine oil meeting the use of BDF. The study brings fundamental information about technical impacts of BDF on engine oils.
Technical Paper

A Novel Two-Stroke SI Design for NOx Reduction in Natural Gas RI Species Enhanced Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2025
This study examines the novel use of a strong presence of radical ignition (RI) species to augment flame front propagation in a two-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine. Periphery mounted secondary chambers enable the generation of these RI species in one cycle for use in the next cycle. These chambers are outfitted to enable fuel-insertion and rapid heat addition. The new technology examined in the study employs the chemistry of homogeneous combustion radical ignition (HCRI) for the RI species enhancement of pre-mixed charge (PC) SI. The aim is to see if this chemistry can increase the lean burn threshold of this 2-stroke engine with natural gas (NG). The analysis uses experimental data together with a full chemical-kinetics simulation formulation that also accounts for thermo-chemical and hydro-dynamic exchanges that are both between the chambers and with the environment. The mechanism for the chemical kinetics consists of 97 chemical reactions involving 33 species.
Technical Paper

Compressed Air as a Quality and Pollution Free Fuel Substitute in Reciprocating Engines - an Effective Solution to Improve the Engine Performance

2011-08-30
2011-01-2026
An existing 4 stroke-cycle gasoline engine has been partially modified without dynamically changing its mechanism for the purpose to utilize compressed air as an alternative energy source. The principle is to mechanically control the compressed air flow through the intake and exhaust valves every revolution of the crankshaft by modifying the camshaft cam's lobes, which changes the engine operation from 4 strokes to 2 strokes cycle mode. In the previous investigation the principle was verified with a current 50 cc motorcycle modified engine and the pressure behavior inside the cylinder of the compressed air engine was evaluated. It turned out that the back pressure, which is defined as the positive pressure left in the expansion chamber while the piston is moving back from the bottom dead center to the top dead center, has high influence on the performance of the compressed air reciprocating engine.
Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

2011-08-30
2011-01-2046
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Technical Paper

High Compression Ratio Engine Operation on Biomass Producer Gas

2011-08-30
2011-01-2000
Experimental investigations have been conducted with two identical small scale SI gas engines gen-sets operating on biomass producer gas from thermal gasification of wood. The engines where operated with two different compression ratios, one with the original compression ratio for natural gas operation 9.5:1, and the second with a compression ratio of 18.5:1. It was shown that high compression ratio SI engine operation was possible when operating on biomass producer gas from a TwoStage gasifier. The results showed an increase in the electrical efficiency from 31% to 35% when the compression ratio was increased. The influence of ignition timing on emissions was investigated during high compression ratio operation. It was shown that for λ=1.4 the NOx emission decreases by almost a factor 3, when the timing is retarded from 13° to 7° before top dead center.
Technical Paper

LNG-Fuelled Engines and Fuel Systems for Medium-Speed Engines in Maritime Applications

2011-08-30
2011-01-1998
The maritime transportation sector is facing new international restrictions on exhaust emissions. NOx and SOx emissions from traditional marine fuels are a major challenge, which make natural gas a promising new clean alternative. Since the late 1980s, new concepts for medium-speed natural gas-fuelled engines have been developed, primarily for stationary power generation. This technology is currently entering the mobile sector, where Spark Ignition engines, Dual-Fuel engines and High Pressure Gas engines offer advantages such as high efficiency, low emissions and fuel flexibility. The availability of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is increasing, not least via small-scale distribution systems. In Norway, 23 coastal traffic vessels operate on LNG supplied by a distribution system that also supplies city bus fleets. This paper discusses the development of natural gas engines and fuel system technology, and describes experiences from LNG-fuelled ships in operation in Norway.
Technical Paper

Combustion Improvement of CNG Engines by Hydrogen Addition

2011-08-30
2011-01-1996
This research aimed to identify how combustion characteristics are affected by the addition of hydrogen to methane, which is the main components of natural gas, and to study a combustion method that takes advantage of the properties of the blended fuel. It was found that adding hydrogen did not achieve a thermal efficiency improvement effect under stoichiometric conditions because cooling loss increased. The same result was obtained under EGR stoichiometric conditions. In contrast, under lean burn conditions, higher thermal efficiency and lower NOx than with methane combustion was achieved by utilizing the wide flammability range of hydrogen to expand the lean limit. Although NOx can be decreased easily by the addition of large quantities of hydrogen, the substantially lower energy density of the fuel causes a substantial reduction in cruising range. Consequently, this research improved the combustion of a CNG engine by increasing the tumble ratio to 1.8.
Technical Paper

Potential of Concomitant Injection of CNG and Gasoline on a 1.6L Gasoline Direct Injection Turbocharged Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1995
The use of CNG in modern spark ignition turbocharged engine offers many advantages such as high knocking resistance, low CO₂ emissions and high specific power outputs. On the other hand, compared to gasoline, the volumetric efficiency is significantly decreased when CNG is port-injected due to its low energy density. In order to address this issue, recent studies have successfully highlighted the advantages on port-injection engines of the CIGAL™ concept (Concomitant Injection of Gas And Liquid fuels) from IFP Energies Nouvelles. However, the combination of port-injection of CNG with direct injection of gasoline remains unexplored. This paper investigates this novel injection concept on the four-cylinder 1.6L turbocharged GDI engine with inlet variable valve timing resulting from the cooperation between PSA Peugeot-Citroen and the BMW Group.
Technical Paper

Reducing Throttle Losses Using Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) in a Heavy-Duty Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2022
Abstract Stoichiometric operation of Spark Ignited (SI) Heavy Duty Natural Gas (HDNG) engines with a three way catalyst results in very low emissions however they suffer from bad gas-exchange efficiency due to use of throttle which results in high throttling losses. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is a good practice to reduce throttling losses in a certain operating region of the engine. VTG technology is extensively used in diesel engines; it is very much ignored in gasoline engines however it is possible and advantageous to be used on HDNG engine due to their relatively low exhaust gas temperature. Exhaust gas temperatures in HDNG engines are low enough (lower than 760 degree Celsius) and tolerable for VGT material. Traditionally HDNG are equipped with a turbocharger with waste-gate but it is easy and simple to replace the by-pass turbocharger with a well-matched VGT.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the impact of 10% ethanol blended fuels on performances of sold gasoline vehicles in the Japanese market already on the road in Japan

2011-08-30
2011-01-1987
The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines.
Technical Paper

Determination Of Mixture Of Methanol And Ethanol Blends In Gasoline Fuels Using A Miniaturized NIR Flex Fuel Sensor

2011-08-30
2011-01-1988
Based on their 25 world-wide years experience in refining and fuel formulation using Near Infrared technology, the SP3H team has developed an innovative and miniaturized optical fuel quality sensor. The sensor output is based on an HCP matrix (HydroCarbon Profilers) and provides information on the fine chemistry of fuels such as aromatics, olefins, isoparaffins and oxygenates content and information related to the lengths of the Carbon-Carbon Chain. The goal of this study is to answer the need for new flex-fuel sensors able to provide the rate and the type of oxygenates used in different mixtures of binary and ternary blends of methanol, ethanol and gasoline for the emerging markets. This paper presents the results of the models and the accuracy of the optical sensor for the determination and prediction of Methanol-Ethanol-gasoline mixtures based on the HCP approach.
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