Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) on Particulate Filters of Diesel Cars

2011-08-30
2011-01-2096
When a new type of fuel is introduced, it is necessary to ensure that exhaust gas aftertreatment systems work properly with these fuels. Today diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an inherent part of current diesel engine's exhaust gas aftertreatment system due to stringent exhaust emission limits. The functioning of DPF depends on the composition of soot particulates of exhaust gas, whereas the type of soot depends on the fuel used. To avoid clogging, DPF has to be regenerated regularly. This regeneration is usually increasing fuel consumption, so the longer the regeneration interval is, the better is fuel economy. Fuel quality and engine-out particulate emissions are important factors affecting to the need of regeneration. Renewable fuels burn cleanly and produce less particulate emissions than ordinary diesel fuel. Therefore, the increase of exhaust backpressure is slower enabling longer regeneration frequency.
Journal Article

Additive Formulation Technology for Fuel Economy Passenger Car Motor Oil and Development of Sequence VID Screener

2011-08-30
2011-01-2111
Fuel economy is one of the most essential performance requirements for Passenger Car Motor Oil because of fuel economy regulations in many countries and increasing fuel prices. The ILSAC GF-5 specification was issued on December 22, 2009 and requires better fuel economy performance based on the Sequence VID (Seq. VID) Test and higher weighted piston deposit merits based on the Sequence IIIG Test, compared to the ILSAC GF-4 specification. Fuel economy performance is affected by viscosity, friction modification and the lubricant additive chemistries. However, fuel economy engine tests under combustion mode introduce high variability into a fuel economy measurement. Screening by bench testing is complicated by the difficulty to reproduce friction conditions of all of engine parts. A motored friction torque test using an engine is one of the better solutions for fuel economy screening.
Journal Article

Comparison of fuel economy and exhaust emission tests of 4WD vehicles using single-axis chassis dynamometer and dual-axis chassis dynamometer

2011-08-30
2011-01-2058
The demands of application of dual-axis chassis dynamometers (4WD-CHDY) have increased recently due to the improvement of performance of 4WD-CHDY and an increase in the number of 4WD vehicles which are difficult to convert to 2WD. However, there are few evaluations of any differences between fuel economy and exhaust emission levels in the case of 2WD-CHDY with conversion from 4WD to 2WD (2WD-mode) and 4WD-CHDY without conversion to 2WD (4WD-mode). Fuel economy and exhaust emission tests of 4WD vehicle equipped with a typical 4WD mechanism were performed to investigate any differences between the case of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode. In these tests, we measured ‘work at wheel’ (wheel-work) using wheel torque meters. A comparison of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode reveals a difference of fuel economy (2WD-mode is 1.5% better than that of 4WD-mode) and wheel-work (2WD-mode is 3.9% less than that of 4WD-mode). However, there are almost no differences of exhaust emission levels.
Journal Article

Development of an Electronic Resin Throttle Body

2011-08-30
2011-01-2029
The need to improve fuel consumption by saving the weights of automobile parts is growing from the viewpoint of global warming mitigation. In the case of a throttle body for controlling the air flow volume into an engine, it is important to achieve a high dimensional accuracy of the valve-bore gap in the state of closed valve. In fact, most throttle bodies are made of precision-machined metal. Therefore, resin throttle bodies are drawing attention as a lightweight alternate. However, in comparison with metal throttle bodies, resin throttle bodies have two potential disadvantages that should be solved prior to productization. The first one is greater air leakage in the state of closed valve, and the second one is smaller heat conduction for unfreezing the valve in a frigid climate. We have developed an electronic resin throttle body that has overcome the above-mentioned disadvantages.
Technical Paper

New TOYOTA 4.8L V10 Petrol High Performance Engine for Lexus LFA

2011-08-30
2011-01-2024
Achieving the speed and performance of a true supercar was merely the starting point of this development. In addition, the development also focused on achieving emotive performance attributes to enhance driver appeal. For this the engine was developed to assist a vehicle handling provides unsurpassed response, the creating a feeling of infinite acceleration potential, response is instantaneous and based on close understanding of driver's reactions and Awe inspiring sound is providing. It meets the latest emission standard Euro V and achieves good fuel consumption with a wide range stoechiometric air fuel ratio, till speeds up to 240km/h.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2274
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. This paper describes such a simulation framework that can be used to predict fuel economy of series hydraulic hybrid vehicle for any specified driver demand schedule (drive cycle), developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The key components of the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle are modeled using a combination of first principles and empirical data. A simplified driver model is included to follow the specified drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Powertrain-In-the-Loop Integration for Analyzing Real-World Fuel Economy and Emissions Improvements

