Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

2015-04-14
2015-01-0972
Abstract It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
Technical Paper

Rochdale: Sportscar Pioneers - The Cars of Rochdale Motor Panels and Engineering, 1950 to 1973

2015-04-14
2015-01-0416
Abstract This paper summarises the history of Rochdale Motor Panels and Engineering Ltd. (RMP), established in England after the Second World War, from its origins as a small car-repair business though to the manufacture of sports coupés utilising an innovative glass-fibre monocoque construction. The political climate which caused RMP and similar undertakings to develop and flourish in the 1950s and 60s is explained together with details of the three men who had the defining influence on the cars that were created. Products, including aluminium-bodied cars, produced primarily for racing, are described, leading into the introduction of glass-fibre construction which enabled a profitable transition into higher volume body and chassis manufacture, and ultimately completely assembled cars.
Technical Paper

The Origins of the Anti-Ship Guided Missile

1997-10-13
975652
Air-launched anti-ship guided missiles (ASGM) have achieved widespread notoriety since the Argentine Navy effectively employed Exocet missiles launched from Super Entendart fighters against Royal Navy warships and supporting auxiliary vessels during the Falklands conflict of the early-1980s. During the same conflict, the Royal Navy used thehelicopter-launched Sea Skua to disable a surfaced Argentine submarine and other small vessels. In subsequent years, Exocet, Sea Skua. Harpoon and other members of the growing air-launched ASGM family have been used in a number of situations culminating in their widespread employment during the Gulf War. Launched from aircraft operating under the protective blanket of coalition air superiority, air-launched ASGMs virtually annihilated the Iraqi surface fleet. Today, the air-launched ASGM has widely proliferated becoming a standard and highly potent weapon in the arsenal of nearly all nations that possess modern combat aircraft.
Technical Paper

Milestones in Airborne Astronomy: From the 1920's to the Present

1997-10-13
975609
The use of airplanes for astronomical observations began in the 1920's. From then until the early 1960's, almost all of the observations made from aircraft were for the purpose of viewing solar eclipses. Due to advances in technology and increasing interest in infrared astronomy, the use of airplanes for astronomy expanded during the 1960's to include planetary observations and a wide range of other studies. This paper describes some of the major milestones of airborne astronomy, from the1920's to the present.
Technical Paper

Cultural Observations on the History of Wheels

1998-02-23
980617
Since primitive times, mankind has been involved in the field of tribology through the use of sliding, rolling, rotation and similar types of motion. Various devices have been used to perform such motion, and herein I will trace their history from the rollers used in ancient Mesopotamia to aid in pulling sleds to the wheels used on chariots and other vehicles throughout history until modern times, touching on their cultural contributions. I will also describe the role played by rolling bearings, emphasizing in particular the importance of tapered roller bearings to the advance of automobiles during this century.
Technical Paper

The Electric Truck in America: Why Did It Fail?

1998-02-23
980618
Since the Californian ZEV mandate caused a new wave of interest in the electric automotive propulsion system to sweep over the world, the question of why earlier attempts to bring the electric vehicle to the market failed is heavily debated. As to the possible causes of failure of the electric vehicle during the first two decades of this century, the consensus among automotive engineers tends to be that it was the high weight and the low energy density of the battery which prevented the electric motor from becoming the dominant automotive propulsion system. Since then, this argument goes, the situation hasn't changed very much. In this paper, based upon a recently finished doctoral dissertation on the history of early American and European electric vehicles [1], other, mainly non-technical, failure factors are suggested as being more convincing.
Technical Paper

Menasco Aircraft Engines: Air Racing Paragon of the 1930s

1996-10-01
965598
Albert S. Menasco, SAE member and distinguished aircraft engine designer active in the 1920s and 1930s, produced a series of inverted, inline, four- and six-cylinder, air-cooled engines that achieved great success in many U.S. air races before World War (WW) II. Menasco's engines found substantial use in such light airframes as the famous Ryan monoplane ST, but his company was not commercially successful until it shifted to manufacturing landing gear in the 1940s. Menasco's historical legacy in aircraft engines is a fine testimonial to U.S. engineering accomplishment. This paper chronicles the engineering development of Menasco's relatively light aircraft engines and their air racing success in the hands of “golden age” pilots. Menasco furnished special superchargers, cams, pistons, and other parts to achieve extra speed with available racing fuels.
Technical Paper

