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Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Techniques for Electric Vehicle Battery Prognostics and Health Management (PHM)

2011-09-13
2011-01-2247
Batteries are widely used as storage devices and they have recently gained popularity due to their increasing smaller sizes, lighter weights and greater energy densities. These characteristics also render them suitable for powering electric vehicles. However, a key gap exists in that batteries are solely used as storage devices with a lack of information flow. Next-generation battery technologies will constitute the enabling tools that would lead to information-rich batteries, thus allowing the transparent assessment of a battery's health as well as the prediction of a battery's remaining-useful-life (RUL) and its subsequent impact on vehicle mobility. Various methods and techniques have been employed to predict battery RUL in order to improve the accuracy of the State of Charge (SoC) estimation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Gear Whine, Efficiency, and Durability of a Manual Transaxle

2009-05-19
2009-01-2064
Development of modern powertrains used in car and truck applications is more competitive than ever before. Powertrains and components previously considered to be advanced technology, such as hybrids and dual-clutch transmission technology, are now commonplace, being designed and manufactured in all worldwide markets. In order to stay competitive, powertrain OEMs must simultaneously optimize attributes such as performance, cost, weight, durability, fuel economy and NVH while producing new, desirable designs with reduced product development timelines. Oftentimes, the ideal solution for optimization of gear whine will result in an unexpected deterioration of durability, and vice versa. An advanced software tool was previously developed for the design of transmissions and transaxles, including analysis of the vibration, efficiency and durability performance under specified speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

A/C Moan - its Diagnostics and Control

2009-05-19
2009-01-2054
Air-conditioning (A/C) induced moan is a very commonly observed phenomenon in automotive refrigerant systems. Since most of the automotive A/C systems cycle ON/OFF four to six times every minute, the A/C induced moan is quite readily audible under engine idle and even while driving, especially under lower engine/vehicle speeds. It is not unusual for an A/C compressor to moan or not, on some vehicle/s under certain operating conditions. Most of the OEMs resolve or suppress the A/C moan potential to barely audible levels. However, under some unique and extreme operating conditions, A/C moan is quite readily induced and often results in customer complaints. This paper discusses A/C moan related root-causes, sources and paths of propagation. A systematic diagnostic test-procedure is also described to diagnose and develop the needed most cost-effective design-fixes. Finally, based on this case-study - some objective targets are recommended to suppress the A/C moan to acceptable levels.
Technical Paper

A High Performance Passive Muffler Valve

2009-05-19
2009-01-2039
A new passive muffler valve has been developed that offers the advantages of both the current passive and active valves without their major drawbacks. Like current passive valves this new valve provides high restriction at low to medium engine speeds for improved noise control. But with a near over-center spring action and unique flap shape, this high performance valve has minimal pressure drop at high engine speeds, closer to the active valve pressure drop performance. The in-line design of the valve makes it ideal for low restriction OE mufflers, resonators, and aftermarket performance mufflers. The new valve design is uncomplicated, with few components and has been tested extensively for durability utilizing both bench and vehicle level testing.
Technical Paper

Noise Reduction of Electrically Powered Mass Rapid Train by Improving the Contact Conditions between the Rubbing Plates and the Friction Blocks

2009-05-19
2009-01-2094
A noticeable noise and vibration occurred when the Mass Rapid Train turned on a rail with a large turning angle. A study was performed to investigate the source of the noise and vibration, to find the root causes, and to discuss the corrective actions to improve the issue. The investigation indicates the noise occurs between the slewing ring bearing and the friction sets. The slewing ring bearing is located between the body and chassis systems. It provides a relative rotation between the body and chassis. The friction sets provide friction forces to prevent abrupt movements and to help to stabilize the relative motions between the body and chassis systems. The study shows under certain contact conditions unsmooth turning would occur and cause the noise and vibration. A corrective action was suggested to improve the condition.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Analysis through Accelerometer Signal Processing for Diesel Engine Combustion Optimization

