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Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Facility to Characterize Performance, Surge, and Acoustics in Turbochargers

2011-05-17
2011-01-1644
A cold turbocharger test facility was designed and developed at The Ohio State University to measure the performance characteristics under steady state operating conditions, investigate unsteady surge, and acquire acoustic data. A specific turbocharger is used for a thermodynamic analysis to determine the capabilities and limitations of the facility, as well as for the design and construction of the screw compressor, flow control, oil, and compression systems. Two different compression system geometries were incorporated. One system allows compressor performance measurements left of the surge line, while the other incorporates a variable-volume plenum. At the full plenum volume and a specific impeller tip speed, the temporal variation of the compressor inlet and outlet and the plenum pressures as well as the turbocharger speed is presented for stable, mild surge, and deep surge operating points.
Journal Article

Diesel Engine Size Scaling at Medium Load without EGR

2011-04-12
2011-01-1384
Several diffusion combustion scaling models were experimentally tested in two geometrically similar single-cylinder diesel engines with a bore diameter ratio of 1.7. Assuming that the engines have the same in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions and equivalence ratio, the combustion models primarily change the fuel injection pressure and engine speed in order to attain similar performance and emissions. The models tested include an extended scaling model, which scales diffusion flame lift-off length and jet spray penetration; a simple scaling model, which only scales spray penetration at equal mean piston speed; and a same speed scaling model, which holds crankshaft rotational velocity constant while also scaling spray penetration. Successfully scaling diffusion combustion proved difficult to accomplish because of apparent differences that remained in the fuel-air mixing and heat transfer processes.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1391
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis and Control of Advanced Diesel Combustions using Engine Vibration Signal

2011-04-12
2011-01-1414
Increasing demands on emissions reduction and efficiency encouraged a progressive introduction of cleaner combustion concepts. "Advanced" diesel combustions offer a high potential for simultaneous reduction of both NOx and soot within the engine through high inlet charge dilution and mixture homogenization. However, the potential benefits of these combustions in terms of emissions are counterbalanced by their high sensitivity to in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions. This sensitivity makes the engines require closed loop combustion control with real-time information about combustion quality. The parameter widely considered as the most important for the evaluation of the combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the cylinder pressure. However, this kind of measure involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder, expensive sensors and a special mounting process.
Technical Paper

High Compression Ratio Engine Operation on Biomass Producer Gas

2011-08-30
2011-01-2000
Experimental investigations have been conducted with two identical small scale SI gas engines gen-sets operating on biomass producer gas from thermal gasification of wood. The engines where operated with two different compression ratios, one with the original compression ratio for natural gas operation 9.5:1, and the second with a compression ratio of 18.5:1. It was shown that high compression ratio SI engine operation was possible when operating on biomass producer gas from a TwoStage gasifier. The results showed an increase in the electrical efficiency from 31% to 35% when the compression ratio was increased. The influence of ignition timing on emissions was investigated during high compression ratio operation. It was shown that for λ=1.4 the NOx emission decreases by almost a factor 3, when the timing is retarded from 13° to 7° before top dead center.
Journal Article

Butanol Blending - a Promising Approach to Enhance the Thermodynamic Potential of Gasoline - Part 1

2011-08-30
2011-01-1990
Blending gasoline with oxygenates like ethanol, MTBE or ETBE has a proven potential to increase the thermodynamic efficiency by enhancing knock resistance. The present research focuses on assessing the capability of a 2- and tert-butanol mixture as a possible alternative to state-of-the-art oxygenates. The butanol mixture was blended into a non-oxygenated reference gasoline with a research octane number (RON) of 97. The butanol blending ratios were 15% and 30% by mass. Both the thermodynamic potential and the impact on emissions were investigated. Tests are performed on a highly boosted single-cylinder gasoline engine with high load capability and a direct injecting fuel system using a solenoid-actuated multi-hole injector. The engine is equipped with both intake and exhaust cam phasers. The engine has been chosen for the fuel investigation, as it represents the SI technology with a strongly increasing market share.
Journal Article

