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Technical Paper

Spirit AeroSystems Acoustics Lab: Measurement and Analysis Capabilities

2011-05-17
2011-01-1643
Previously part of a larger OEM, Spirit AeroSystems became a standalone company 5 years ago and is currently a Tier One supplier of aerostructures. Products include fuselage components, wing structures, engine struts and nacelles, and at the request of various OEMs, fully stuffed fuselages and podded engines where all of the wiring, heating, duct work, etc. is installed prior to delivery. While operating as part of the Propulsion Structures and Systems Business Unit, the design, testing and analysis services provided by the acoustics lab potentially impact all programs at all stages of development because of increasing noise regulations and material certification requirements for implementation in high noise environments.
Technical Paper

Drive by Noise System and Corresponding Facility Upgrades for Test Efficiency, Data Quality and Customer Satisfaction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1611
An existing pass by noise data acquisition system was upgraded to provide the sophisticated data analysis techniques and test site efficiency required to comply with the current and future drive by noise regulations. Use of six sigma tool such as voice of the customer helped in defining the customer requirements which were then translated into the desired engineering characteristics using QFD. Pugh concept matrix narrowed down the best option suitable for the test site modifications taking into account the critical constraints such as test complexity, system cost & transparency to the existing drive by noise setup. Features of the new system include data telemetry, frequency analysis, portability and efficient data management through the use of advanced data acquisition system. Wireless mode of the data transmission helped significantly avoid most of the test site modifications, which in turn helped to reduce the overall system implementation cost.
Technical Paper

Dispersion of Test-Based NVH Characteristics at Various Trim Levels

2011-05-17
2011-01-1569
A broad measurement campaign was run at Volvo aiming at the evaluation of dispersion in test-based NVH characteristics of a car body and at the derivation of reference data for judging the accuracy of CAE predictions. Within this work 6, nominally identical, vehicles were tested. Tests included operational noise on Complete Vehicle (CV) level (road noise, engine noise and idling noise), NTF, VTF & Acoustic FRF measurements in CV, Trimmed Body (TB) & TB-Stripped (TBS) configurations. Additionally, modal analysis and NTF, VTF, AFRF tests were carried out on 4 BIPs of the same vehicle type. Further, limited tests were carried out on 28 vehicles of the same type. The aim of the work was to study the development of dispersion with increasing complexity of the test object, from the BIP to TB and CV.
Technical Paper

Two-stage Gear Driveline Vibration and Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1542
Gear meshing noise is a common noise issue in manual transmission, its noise generation mechanism has been studied extensively [1, 2]. But most of time we have situations where multiple gear sets are connected in series and the noise and vibration behavior for a multi-stage gear can be quite different due to vibration inter-actions or interferences among multiple gear sets. In this paper, a two-stage gear driveline model was built using MSC ADAMS. Vibration order contents of a two-stage gear driveline were analyzed by both CAE simulation and theoretical calculations. In addition to gear meshing vibration orders of each gear set, the orders resulted from modulations between individual gear meshing and their harmonics were evident in the results. These special order contents were verified by experimental results, and also evidenced on transmission end of line tester results at transmission supplier GJT in Ganzhou, China.
Technical Paper

High-Performance Grid Computing for Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation: Architecture and Applications

2011-09-13
2011-01-2268
This paper presents an extension of our earlier work on Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. Previously, we presented VMS as a Windows based analysis tool to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. We have subsequently extended this VMS architecture to build a grid-computing platform to support high volume of simulation needs. The building block of the grid-computing version of VMS is an executable file that consists of vehicle and engine simulation models compiled using Real Time Workshop. This executable file integrates MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies and interacts with the MySQL database. Our grid consists of a cluster of twenty Linux servers with quad-core processors. The Sun Grid Engine software suite that administers this cluster can batch-queue and execute 80 simulations concurrently.
Technical Paper

Standardization of Wiring Harness Data Formats between Truck OEMs and Suppliers

2011-09-13
2011-01-2270
The continuously integration of electrics and electronics (EE) in the last decades is one of the main key drivers for innovation and business success of the Automotive OEMs. This is also applicable for truck manufacturers. On the other side factors like the rising vehicle complexity, number of variants and the warranty costs for EE issues are increasing the pressure on the engineering teams responsible for the mechatronic systems. To address these issues one of the key activities in the European market (focus on Germany) during the last decade was to introduce industry-wide standards for the data transfer of wiring harness data between OEM and harness supplier. In this paper the benefits and technical background of using the standards KBL and KOMP formats within the MB-Trucks brand will be presented. Moreover the role of the Information Technology (IT) will be explained in detail.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Implementing Telematics Solutions in Heavy, Mobile Equipment Markets

