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Technical Paper

Drive by Noise System and Corresponding Facility Upgrades for Test Efficiency, Data Quality and Customer Satisfaction

2011-05-17
2011-01-1611
An existing pass by noise data acquisition system was upgraded to provide the sophisticated data analysis techniques and test site efficiency required to comply with the current and future drive by noise regulations. Use of six sigma tool such as voice of the customer helped in defining the customer requirements which were then translated into the desired engineering characteristics using QFD. Pugh concept matrix narrowed down the best option suitable for the test site modifications taking into account the critical constraints such as test complexity, system cost & transparency to the existing drive by noise setup. Features of the new system include data telemetry, frequency analysis, portability and efficient data management through the use of advanced data acquisition system. Wireless mode of the data transmission helped significantly avoid most of the test site modifications, which in turn helped to reduce the overall system implementation cost.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Implementing Telematics Solutions in Heavy, Mobile Equipment Markets

2011-09-13
2011-01-2258
This paper will examine factors that should be considered by a vehicle OEM when implementing a telematics solution in heavy on-and off-road mobile equipment markets. For the purposes of this paper, heavy mobile equipment will be inclusive of agricultural, construction, industrial, forestry, and on-road truck vehicles. Telematics will be defined as two-way, wireless communication between a vehicle and its external environment. Although many of the concepts discussed will be relevant to consumer, light automotive, or fixed industrial applications, the scope of this paper is directed toward heavy, mobile equipment OEMs.
Technical Paper

Development of an Energy Management Strategy for Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on the Prediction of the Future Driving Cycles by ICT Technologies and Optimized Maps

2011-04-12
2011-01-0892
An adaptative energy management strategy for series hybrid electric vehicles based on optimized maps and the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) predictor is presented here. The first step of the investigation is the off line optimization of the control strategy parameters (already developed by the authors) over a series of reference mini driving cycles (duration of 60s) obtained from standard driving cycles (UDDS, EUDC, etc) and realistic driving cycles acquired on the ITAN500 HEV. The optimal variables related to each mini driving cycle are stored in maps that are then implemented on the ITAN500 vehicles. When the vehicle moves, a wireless card is used to exchange information with surrounding vehicle and infrastructure. These information are used by a local instance of the SUMO traffic prediction tool (run on board) to predict the driving conditions of the HEV in the future period of time T=60s.
Journal Article

Application of System Safety Engineering Processes to Advanced Battery Safety

2011-04-12
2011-01-1369
The battery system in the Chevrolet Volt is very complex and must balance a variety of performance criteria, including the safety of vehicle occupants and other users. In order to assure a thorough approach to battery system safety, a system safety engineering process was applied and found to provide a useful framework. This methodical approach began with the preliminary hazard analysis and continued through requirements definition, design development and, finally, validation. Potentially hazardous conditions related directly to functional safety (for example, charge control) and primary physical safety (for example, short circuit conditions) can all be addressed in this manner. Typical battery abuse testing, as well as newly defined limit testing, supported the effort. Extensive documentation, traceability and peer reviews helped to verify that all issues were addressed.
Journal Article

Reliability and Safety/Integrity Analysis for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Wireless Communication

2011-04-12
2011-01-1045
Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications are gaining increasing importance in automotive research and engineering domains. The novel communication scheme is targeted to improve driver safety (e.g., forward collision warnings) and comfort (e.g., routing to avoid congestion, automatic toll collection, etc.). Features exploiting these communication schemes are still in the early stages of research and development. However, growing attention to system wide infrastructure - in terms of OEM collaboration on interface standardization, protocol standardization, and government supported road/wireless infrastructure - will lead to popularity of such features in the future. This paper focuses on evaluating reliability and safety/integrity of data communicated over the wireless channels for early design verification. Analysis of a design can be done based on formal models, simulation, emulation, and testing.
Journal Article

Comparing Dolly Rollover Testing to Steer-Induced Rollover Events for an Enhanced Understanding of Off-Road Rollover Dynamics

2011-04-12
2011-01-1112
The field of motor vehicle rollover research and testing has been one of multiple and varied approaches, dating back to at least the 1930's. The approach has been as simple as tipping a vehicle over at the top of a steep hill ( Wilson et al., 1972 ), to as complex as releasing a vehicle from an elevated roll spit mounted to the rear of a moving tractor and trailer ( Cooper et al., 2001 and Carter et al., 2002 ). Between these extremes exists numerous other rollover initiation methods, including driving a vehicle into a ramp, sliding a vehicle sideways into soil or a curb-like obstruction, launching or releasing a vehicle from a dolly cart, and remotely steering a moving vehicle into an orientation that will produce a rollover event ( Cooperrider et al., 1990 and Larson et al., 2000 ).
Technical Paper