2009-05-19
2009-01-2079
Many efforts are being currently devoted to the development of diagnostic techniques based on nonintrusive measurements aimed at defining the injection parameters able to optimize the combustion process. Previous papers of the authors have demonstrated a direct relationship between in-cylinder pressure and engine block vibration signals. Besides, it was also shown sensitivity of the engine surface vibration to variation of injection parameters, when the accelerometer is placed in sensitive location of the engine block. Moreover, in the accelerometer signal, a frequency band in which such a relationship is very strict has been selected. The aim of the present work is to establish a reliable relation between the main characteristics of the in-cylinder pressure curve and the vibration trend, by means of a deeper insight into the engine block signal. The final objective is to monitor the combustion behavior by means of a non-intrusive transducer.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Virtual Instrumentation Concept on Tests Rigs

2009-01-21
2009-26-0078
Tractor is used as a farm machine for various agricultural applications and non-agricultural applications. These are like land and soil preparation, harvesting, goods transport vehicle for short distances and also as low cost construction equipment. The usage pattern is scattered and largely depends on type of operation, region, and operator driving habits. Due to larger range of usage pattern, there are many challenges for tractor testing and evaluation. The evaluation process starts with field load data acquisition, followed by development of test load cycles and test facilities to simulate the field load conditions in lab with adequate acceleration. Traditionally for testing of transmission, hydraulics, brake, clutch, gear shifting mechanism, engine test beds are mechatronics (mechanical and electronics) system. These systems having fix specifications so it's not possible to change the configuration.
Technical Paper

Bus Fleet Operation on Renewable Paraffinic Diesel Fuel

2011-08-30
2011-01-1965
Helsinki Region Transport, Neste Oil, Proventia Emission Control and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland carried out a 3.5 year PPP venture “OPTIBIO” to demonstrate the use of paraffinic renewable diesel (hydrotreated vegetable oil HVO) in city buses. The fleet test in Metropolitan Helsinki involving some 300 buses is the largest one in the world to demonstrate this new fuel. The fuels were a 30 % blend of renewable diesel and 100 % renewable diesel. This paper describes the overall set-up of the project, gives an overview of the emission results as well as presents experience from the field.
Technical Paper

Z-type Schlieren Setup and its Application to High-Speed Imaging of Gasoline Sprays

2011-08-30
2011-01-1981
Schlieren and shadowgraph imaging have been used for many years to identify refractive index gradients in various applications. For evaporating fuel sprays, these techniques can differentiate the boundary between spray regions and background ambient gases. Valuable information such as the penetration rate, spreading angle, spray structure, and spray pattern can be obtained using schlieren diagnostics. In this study, we present details of a z-type schlieren system setup and its application to port-fuel-injection gasoline sprays. The schlieren high-speed movies were used to obtain time histories of the spray penetration and spreading angle. Later, these global parameters were compared to specifications provided by the injector manufacturer. Also, diagnostic parameters such as the proportion of light cut-off at the focal point and the orientation of knife-edge (schlieren-stop) used to achieve the cut-off were examined.
Journal Article

A Simulation and Optimization Methodology for Reliability of Vehicle Fleets

2011-04-12
2011-01-0725
Understanding reliability is critical in design, maintenance and durability analysis of engineering systems. A reliability simulation methodology is presented in this paper for vehicle fleets using limited data. The method can be used to estimate the reliability of non-repairable as well as repairable systems. It can optimally allocate, based on a target system reliability, individual component reliabilities using a multi-objective optimization algorithm. The algorithm establishes a Pareto front that can be used for optimal tradeoff between reliability and the associated cost. The method uses Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the system failure rate and reliability as a function of time. The probability density functions (PDF) of the time between failures for all components of the system are estimated using either limited data or a user-supplied MTBF (mean time between failures) and its coefficient of variation.
Journal Article

