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Technical Paper

Analysis of Determining Parameters of Acoustical Comfort Inside Vehicles

2011-05-17
2011-01-1686
The description of subjectively perceived acoustical comfort inside vehicle compartments is a complex challenge. On the one hand, it depends on physically measurable events like acoustical stimuli with a defined sound pressure level and frequency distribution. On the other hand, it is also strongly dependent on further factors like the customer's individual expectations, the previously made experiences and other contextual influences. Furthermore, many different driving conditions have to be considered for a customer-related assessment of driving comfort. In this paper, the mechanisms of acoustical comfort inside vehicle compartments are described on basis of various measurements, listening tests and qualitative assessments. The acoustical properties of driving noises at various driving conditions were taken into account as well as room-acoustical parameters of vehicle interiors and factors of speech communication between passengers.
Technical Paper

An integrated framework of real and micro simulated driving cycles to evaluate a new emissions factors model

2011-08-30
2011-01-2063
Transport activities contribute significantly to air pollution. For this reason any policy or plan, carried out by administration or institution, requires the assessment of its impact on the emissions. To assess the overall pollutant production from transport, it is necessary to calculate emission factors. For this aim several methods exist which only use the average speed of the traffic stream, which can be theoretically obtained by vehicles flow and density on the road. Recently, a new statistical approach has been developed capable to consider more attributes than the simple mean speed to characterize driving behaviour, not only in the determination of driving cycles but also in the emission modelling. In this context, a meso scale emission model, named KEM, Kinematic Emission Model, able to calculate emission factor was developed. However, it is necessary to consider that the input to this model is, in any case, the driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Application of Human Factors and Cognitive Neuroscience Principles in the Design of Vehicle Information Displays

2011-09-13
2011-01-2256
The present paper provides a general review of trends in vehicle information display designs, specifically “dashboards,” noting that the purpose of those dashboard displays is to provide information that allows for safe and lawful operation of those vehicles. The author describes how these trends appear to have been driven by a combination of historical precedents including vehicle interior design, available vehicle display technology, and, later, by development of vehicle data busses. The paper describes human factors and cognitive neuroscience issues that affect an operator's ability to read gauges in a dashboard display. The paper reports the results of the author's 2008 research where 71 of 101 survey respondents indicated that they find it hard to read their recreational vehicle gauges. It describes participants' significantly positive responses to the author's dashboard display prototype developed using human factors and cognitive neuroscience principles.
Technical Paper

Sensation and Measurement of Low and Very Low Frequency Time-Varying Sounds in Accordance with the Very Short Impulse Response of Low-Frequency Human Hearing

2011-05-17
2011-01-1665
Human hearing, with its active transducers, attention process and remarkable signal-processing abilities, challenges the transportation-product sound quality engineer to measure accordingly and has clearly given rise to the practice and tools of sound quality engineering. Transient events and/or level changes of various durations and magnitudes and over various frequency bandwidths are measurable with due care in the majority of “real-world” acoustic time-signal histories, and frequently carry subjective importance. Inspired by recent work with wind-turbine sound situations, the focus of this paper is to suggest reconsideration of some low-frequency measurement methodologies in the transportation realm.
Technical Paper

Ease of Conversation Development Method for Passenger Vehicles

2011-05-17
2011-01-1675
One measure of perceived quality in a new car is how easily the passengers can communicate. This includes communication between the passengers and also communication to the vehicle itself, as features such as Bluetooth and voice activated controls become increasingly common. Articulation Index (AI) has long been the standard in the automotive industry for evaluating the ease of communication. Previous studies have explained that AI, however, only evaluates the background noise that surrounds the listener; and does not capture changes in modulation of sound before reaching the listener. The telecommunication and construction industries have used Speech Transmission Index (STI) as a measure of communication. This method incorporates the masking effect of background noise, and modulation of the speech signal along the transmission path. This study focused to understand STI, cascade to component characteristics and modify characteristics to improve speech transmission inside vehicles.
Journal Article

How Body Pressure Distribution Can Map Soldier Comfort

2011-04-12
2011-01-0803
Currently, when the Army studies ride quality and comfort, 6 Watts of absorbed power is commonly cited as a target. However, absorbed power is dependent upon vehicle speed and road roughness and does not fully describe the direct interaction between the occupant and the seat cushion. Recently, there has been a great deal of growth in Body Pressure Distribution (BPD) measurement technologies. This growth in technology allows for new perspectives in quantifying ride comfort. Up to this point, the Army has not capitalized on these new technologies and still heavily on absorbed power to quantify ride comfort. This paper explores how the Army has benefited from pressure mapping technologies to complement absorbed power in quantifying ride comfort of military vehicles.
Technical Paper