Rollover Testing of Recreational Off-Highway Vehicles (ROVs) for Accident Reconstruction

2011-04-12
2011-01-1117
This paper presents results of full-scale instrumented rollover testing on ROV type recreational vehicles. Five tests were conducted using two instrumented side-by-side ROVs at speeds between 20 and 32 mph on unpaved surfaces. Each test vehicle was brought to speed and released, allowing remote steering inputs to initiate turn sequences resulting in rollover. Accelerations were determined using x, y, and z axis accelerometers mounted at the vehicle CG and recorded using a robust data acquisition system. Roll rates were measured using a rotation rate sensor. Roll rates and key acceleration events are presented for each test. Mapping and measurement of the test site includes photography and digital survey of resulting tire marks, impact marks and gouging. Documentation and reconstruction of test roll sequences includes roll rates, vehicle positions and velocities, peak accelerations by impact, and scratch mark and damage examination. These are included in the appendix .
Technical Paper

DC Charging and Standards for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1475
This paper is the fourth in the series of documents designed to identify the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force. - The initial paper (2010-01-0837) introduced utility communications (J2836/1™ & J2847/1) and how the SAE task force interfaced with other organizations. - The second paper (2011-01-0866) focused on the next steps of the utility requirements and added DC charging (J2836/2™ & J2847/2) along with initial effort for Reverse Power Flow (J2836/3™ & J2847/3). - The third paper (2012-01-1036) summarized the task force documents and interaction. It also included the continued testing of PowerLine Carrier (PLC) products for Utility and DC charging messages using Electric Power Research Institutes (EPRI) test plan and schedule that were used at EPRI and Argonne National Labs (ANL).
Technical Paper

A Research on the Application Layer Protocols of Wireless Communication of Electric Vehicle

2013-10-15
2013-32-9035
On electric vehicle monitoring, there is no application layer standard to support the wireless communication. As a developing target, there are more varieties on the signal combination as the modules or unit carried by an electric vehicle change. Protocols between the transmission unit and the reception server are made to change frequently, so are the programs on both the transmission unit and the reception server, and results in the difficulty to the development and maintenance of the whole system. Since electric motorcycle and electric bicycle are also developing with hybrid type, same problems would occur to them. It would be favorable to find a protocol with endurance to such variability. ASN.1 is introduced as a valuable candidate. An effort is made to apply ASN.1 to wireless communication of electric vehicle, to see how well it is to adjust to the variability of signals.
Journal Article

6-Axis Measuring Wheels for Trucks or Heavy Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0816
The measurement of the contact forces between road and tires is of fundamental importance while designing road vehicles. In this paper, the design and the employment of measuring wheels for trucks and heavy vehicles is presented. The measuring wheels have been optimized in order to obtain high stiffness and the approximately the same mass of the wheels normally employed. The proposed multicomponent measuring wheels are high- accuracy instruments for measuring the dynamic loads during handling and durability testing. The measuring wheels can replace the wheels of the truck under normal operation. Such family of wheels plays a major role in modern road vehicles development. The measuring wheel concept design is based on a patented three-spoke structure connected to the wheel rim. The spokes are instrumented by means of strain gauges and the measuring wheel is able to measure the three forces and the three moments acting at the interface between the tire and the road.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Human-Machine Interface for Wireless Signposts

2013-10-07
2013-36-0108
By using telecommunications, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) improve traffic safety and efficiency, facilitating an integral transport of people and goods. Even with the benefits obtained through ITS Systems nowadays, significant innovations will take place in the following years such as the ubiquitous and integral use of computer vision, or the development and future implementation of Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) that will allow a direct communication between vehicles (Vehicle-to-Vehicle, V2V) and with the roadside elements (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, V2I) by means of mobile and wireless communication. In this context, the INTELVIA project was implemented, with the clear objective of developing ITS technologies and Intelligent Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) to obtain the advantages of using information and communication technologies in the field of road transport and traffic management.
Technical Paper

The Design Process of a Wireless Data Transmission System Applied to a Formula SAE Vehicle

2013-10-07
2013-36-0064
Data analysis is an important way to validate and optimize engineering's designs. With the development of wireless transmission systems, race cars use telemetry as a solution to measure the car's behavior by the analysis of acquired data. Wireless communication systems provide the possibility to analyze data in real-time situations, allowing tactical decision making based on the vehicle's embedded signals interpretation. This paper intends to describe the design process of a wireless data transmission system applied to a Formula SAE vehicle. Based on the prototyping microcontroller Arduino™ and the radio-transmission module Xbee®, the wireless transmission system here described is capable of transmitting 16 analog and 54 digital embedded signals and can be easily adapted for the user's requirements, through the system's open-source characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Architecture for Advanced Environmental and Physiological Monitoring