Reliability Prediction for the HMMWV Suspension System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0726
This research paper addresses the ground vehicle reliability prediction process based on a new integrated reliability prediction framework. The integrated stochastic framework combines the computational physics-based predictions with experimental testing information for assessing vehicle reliability. The integrated reliability prediction approach incorporates the following computational steps: i) simulation of stochastic operational environment, ii) vehicle multi-body dynamics analysis, iii) stress prediction in subsystems and components, iv) stochastic progressive damage analysis, and v) component life prediction, including the effects of maintenance and, finally, iv) reliability prediction at component and system level. To solve efficiently and accurately the challenges coming from large-size computational mechanics models and high-dimensional stochastic spaces, a HPC simulation-based approach to the reliability problem was implemented.
Journal Article

Time-Dependent Reliability of Random Dynamic Systems Using Time-Series Modeling and Importance Sampling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0728
Reliability is an important engineering requirement for consistently delivering acceptable product performance through time. As time progresses, the product may fail due to time-dependent operating conditions and material properties, component degradation, etc. The reliability degradation with time may increase the lifecycle cost due to potential warranty costs, repairs and loss of market share. Reliability is the probability that the system will perform its intended function successfully for a specified time interval. In this work, we consider the first-passage reliability which accounts for the first time failure of non-repairable systems. Methods are available in the literature, which provide an upper bound to the true reliability which may overestimate the true value considerably. Monte-Carlo simulations are accurate but computationally expensive.
Technical Paper

Fault Model-Based Interactive Service Procedure Tool

2011-04-12
2011-01-0749
This paper presents an interactive, fault model-based prototype diagnostic tool that will assist service technicians in isolating the root cause of vehicle problems and performing corrective repairs. Current automotive service procedures are driven primarily by static service manuals that inform technicians on the service steps in case a specific diagnostic trouble code (DTC) is set in a vehicle. Although comprehensive, these service procedures usually require technicians to gather and integrate diagnostic information from several sources, such as DTCs, customer complaints and manual test results. This can lead to increased repair time and labor costs. The fault model-based interactive service procedure tool discussed in this paper will guide the technician to isolate the fault and provide him/her with recommendations for the correct repair actions. The tool uses a fault model, built using service procedures information, historical repair data and engineering inputs.
Technical Paper

System of the Automatic Preventive On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of Car Engines on the Basis of the New Methods of Preventive Diagnostics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0747
This paper introduces architecture of an integrated system of preventive diagnostics and mathematical and computational methods, based on which such a system is being developed. The present work aims to: describe the methods of preventive diagnostics based on mathematical models and computing algorithms, allowing to detect the hidden harbingers of engine dysfunctions and future failures; describe the architecture of the system of preventive diagnostics, its further evolution; describe the process of integration of preventive diagnostics system to the car engine. A necessary condition for the development system of preventive diagnosis is the condition of their economic efficiency, including the requirement of low cost sensors and computing systems of diagnostics.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Automotive Test Equipment in the Service Bay

2011-04-12
2011-01-0750
Most people still remember the introduction of the IBM PC in 1981 and the first Microsoft Windows operating system in 1985. These were the pioneering technologies that started a revolution in automotive test equipment in the service bay. What was once a purely mechanical garage environment where information was published annually in large paper manuals has evolved into a highly technical computing environment. Today vehicle networks link onboard vehicle control systems with diagnostic systems and updated service information is published daily over the Internet. A lot has changed over the last twenty years, and manufacturers of diagnostic test equipment are learning to deal with the constantly evolving computing platforms and host operating systems. This paper traces the history of automotive diagnostic equipment at Ford Motor Company and shares some of the hard lessons learned from the early systems.
Journal Article