Development of a Direct Injection High Efficiency Liquid Phase LPG Spark Ignition Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1881
Direct Injection (DI) is believed to be one of the key strategies for maximizing the thermal efficiency of Spark Ignition (SI) engines and meet the ever-tightening emissions regulations. This paper explores the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) liquid phase fuel in a 1.5 liter SI four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder, and centrally located DI injector. The DI injector is a high pressure, fast actuating injector enabling precise multiple injections of the finely atomized fuel sprays. With DI technology, the injection timing can be set to avoid fuel bypassing the engine during valve overlap into the exhaust system prior to combustion. The fuel vaporization associated with DI reduces combustion chamber and charge temperatures, thereby reducing the tendency for knocking. Fuel atomization quality supports an efficient combustion process.
Technical Paper

Advances in Variable Density Wall Functions for Turbulent Flow CFD-Simulations, Emphasis on Heat Transfer

2009-06-15
2009-01-1975
A new variable density / physical property wall function formalism has been developed. The new formalism is designed to extend the validity range of wall functions to cover both the low- and high-Reynolds-number domains so that the restrictions on the non-dimensional near-wall mesh resolution can be avoided. The new formalism also accounts for the temperature gradient induced variations of density, viscosity, heat conductivity and specific heat capacity. The new wall function formalism is constructed in conjunction with a modified low-Reynolds-number turbulence model in order to avoid the conflicting requirements of low- and high-Reynolds-number models on the near wall mesh resolution. The new formulation is validated with test simulations of strongly heated air flows in circular tube against measurements and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Energy Balance for Air-Cooled DI Diesel Engines Operating in Hot Climates

2009-06-15
2009-01-1974
The effects of various loads and climatic conditions, as well as the engine’s characteristics on the thermal balance and a modification of the engine air-cooling system are presented. Thermal balance tests were conducted for engine thermal efficiency, heat loss through the exhaust gases, heat loss to the cooling air and unaccounted losses (i.e. heat lost by lubricating oil, radiation). While performance tests were in respect to the brake power, specific consumption was tested at different loads, and at ambient air temperature. The analysis of the statistics, and the experimental measurements, reveal interesting aspects of the engine heat transfers. A modification of the cooling system by adding fins at the engine inlet is carried out in order to reduce the thermal charge on the fourth cylinder.
Journal Article

Applying an Interactively Coupled CFD-Multi-Zone Approach to Study the Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry Variations on PCCI Combustion

2009-06-15
2009-01-1955
Recently, a consistent mixing model for the two-way coupling of a CFD code and a zero-dimensional multi-zone code was developed. This work allowed for building an interactively coupled CFD-multi-zone approach that can be used to model HCCI combustion. In this study, the interactively coupled CFD-multi-zone approach is applied to PCCI combustion in a 1.9l FIAT GM Diesel engine. The physical domain in the CFD code is subdivided into multiple zones based on one phase variable (fuel mixture fraction). The fuel mixture fraction is the dominant quantity for the description of nonpremixed combustion. Each zone in the CFD code is represented by a corresponding zone in the zero-dimensional multi-zone code. The zero-dimensional multi-zone code solves the chemistry for each zone, and the heat release is fed back into the CFD code. The thermodynamic state of each zone, and thereby the phase variable, changes in time due to mixing and source terms (e.g., vaporization of fuel, wall heat transfer).
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1439
The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Study on the Solubility of NaBH4 and NaBO2 in NaOH Solutions

2011-08-30
2011-01-1741
Extensive research has been performed for on-board hydrogen generation, such as pyrolysis of metal hydrides (e.g., LiH, MgH₂), hydrogen storages in adsorption materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphites), compressed hydrogen tanks and the hydrolysis of chemical hydrides. Among these methods, the hydrolysis of NaBH₄ has attracted great attention due to the high stability of its alkaline solution and the relatively high energy density, with further advantages such as moderate temperature range (from -5°C to 100°C) requirement, non-flammable, no side reactions or other volatile products, high purity H₂ output. The H₂ energy density contained by the system is fully depend on the solubility of the complicated solution contains reactant, product and the solution stabilizer. In this work, an approach based on thermodynamic equilibrium was proposed to model the relationship between the solubility of an electrolyte and temperature, and the effect of another component on its solubility.
Technical Paper

A Thermodynamic Study on Boosted HCCI: Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0905
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI.
Technical Paper

Model Based Fault Detection of the Air and Exhaust Path of Diesel Engines Including Turbocharger Models