Ejection Seat Cushions Static Evaluation for Three Different Installation Rail Angles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0806
Jet fighter missions have been known to last extended period of time. The need for a comfortable and safe seat has become paramount considering that fact that uncomfortable seats can lead to numerous health issues. Several health effects like numbness, pressure sore, low back pain, and vein thrombosis have been associated with protracted sitting. The cushion, and of late the installation rail angle are the only components of the ejection seat system that can be modified to reduce these adverse effects. A comprehensive static comfort evaluation study for ejection seats was conducted. It provides comparison between a variety of operational and prototype cushions (baseline cushion, honeycomb and air-cushion) and three different installation rail angles (14°, 18°, and 22°). Three operational cockpit environment mockups with adjustable installation rail angle were built. Ten volunteer subjects, six females and four males, ages 19 to 35, participated in the seat comfort evaluation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Muscle Fatigue for Urban Bus Drivers using Electromyography

2011-04-12
2011-01-0801
Professional bus drivers are highly exposed to physical fatigue and work-related injuries because driving task includes complicated actions that require a variety of ability and cause extreme concentration or strain. For this reason, there has always been some sense of concern regarding driver fatigue, especially for drivers of commercial vehicles. In this study, we have tried to analyze quantitative fatigue degree of urban bus drivers by measuring their physiological signals. The investigation is made up of the following approaches: a traditional questionnaire survey and video-ethnographic method with 4-way cameras. The close-circuit cameras are installed to observe the upper and lower body of real drivers when they are in driving or even resting. This approach can help to understand urban bus drivers' behaviors and fatigue-related issues. Based on the video-ethnographic investigation results above, we have got certain patterns of drivers.
Journal Article

Linear Quadratic Game Theory Approach to Optimal Preview Control of Vehicle Lateral Motion

2011-04-12
2011-01-0963
Vehicle stability is maintained by proper interactions between the driver and vehicle stability control system. While driver describes the desired target path by commanding steering angle and acceleration/deceleration rates, vehicle stability controller tends to stabilize higher dynamics of the vehicle by correcting longitudinal, lateral, and roll accelerations. In this paper, a finite-horizon optimal solution to vehicle stability control is introduced in the presence of driver's dynamical decision making structure. The proposed concept is inspired by Nash strategy for exactly known systems with more than two players, in which driver, commanding steering wheel angle, and vehicle stability controller, applying compensated yaw moment through differential braking strategy, are defined as the dynamic players of the 2-player differential linear quadratic game.
Journal Article

Driver's Preview Strategy and its Impact on NATO Double Lane Change Maneuver

2011-04-12
2011-01-0980
In this study, a closed-loop driver-vehicle system model is established with ADAMS/CAR. A double lane change maneuver path boundary is setup based on NATO AVTP 03-160W requirement. Multiple choices of driver preview path are derived from optimization of the closed-loop driver-vehicle-road system, where the objective is to successfully pass the double lane change maneuver at a given forward speed without violating the boundary. With the multiple choices of preview path, the vehicle dynamic responses, such as tire patch load, vehicle lateral acceleration, yaw velocity, steering wheel angle and roll angle, will vary associated with each driver's preview path. The relationship between the path clearance and vehicle dynamic responses as well as the forward speeds is further investigated. Finally a methodology to predict the maximum forward speed to successfully pass double lane change is proposed.
Technical Paper

VALIDATE - Basis for New Sophisticated Research Platform for Virtual Development of Vehicle Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-1012
The Stuttgart Driving Simulator currently under construction at the University of Stuttgart makes out the main component of the University's new automotive research platform. The facility will be one of the largest of its kind in Europe. The simulator is based on a powerful eight axes motion system to realistically recreate the linear and rotary motion as perceived by the driver during a real trip. To add further value to the driving simulator, it is designed to house a real vehicle which can be easily exchanged - from small passenger cars up to large luxury sedan vehicles as well as SUVs. To assure a sound testing environment, the driving simulator features a realistic graphical and acoustic representation of the vehicle environment such as roadway, environment, and traffic. This is achieved through a complex surround visualization system with very high level of detail as well as an advanced spatial acoustic noise generator.
Technical Paper

Automotive Simulator Based Novice Driver Training with Assessment

2011-04-12
2011-01-1011
Motor vehicle crashes involving novice drivers are significantly higher than matured driver incidents as reported by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System (NHTSA-FARS). Researchers around the world and the United States are focused on how to decrease crashes for this driver demographic. Novice drivers usually complete driver education classes as a pre-requisite for full licensure to improve overall knowledge and safety. However, compiled statistics still indicate a need for more in-depth training after full licensure. An opportunity exists to supplement in-vehicle driving with focused learning modules using automotive simulators. In this paper, a training program for “Following Etiquette” and “Situational Awareness” was developed to introduce these key driving techniques and to complete a feasibility study using a driving simulator as the training tool.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Overview of Human Interface for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1023
An Extended Range Electric vehicle brings a wealth of new features since it is capable of driving on battery alone, has a range extending engine, and has a high voltage battery pack that can be recharged by plugging into wall power. The customer is able to interact with the vehicle's plug-in charging system through mobile applications. Along with all these new features is the challenge of designing a driver interface to provide important information to the customer. This paper will describe the unique customer interface features added to the vehicle, and will include some additional specifics related to the hardware used to provide the information.
Technical Paper