A Design Methodology to Assure Safe On-Road Handling Dynamics for Vehicles with Aftermarket Chassis Modifications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0965
The U.S. NHTSA has established the FMVSS 126 standard that requires all vehicles sold in the U.S. to include an ESC system as standard equipment after September 1 st , 2011. There is growing concern among aftermarket suppliers specialized in development and installation of vehicle performance parts that chassis modifications may cause the ESC systems to be inoperative or can create unforeseen issues with stability and safety systems. This industry is in need of a process to support the development and validation of chassis modification. The authors propose the implementation of SIL and HIL simulations as a solution to the problem statement. Based on the results of a sensitivity analysis, guidelines for safe aftermarket modifications will be presented.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis and Elimination of Vehicle Shudder in a Sports Utility Vehicle

2013-01-09
2013-26-0090
Ground clearance plays an important role in Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV). Designers are good in designing their own systems but when it comes to integration of systems, the impact of one system on others and cascading effects become the major problems in full vehicle development. The test vehicle is a monocoque construction with power train in transverse (east-west) direction. Vehicle shudder is observed in lateral direction exciting the steering column, floor during the low gear power train run up in Wide Open Throttle (WOT) condition. The shudder is felt predominantly on the front half of the vehicle. Being a low frequency phenomenon with high energy it becomes critical and the phenomenon is easily perceivable by passenger. The paper discusses the measurement and analysis procedures to identify the root cause of shudder. Different modifications are tried out based on the analysis and an optimum solution is selected.
Technical Paper

Seat Squeak Measurement and Diagnosis

2013-01-09
2013-26-0094
BSR (Buzz, Squeak and Rattle) is one of the oldest concerns in automobiles which directly reflect the build, assembly and manufacturing quality of a vehicle. In a cabin all the areas where there is relative motion between two components, such as trims, instrument panel and seats, are prone to squeak. This paper explains the study of seat squeak measurement and diagnosis which is a major concern for one of the products which is already in the market. Since squeak is a friction induced non stationary phenomenon, lot of effort was required to generate squeak in both component as well as vehicle level. At component level, electrodynamic shaker was extensively used for generation of squeak signals. In Vehicle level, driving through different road patterns, pave track and forced excitation on four posters are performed for generation of squeak signals. In this paper usage of wavelet and Zwikker loudness are explained for the diagnosis of seat squeak to identify the problematic frequencies.
Technical Paper

New Articulated Safety Bar Project for Cab-Over Trucks

2013-10-07
2013-36-0228
On cab-over trucks to access the engine and others components it is necessary to tilt the cab. This is a regular procedure done several times during the vehicle life cycle. In order to make it easier and safer for mechanical tilting system, it was developed an articulated safety bar to sustain and maintain the cab on the open position. On the current bars available in the market, to close the cab it is necessary that the operator get under the cab to disengage the safety bar. This procedure puts the operator under risk because an accident can happen while the disengagement and the cab can close over him. Thinking on that and looking for a better ergonomic and safety situation, the objective of this work is to present a new articulated safety bar that the engagement and disengagement is done automatically with the natural tilting movement of the cab. This solution was developed at Iveco Latin America for adoption on the new Vertis HD and is under patent process.
Technical Paper

Method of Computer-Aided FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) in Reliability Design and Development: Analyzing FTA Using the Support System in Actual Design Process

2014-04-01
2014-01-0747
Abstract The authors propose computerized support for Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) based on new knowledge management in product design. FTA is a method of analyzing and visualizing the causes of a fault event by Fault Tree diagram (FT diagram) that has a tree structure with logical step. Many methods of support for FTA are studied, but they are not effective for our FTA. We have developed the system of Computer-Aided FTA (FTAid) for design engineers by the collaborative research group (JATCO Ltd, The University of Tokyo and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology). We reported this system in SAE2012 World Congress. After that, the knowledge management for FTA and new functions of this system have been studied continuously. In this paper we report that FT diagrams used FTAid improved to be useful for design engineers are analyzed based on individual qualification and skill of FTA, we study improvement of FTAid and the FTA education system.
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