2005-07-11
2005-01-2874
The fundamental objective of this paper is to overview an integrated hardware and software architecture for advanced environmental and physiological monitoring. The proposed architecture is currently being considered as a recommended standard by the International Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The architecture provides the necessary infrastructure to enable research and engineering personnel the capability to incorporate disparate monitoring devices and sensors into a single wireless data assimilation system. The long-term objective is to achieve safer long-duration human space travel by using wireless radio frequency (RF) technology to enable easily deployable monitoring systems.
Technical Paper

A Secure Wireless Protocol for Intersection Collision Warning Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1472
Radar and infrared technologies can detect impending rear-end and lane-change collisions. However, these technologies cannot detect impending intersection collisions because they require line-of-sight communications. Wireless communication technology will be a viable technology for detecting intersection collisions. In this paper, we assumed that every vehicle is equipped with a wireless communication unit and every intersection has a wireless unit called the Intersection Traffic Controller (ITC). All vehicles near an intersection communicate with the corresponding ITC to send their dynamic information such as speed, acceleration, lane number, road number, and distance from the intersection. Though the wireless technology will be a viable technology for developing intersection collision warning systems, it is subject to various types of security attacks unless the system is properly designed.
Technical Paper

A Multi-hop Mobile Networking Test-bed for Telematics

2005-04-11
2005-01-1484
An onboard vehicle-to-vehicle multi-hop wireless networking system has been developed to test the real-world performance of telematics applications. The system targets emergency and safety messaging, traffic updates, audio/video streaming and commercial announcements. The test-bed includes a Differential GPS receiver, an IEEE 802.11a radio card modified to emulate the DSRC standard, a 1xRTT cellular-data connection, an onboard computer and audio-visual equipment. Vehicles exchange data directly or via intermediate vehicles using a multi-hop routing protocol. The focus of the test-bed is to (a) evaluate the feasibility of high-speed inter-vehicular networking, (b) characterize 5.8GHz signal propagation within a dynamic mobile ad hoc environment, and (c) develop routing protocols for highly mobile networks. The test-bed has been deployed across five vehicles and tested over 400 miles on the road.
Technical Paper

SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

2015-04-14
2015-01-0972
Abstract It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Cognitive Radio Perspectives in the Automotive Market

2014-09-30
2014-36-0248
Abstract Cognitive Radio (CR) is an important technology for the evolution of wireless communications worldwide. Cognitive radio enables the verification of the electromagnetic spectrum availability. Consequently, it permits the modification of the transmission parameters through the interaction with the environment. By monitoring the available frequency band, cognitive users can opportunistically occupy spectral bands with no harming or interference to other users or applications. Cognitive vehicular networks represent a new tendency in the automotive market. New and future models are being released with pre-installed reconfigurable devices; software defined radio (SDR) offers new possibilities for the transmission of intra-vehicular commands as well as dynamic access to Wi-Fi and other wireless services while the car is in movement. In this context, this paper aims to describe the cognitive radio technology and its potential applications and perspectives in the automotive market.
Technical Paper

Benefits of Functional Safety Re-Engineering

2015-04-14
2015-01-0271
Abstract Functional Safety engineering aligned to an international standard is already a long-lasting discussion. Nevertheless, the requirements of process conformance to assure functional safety have been detailed in description and interpretation. The ISO 26262 is seen as state-of-the-art Functional Safety engineering basement in Europe, the closer interpretation of the IEC 61508 is claimed by assessors in America and Asia. This work shows how stagnation in engineering process improvement is solved by re-engineering projects. The benefits of re-engineering are described in this context. A four month, proven-in-practice project plan is explained. The expected results of such a project are given as generic goals for similar projects. A practice report shows the realistic outcome of such a project for the Chinese automotive industry. The report shows how the motivation of the involved engineers was gained and how existing engineering documentation was used in an efficient way.
Journal Article

Performance Analysis of Existing 1609.2 Encodings v ASN.1

2015-04-14
2015-01-0288
Abstract IEEE Standard 1609.2-2013, Security Services for Applications and Management Messages for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE), specifies its data structures and encoding using a proprietary language based on that used in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)'s Transport Layer Security (TLS) specification. This approach is believed to allow fast encoding and decoding, but is non-standard, is not proved to be complete, lacks automatic tools for generation of codecs, and is difficult to extend. For these reasons, the 1609 Working Group approved the use of Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1) for future versions of 1609.2, so long as ASN.1 did not significantly degrade performance. This paper is the first publication of the results of a performance analysis carried out to determine whether ASN.1-based encoding was in fact acceptable.
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