Noise Robust Optical Sensor for Driver's Vital Signs

2011-04-12
2011-01-1024
We have developed a built-in vital sign sensor, which allows drivers to noninvasively measure their heartbeat and pulse wave just by gripping the steering wheel in the usual manner. Unlike conventional vital sign sensors used in clinical practice, such as an electrocardiogram sensor for measuring the heartbeat and photoplethysmogram sensor for measuring the pulse wave, our system requires no preparation or gel. One of the major issues we have successfully addressed is the suppression of mechanical vibration and electrical noise affecting the pulse wave sensor, which is far more susceptible to disturbances than heartbeat monitoring, especially while driving.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Integrated Non-Intrusive Monitoring of Driver Biological Signals

2011-04-12
2011-01-1095
A vehicle integrated sensing and analysis system has been designed, implemented, and demonstrated to nonintrusively monitor several biological signals of the driver. The biological driver signals measured by the system are the heart electrical signals or pseudo Lead-I electrocardiography (pLI-ECG), the galvanic skin response (GSR) or electrical conductance measured from the driver's fingers to palm, the palm skin temperature, the face skin temperature, and the respiration rate. The pLI-ECG and GSR measurements are made through direct contact of the driver hands with stainless steel electrodes integrated in the steering wheel rim. The temperature measurements are made with non-contacting infrared temperature sensors, also located on the steering wheel. The respiration rate was measured using a flexible thin film piezoelectric sensor affixed to the seatbelt.
Technical Paper

Ride Comfort Evaluation of Bias Ply and Radial Run - Flat Tire in High Mobility Vehicle

2013-01-09
2013-26-0143
Ride comfort is used to describe the degree of human comfort offered by a moving vehicle. The tire plays a major role in determining ride comfort of a vehicle because in practice almost all the forces and moments acting on a vehicle are generated by the tires. In this paper detailed study regarding various technical aspects of bias ply and radial run flat tires had been carried out. After experimental evaluation of dynamic characteristics of tires, ride comfort of test vehicle is investigated. Ride comfort characteristics such as ride quality and vertical acceleration RMS are evaluated and presented in time domain. The data had been collected with a high mobility vehicle with bias ply and radial run flat tires at various speeds on straight and Belgium Pave test track. Tire characteristics significantly affect the ride properties of the vehicle and dominate vehicle response.
Technical Paper

Two Wheeled Vehicle Ride Comfort Evaluation and Optimization Using Bump Test Rig in Virtual Simulation and Validation Through Actual Testing

2014-04-01
2014-01-0078
Abstract Fierce competition in India's motorcycle industry has led to constant product innovation among manufacturers. This has resulted in the reduction of the lifecycle of the vehicle and has driven the manufacturers to alter the product design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continued to challenge motorcycle designers is ride comfort in vertical and longitudinal direction. An essential tool in the motorcycle development process is the ability to quantify and grade the ride comfort behavior. This is performed either through subjective or objective tests. Subjective tests have the disadvantage that numerous factors influence test drivers' opinion while objective measures have the advantage of repeatability.
Technical Paper

Anti-Collision Fuzzy Logic System for Automobile Vehicles

2013-10-07
2013-36-0651
From simple collisions to major tragedies, car accidents happen every day. Automobile industry has been investing a lot in security systems (e.g., airbags, ABS brakes, vehicle proximity warning systems). However, drivers are still the ones who have to act in order to avoid collisions, by using the brakes or maneuvering the car. The purpose of this project is to develop an anti-collision logic that can be used on automobile vehicles to avoid collisions with both static and moving objects by interfering on the vehicle behavior. The control system is based on a fuzzy modeled controller using the MATLAB and Simulink tools from Math Works. The prototype chosen to test the logic was the Robotino, a mobile robot system made by Festo Didactic, and used for educational, training and research purposes. Robotino is able to integrate to Simulink tool natively, and provides out-of-the-box sensors and actuators, so the developers are able to focus the efforts on the software itself.
Technical Paper

Development of an Objective Methodology for Assessment of Commercial Vehicle Gearshift Quality

2014-04-01
2014-01-0182
Abstract Rapid growth in the Indian economy has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; the gear lever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The subjectivity of human perception is difficult to measure objectively; therefore this paper represents an objective methodology to correlate customer feedback of gearshift reactions. For the attribute evaluation of a set of intermediate commercial vehicles; detailed subjective appraisals were conducted by expert level assessors for GSQ sub-attributes, and a consecutive objective measurement was performed to investigate and substantiate these vehicle assessments.
Technical Paper

A Study on an Integrated System to Measure and Analyze Customer Vehicle Usage Monitoring through a Smartphone

2014-04-01
2014-01-0183
Abstract Customer vehicle usage monitoring is one of the most fundamental elements to consider in the process of developing a durable vehicle. The extant method to research customer vehicle usage takes considerable time and effort because it requires attaching a series of sensors to the vehicle-gyroscope, accelerometer, microphone, and GPS-to gather information through data logs and then to analyze data in a computer where designated analyzing software has been installed. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new concept of integrated system developed to examine customer vehicle usage that can analyze data by collecting it from a variety of sensors installed on a smartphone.
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