2011-09-13
2011-01-2275
The paper describes the approach, addresses integration challenges and discusses capabilities of the Hybrid Powertrain-in-the-Loop (H-PIL) facility for the series/hydrostatic hydraulic hybrid system. We describe the simulation of the open-loop and closed-loop hydraulic hybrid systems in H-PIL and its use for concurrent engineering and development of advanced supervisory strategies. The configuration of the hydraulic-hybrid system and details of the hydraulic circuit developed for the H-PIL integration are presented. Next, software and hardware interfaces between the real components and virtual systems are developed, and special attention is given to linking component-level controllers and system-level supervisory control. The H-PIL setup allows imposing realistic dynamic loads on hydraulic pump/motors and accumulator based on vehicle driving schedule.
Journal Article

Impact of Model-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Control Strategy on Battery Sizing and Fuel Economy in Heavy-Duty HEVs

2011-09-13
2011-01-2253
Electrification and hybridization show great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing emission in heavy-duty vehicles. However, high battery cost is unavoidable due to the requirement for large batteries capable of providing high electric power for propulsion. The battery size and cost can be reduced with advanced battery control strategies ensuring safe and robust operation covering infrequent extreme conditions. In this paper, the impact of such a battery control strategy on battery sizing and fuel economy is investigated under various military and heavy-duty driving cycles. The control strategy uses estimated Li-ion concentration information in the electrodes to prevent battery over-charging and over-discharging under aggressive driving conditions. Excessive battery operation is moderated by adjusting allowable battery power limits through the feedback of electrode-averaged Li-ion concentration estimated by an extended Kalman filter (EKF).
Journal Article

Advanced Injection Strategies for Controlling Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2009-06-15
2009-01-1962
The simultaneous reduction of engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions via low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines is generally achieved via the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR rates not only result in a drastic reduction of combustion temperatures to mitigate thermal NOx formation but also increases the level of pre-mixing thereby limiting particulate (soot) formation. However, highly pre-mixed combustion strategies such as LTC are usually limited at higher loads by excessively high heat release rates leading to unacceptable levels of combustion noise and particulate emissions. Further increasing the level of charge dilution (via EGR) can help to reduce combustion noise but maximum EGR rates are ultimately restricted by turbocharger and EGR path technologies.
Technical Paper

A New Method to Convert Crankshaft Position Sensor (CPS) Signals into Angular Acceleration for Engine Combustion Evaluation

2009-05-19
2009-01-2052
With ever-increasing oil and gasoline prices, automotive manufacturers are striving to improve fuel economy. There are many factors that affect vehicle fuel consumption, such as engine size, vehicle weight, driving habits, and more. For a particular vehicle, engine combustion quality is one of the most important factors that affect fuel economy. Engine combustion quality also directly affects engine emissions, vehicle drivability, and vehicle NVH. Automotive manufacturers have been using different technologies to control engine combustion quality, such as using low cost pressure transducers to measure and control engine combustion in real time. In this paper, the authors have proposed a method that could directly use the Crank Position Sensor (CPS) signal to measure engine combustion quality.
Technical Paper

Development of Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy of Small Motorcycle Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0083
A single cylinder gasoline engine of displacement 125 cm3 for prototype was developed, and the fuel economy of this engine was improved by reducing friction and improving combustion. For reducing friction, various methods were innovated; enhancement of the oil film retention by modifying the striation finish on piston skirt, adding the needle bearing to the rocker arm shaft, press-fitting the bush into the small end of connecting rod, reducing contact pressure with the piston ring, and spray coating molybdenum disulfide onto the shift fork. By innovating these friction reduction methods, the friction of the engine was reduced by 6% compared to the previous model which was already employed the roller rocker arm and the offset cylinder. For improving combustion, the swirl control valve (SCV) was installed into the intake port. By the effect of SCV, both improvement of engine power and improving combustion under low load was achieved.
Technical Paper

Global Application Features of KB, a New Gasoline Engine for Compact Vehicles

2009-12-13
2009-28-0059
The main purposes of the KB variant engine development were not only to reduce fuel consumption or to enhance reliability & quality but also to make better productivity for global manufacture. This paper introduces technical approaches of KB, higher thermal efficiency, better performance and emissions, and well balanced product design with such high energy efficiency, and low-cost and global application. Maximum brake torque per displacement is 7% higher and overall engine weight is lighter by 24kg than an existing 1.3L engine. Design feature includes compactness, low noise characteristics and universal production design considered with globally purchasable materials and simple manufacturing requirement. These contribute short production preparation period and short production task time at Suzuki's key overseas local factories e.g., Maruti Suzuki India Limited.
Technical Paper