2011-04-12
2011-01-0700
Faults in the intake and exhaust path of turbocharged common-rail diesel engines lead to an increase of emissions and to performance losses. Fault detection strategies based on plausibility checks, threshold based trend or limit checking of sensor data are not able to detect and isolate all faults appearing in the intake and exhaust path without increasing of the number of sensors. The need to minimize mass and reduce cost, including the number of sensors, while maintaining robust performance leads to higher application of models for intake and exhaust path components. Therefore a concept of model based fault detection with parity equations is considered. It contains the following parts: modeling, residual generation with parity equations using parallel nonlinear models, fault to symptom transformation with masking of residuals dependent on the operating point and limit violation checking of the residuals.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency Internal Combustion Stirling Engine Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0410
A unique engine, based on the regenerative principle, is being developed with the goal of achieving high brake efficiency over a wide power range. It can be characterized as an internal combustion Stirling engine (ICSE). The engine is a split-cycle configuration with a regenerator between the intake/compression cylinder and the power/exhaust cylinder. The regenerator acts as a counter-flow heat exchanger. During exhaust, the hot gases are cooled by the regenerator. The regenerator stores this heat. On the next cycle, compressed gases flow in the opposite direction and are heated by the regenerator. The gases coming from the regenerator into the power cylinder are very hot (~900°C), which provides the necessary gas temperature for auto-ignition of diesel and other fuels.
Technical Paper

CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool

2011-04-12
2011-01-0656
In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs per year primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on solutions to this challenge through the CoolCab project. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. To help assess and improve idle reduction solutions, the CoolCalc software tool was developed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Transient Thermal Convection of a Full Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0645
Many critical thermal issues that occur in vehicles are uncovered only under more “thermally stressed” driving conditions that are transient in nature such as abruptly changing vehicle speed or turning off fan and engine. Therefore, for flow simulations to be useful in the vehicle design process, it is imperative that these simulations have the ability to accurately model long term transient thermal convection on full vehicles. Presented are simulations for a passenger vehicle driving at 60 kilometers per hour followed by a complete stop. The simulations were performed using a coupling between the flow and thermal solver and in the process, taking into account convection, conduction and radiation effects. Temperature predictions were made both under steady state conditions and during the key-off. Good agreement with the measurements was observed.
Journal Article

Micro-Cooling/Heating Strategy for Energy Efficient HVAC System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0644
Energy efficient HVAC system is becoming increasingly important as higher Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are required for future vehicle products. The present study is a preliminary attempt at designing energy efficient HVAC system by introducing localized heating/cooling concepts without compromising occupant thermal comfort. In order to achieve this goal of reduced energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort it is imperative that we use an analytical model capable of predicting thermal comfort with reasonable accuracy in a non-homogenous enclosed thermal environment such as a vehicle's passenger cabin. This study will primarily focus on two aspects: (a) energy efficiency improvements in an HVAC system through micro-cooling/heating strategies and (b) validation of an analytical approach developed in GM that would support the above effort.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Transient Refrigerant Migration Modeling Approach on Automotive Air Conditioning Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0649
Automotive air conditioning systems are subject to constantly changing operation conditions and steady state simulations are not sufficient to describe the actual performance. The refrigerant mass migration during transient events such as clutch-cycling or start-up has a direct impact on the transient performance. It is therefore necessary to develop simulation tools which can accurately predict the migration of the refrigerant mass. To this end a dynamic model of an automotive air conditioning system is presented in this paper using a switched modeling framework. Model validation against experimental results demonstrates that the developed modeling approach is able to describe the transient behaviors of the system, and also predict the refrigerant mass migration among system components during compressor shut-down and start-up (stop-start) cycling operations.
Journal Article

Development of a Simplified Instantaneous Friction Model of the Piston-Crank-Slider Mechanism of Internal Combustion Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0612
The continuous increase of the green house emissions in conjunction with the limited and finite fuel resources make the improvement of efficiency of all engines, converting fuel chemical energy to mechanical energy, imperative. Even small increase in engine's mechanical efficiency, can be proved significant in economical and environmental terms. Towards this direction, the tribology studies of the Internal Combustion Engines, mainly used as propulsion, power generation and auxiliary drives, are considered important for the design of new engines and the improvement of existing ones. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified (analytical) model for the prediction of the instantaneous friction, developed on the main components of the piston-crank-slider mechanism of an internal combustion engine, including complete piston ring packs, piston skirts, connecting rod bearings and crankshaft main bearings.
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