2011-09-13
2011-01-2258
This paper will examine factors that should be considered by a vehicle OEM when implementing a telematics solution in heavy on-and off-road mobile equipment markets. For the purposes of this paper, heavy mobile equipment will be inclusive of agricultural, construction, industrial, forestry, and on-road truck vehicles. Telematics will be defined as two-way, wireless communication between a vehicle and its external environment. Although many of the concepts discussed will be relevant to consumer, light automotive, or fixed industrial applications, the scope of this paper is directed toward heavy, mobile equipment OEMs.
Technical Paper

Borderline Design of Crankshafts Based on Hybrid Simulation Technology

2009-06-15
2009-01-1918
This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Design and Validation of an Exhaust Muffler for a Commercial Telehandler

2009-05-19
2009-01-2047
This paper describes the design, development and validation of a muffler for reducing exhaust noise from a commercial tele-handler. It also describes the procedure for modeling and optimizing the exhaust muffler along with experimental measurement for correlating the sound transmission loss (STL). The design and tuning of the tele-handler muffler was based on several factors including overall performance, cost, weight, available space, and ease of manufacturing. The analysis for predicting the STL was conducted using the commercial software LMS Virtual Lab (LMS-VL), while the experimental validation was carried out in the laboratory using the two load setup. First, in order to gain confidence in the applicability of LMS-VL, the STL of some simple expansion mufflers with and without extended inlet/outlet and perforations was considered. The STL of these mufflers were predicted using the traditional plane wave transfer matrix approach.
Journal Article

Noise Optimization of Diesel Engines with New Combustion Systems

2009-05-19
2009-01-2081
The Euro 6 emission standard requires a strong reduction of NOx and soot emissions for future Diesel engines. One of the ways to reach the Euro 6 standard for new Diesel engines is to adopt the low NOx combustion concept with new injection strategy, but this kind of combustion can give higher combustion noise and worse stability in transient conditions. This paper describes some of the new methodologies developed by Renault for controlling and optimizing Diesel combustion noise, particularly for engines with low NOx combustion modes. In steady working conditions, it was found that a homogeneous combustion mode gave high level of combustion excitation particularly in the 1000 Hz octave band. Thus improvement should be made in the engine structural attenuation (SA) in this frequency range in order to limit engine noise deterioration. This requires not only the technical solutions for improving the structural attenuation, but also reliable methods for measuring engine SA.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Self-Contained Engine Stand for NVH Troubleshooting and Testing of Diesel Engines

2009-05-19
2009-01-2083
Diesel engine NVH is an important characteristic of light and medium duty vehicles in today's market. Typical NVH related issues like idle gear clatter, gear whine and cab shake at low speed and load conditions are perceived as unpleasant and are unacceptable to the end customer. The root cause of many of these NVH concerns is frequently associated with powertrain structures and the excitation of different mechanical components within the engine. This paper focuses on development of robust and self-contained engine test stand which can help both for troubleshooting NVH concerns and for setting relevant targets at the subsystem levels to mitigate NVH risks. The motivation behind developing this unique test stand is given with examples and the advantages are demonstrated for relevant engine NVH testing applications.
Journal Article

Design and Analysis of a Gear Rattle Test Rig

2009-05-19
2009-01-2113
Gear rattle in manual transmission systems is a complex phenomenon and problematic to transmission and vehicle manufacturers. In the last three decades some inroads have been made in applying analytical and numerical analysis to understand rattle, however solutions and design methodologies for low rattle or no rattle are elusive. Problems with rattling transmissions continue to plague the industry. Controlled experiments for transmission rattle are required for research, to aid in the development of design tools and for validation of these tools. This paper presents a test rig which utilises a Hooke's joint to induce the torsional oscillations that lead to rattle. The design process relies on torsional lumped mass modeling and linear and transient nonlinear analyses and this paper details how the correct specification of the required driving motor isolation system is achieved.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Diesel Fuel Quality in Thailand

2009-06-15
2009-01-1851
Diesel fuel is a major grade in the Thai market used in transportation of goods and in most light duty vehicles. Over the last fifteen years the quality of this fuel has continuously increased. This is one of the major factors that have allowed a substantial improvement in air quality. The improvement in diesel fuel quality has been achieved by using a mix of measures, some well known like reduction in sulphur content, whilst others are unique to this market. Since 1993, in Thailand it has been mandatory to use a diesel detergent. This has ensured best driveability and lowest emissions due to the control of injector deposits. This measure was unique in the world and although not mandatory any longer, this market has a large proportion of automotive diesel treated with this type of additive. Another action has been the evaluation of Palm Oil Methyl Ester (PME) and its potential impact in the market. However, experience with PME is limited.
Technical Paper

Well-To-Wheel Energy Analysis of Conventional and Electric Motorcycles in Malaysia

2009-11-03
2009-32-0061
In this paper we investigate well-to-wheel energy consumption of a conventional carbureted four stroke 110cc motorcycle and comparable electric motorcycle using lead acid batteries and Li-polymer batteries. The vehicles are tested on a chassis dynamometer using a steady-state test based on the ECER40 drive cycle. Vehicle energy consumption was measured and compared on a cost per kilometer basis. Vehicle life cycle analysis was performed based on expected or measured life times of the major components such as engines, batteries and electric motors. This study indicates that electric motorcycles cost less to operate than conventional motorcycles, but are unlikely to be competitive at current prices due to the cost and life span of the battery packs.
Technical Paper