Electronic Ignition of four stroke single cylinder engine

2009-12-13
2009-28-0024
The demand for the economy due to scarcity of fuel and increased engine performance with less emission will lead to the high level complexity in engine control system. The important factors which affect fuel economy and engine performance are ignition timing and fuel induction. Primitive engines had mechanical system for ignition advancing and retarding. These mechanical systems had their own limitations which are inefficient and unfriendly to the environment. Therefore need of system which has precise adjustment of ignition timing become inevitable. This project focuses on the modeling, developing of electronic ignition system and also the implementation using MC09S12XDT512 Freescale microcontroller. A concept verification of Electronic Ignition control algorithm is simulated using the MATLAB simulink and the Hardware In Loop (HIL) testing is done using dSPACE for ignition angle determination. The microcontroller based ignition system is implemented using the core MC09S12XDT512.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Improve Diesel Engines Efficiency

2009-12-13
2009-28-0020
An innovative connecting rod and drive shaft mechanism has been proposed which will serve to improve the Diesel Engine efficiency by significantly reducing the frictional losses. The new mechanism will have a reduced connecting rod oscillation angle; thereby reducing cylinder rubbing forces. Mechanical efficiency is also high as it employs a favorable transmission angle between the connecting rod and drive shaft gears. Theoretical calculations show that about 10% fuel economy is achievable by adopting this New Concept, which extracts maximum energy from combustion gasses. This mechanism generates Trapezoidal Piston Velocity Profile instead of Sinusoidal one which is in current usage. This concept is not yet tried anywhere so far.
Technical Paper

Turbohybrid - The Realisation of a Holistic Approach for a Modern Gasoline Hybrid Drive

2009-01-21
2009-26-0042
The fuel economy benefits of hybrids have been accepted for long. However their drivability has not been found very acceptable. This paper present a holistic approach which resulted in the development of a Gasoline Turbocharged Hybrid vehicle that not only produced the fuel economy benefits associated with hybridization but also provided driving characteristic of a “fun to drive” vehicle. A comparison of the benefits of the developed Turbohybrid Gasoline vehicle over its base vehicle configuration as well as the later day model of the base vehicle shows the improvements that have been possible in both fuel economy as well as the fun to drive aspect.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Economy Using a New Concept of Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine Applying Stratified-Charge Auto-Ignition

2009-12-13
2009-28-0009
Aiming for improving fuel economy of vehicles, a new two-stroke gasoline engine utilizing stratified-charge auto-ignition has been designed and tested. The engine concept was to switch the combustion mode according to the engine operating load and speed, i.e., homogeneous-charge spark-ignition for the high-load range, homogeneous-charge auto-ignition for the mid- to low-load range, stratified-charge auto-ignition for the low-load low-speed range, and stratified-charge spark-ignition for idling. Using this engine concept, an experimental two-stroke engine was successfully operated free of irregular combustion throughout the range of operating loads. For small motorcycle applications, a great improvement in fuel economy and exhaust emissions was estimated from the experimental data.
Technical Paper

The New Global Passenger Car Diesel Engine: will it be a Downsized 3-Cylinder Engine?

2009-01-21
2009-26-0019
The demand for downsized lightweight, cost-effective diesel engines will cause the dominance of in-line 4 cylinder configurations to be reviewed. New 3 cylinder engine designs targeting specific ratings of 75 kW/7 and above, with improved NVH characteristics compared to current 4 cylinder engines are under development. This paper will summarize the strengths of the L3 layout when compared with current L4 best-in-class powertrains, and comment upon the L3 design in terms of package, performance, emissions and NVH attributes. A 3-cylinder, low fuel consumption research engine will be highlighted as the potential basis for future application both in the developing and mature marketplace.
Technical Paper

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0905
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

A Study on Fuel Economy and Low Emission Development of LPI HEV (SULEV) to Meet Stringent Emission Regulations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0869
Hybrid vehicles, which have a higher fuel economy and system efficiency than conventional gas only vehicles, has been attracting worldwide attention for its various advantages. These advantages include low emissions of greenhouse gases which mitigates direct or indirect effects on the ozone layer. LPI HEV recently developed by HMC performs with the same output level, torque and fuel economy as conventional gasoline hybrid vehicles by employing the world's first liquid-state-injection system for exclusive use of LPG. In particular, the improved fuel economy of the vehicle is expected to help cope with future regulations relating to environmental protection from exhaust fumes.
Journal Article

A New Method to Warm Up Lubricating Oil to Improve the Fuel Efficiency During Cold Start

2011-04-12
2011-01-0318
Cold start driving cycles exhibit an increase in friction losses due to the low temperatures of metal and media compared to normal operating engine conditions. These friction losses are responsible for up to 10% penalty in fuel economy over the official drive cycles like the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC), where the temperature of the oil even at the end of the 1180 s of the drive cycle is below the fully warmed up values of between 100°C and 120°C. At engine oil temperatures below 100°C the water from the blowby condensates and dilutes the engine oil in the oil pan which negatively affects engine wear. Therefore engine oil temperatures above 100°C are desirable to minimize engine wear through blowby condensate. The paper presents a new technique to warm up the engine oil that significantly reduces the friction losses and therefore also reduces the fuel economy penalty during a 22°C cold start NEDC.
X