AN OPTIMAL SOLUTION THROUGH LEAN MANUFACTURING USING VALUE STREAM MAPPING TOWARDS EFFICIENT PRODUCTION FOR A WORLD- CLASS AUTOMOBILE BRAKES MANUFACTURING COMPANY

2009-12-13
2009-28-0054
Today, numerous companies have a major opportunity to reduce their costs and customer lead time and cycle time through the application of Lean Manufacturing processes. In recent years, almost every manufacturing industry has been trying to get ‘lean’. Lean thinking represents a set of principles and techniques for the identification and elimination of wastages in manufacturing and administrative processes. Value Stream Mapping (VSM) which is one of the lean manufacturing approaches has emerged as the preferred way to support and implement the lean approach. VSM is a helpful tool to identify the waste and improvement areas. VSM enables a company to see the entire process in both its current and desired future state, and develop the road map that prioritises the projects or tasks to bridge the gap between the current state and the future (lean) state.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Engine Management System for Small Handheld Low Emission Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0019
In the handheld industry the carburetor controlled 2-stroke engine is still the mostly used power source. The current carburetor as a fixed geometric and hydraulic system is not capable of compensating varying fuel specifications. Electronic engine management systems offer the adjustment of varying ambient conditions and fuel qualities. State of the art systems of common vehicle applications use various sensors and actuators which increase the complexity and the costs of the engine. A smart alternative is an engine control based upon processing of already existing information in a small handheld engine. This paper presents the concept, the configuration and the design parameters of such a system.
Technical Paper

An integrated approach to extract basic Suspension Data through Integration of tri-axial spindle coupled road simulator, wheel force transducer and a wheel vector sensor.

2009-12-13
2009-28-0027
In a highly competitive global as well as the domestic market of the passenger car industry, the search for the complete car is on the forefront. With such a situation, carmakers are experimenting with innovative technology on various development programs to cater the needs of the customer. This paper shows one such experimentation to extract the basic suspension Kinematics & Compliance data with the integration of a Tri-axial Spindle Coupled road load simulator, a wheel force transducer and a Wheel Vector Sensor in absence of expensive Suspension Parameters Measuring Machine (SPMM).
Technical Paper

Battle Tank Fuel Capacity (Total Volume) Monitoring system

2009-12-13
2009-28-0051
As information is going to be a strategic weapon in all future warfare, every country is taking giant steps to access the accurate information about the combat situation so that right decision is taken at right time A Battle Tank can effectively annihilate the enemy targets, until it has Ammunition Stocks and can successfully maneuver through the enemy locations until the fuel lasts, thus replenishing the same is a foremost important winning factor in war. So, the Information about the exact quantity of Fuel, Ammunition available in the Fighting vehicle (Tanks) at any point of time dictates its deployability into the deeper enemy territories. Worldwide, all Main Battle Tanks (MBT), are fitted with a capacitance based fuel level indicating system. The difficulty is that it can indicate only the volume of a particular fuel tank to which it is fitted, where as a MBT may have many fuel tanks, to utilize the space wherever possible.
Technical Paper

PERFORMANCE OF GEROTOR OIL PUMP FOR AN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE - PREDICTION USING CFD ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION

2009-12-13
2009-28-0007
The reduction of development time of new Internal Combustion Engines prototype and reduction of fuel consumption are key issues in automotive Industry. Lubricating oil pump systems having potential of reducing fuel consumption by up to 3% in the new European Motor Vehicle Emission Group (MVEG) Cycle. Oil pump feeds lubricant oil into the parts of engine to prevent wear and to cool the moving parts of the engine. Gerotor pump is a special kind of internal rotary positive displacement pump which is driven by crank shaft. It provides high volumetric efficiency and smooth pumping action, and it works well with a wide range of fluid viscosities. Tip to tip clearance, volumetric efficiency, flow ripple and cavitation damage are causes for concern in Gerotor pump with high output flow. To optimize the pump performance, it is essential to understand the flow dynamics inside the pump.
Technical Paper

Process Simulation Integration in Product Design

2009-01-21
2009-26-0089
The effect of processing parameters on the material properties is an important design consideration in plastic part design. The process may cause anisotropic properties due to matrix and fiber orientation, develop internal stresses during cooling, cause thickness variation etc. These effects if not considered in the product design and analysis, may result in premature product failure, reduced safety factor, fit and finish issues or higher costs and weight due to over design. Injection molded long glass polypropylene and blow molded PC/ABS have been used in automotive structural parts requiring to meet stringent static and dynamic loads as per the regulatory legislation. This paper demonstrates the use of injection molding and blow molding process simulation to incorporate the process effect on material and structure properties.
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