The Design & Development of The Main Battle Tank

1996-10-01
962220
SYNOPSIS: This paper sketches the history of the development of the main battle tank, why it developed as it did and finishes with a more detailed analysis of the design and development of the British Army's new Challenger 2. Whilst emphasising automotive aspects of tank design the paper rehearses the other technologies critical to making the tank such a formidable weapon system.
Technical Paper

Molecular Origins of ION Mobility Spectra: Towards Artificial Intelligence

1997-07-14
972495
During the last year, the principles and predictive tools for this analyzer have been advanced beyond the nominal understanding considered heretofore acceptable for specialized uses of IMS. The importance and need for these advances reside in the creation of automated intelligence (to minimize the need for human resources) and in the formation of tools for the identification of chemicals not previously characterized by IMS. In our findings, IMS spectra were found to arise from considerations both of proton affinities in the initial event of ion creation and of ion stabilities in the non-equilibrium, uni-polar drift region. Aliphatic amines were systematically explored and kinetic measurements were made on ion stabilities and used in modeling the origins of ion mobility spectra. Neural networks were used to explore an existing data base and results revealed hitherto unknown properties of ion mobility spectra.
Technical Paper

Neutron, Gamma Ray, and Temperature Effects on the Electrical Characteristics of Thyristors

1992-08-03
929115
Experimental data showing the effects of neutrons, gamma rays, and temperature on the electrical and switching characteristics of phase-control and inverter-type SCRs are presented. The special test fixture built for mounting, heating, and instrumenting the test devices is described. Four SCRs were neutron irradiated at 300 K and four at 365 K for fluences up to 3.2 × 1013 n/cm2, and eight were gamma irradiated at 300 K only for gamma doses up to 5.1 Mrads. The electrical measurements were made during irradiation and the switching measurements were made only before and after irradiation. Radiation induced crystal defects, resulting primarily from fast neutrons, caused the reduction of minority carrier lifetime through the generation of R-G centers. The reduction in lifetime caused increases in the on-state voltage drop and in the reverse and forward leakage currents, and decreases in the turn-off time.
Technical Paper

Progress in Doping of Ruthenium Suicide (Ru2Si3)

1992-08-03
929422
Ruthenium silicide (Ru2Si3) is currently under development as a promising thermoelectric material suitable for space power applications. Key to realizing the potentially high figure of merit values of this material is the development of appropriate doping techniques. In this study, manganese and iridium have been identified as useful p- and n-type dopants, respectively. Resistivity values have been reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Anomalous Hall effect results, however, complicate interpretation of some of the results and further effort is required to achieve optimum doping levels.
Technical Paper

A Redefinition of the Energy Ansatz, Leading to a Fundamentally New Class of Nuclear Interactions

1992-08-03
929414
Utilizing fundamental new definitions for energy, potential, and scalar potential, the mass of the atomic nucleus may be considered a powerful electrostatic scalar potential, referred to as the mass potential. The Whittaker EM biwave structure of the scalar potential then becomes a new and universal internal EM structure for mass, including the atomic nucleus. This structure can be directly manipulated electromagnetically, which allows direct EM alteration of the mass potential, and the nucleus itself. This totally new class of nuclear interactions is briefly explored, and several hypothesized mechanisms advanced for neutralizing or processing nuclear wastes. Additional applications are hypothesized for experimental falsification or verification.
Technical Paper

Physical-Analytical Model for Cesium/Oxygen Coadsorption on Tungsten

1992-08-03
929429
Abstract A physical-analytical model has been formulated for computing the emission and vaporization properties of a surface immersed in a multi-species vapor. The evaporation and condensation processes are assumed to be identical to those for an equilibrium adsorbed phase in equilibrium with its vapor, permitting statistical mechanical computation of the sticking coefficient for the practical non-equilibrium condensation condition. Two classes of adsorption sites are defined corresponding to superficial and interstitial coadsorption. The work function is computed by a self-consistent summation over the dipole moments of the various coadsorbed species in their mutual electric field. The model adequately describes observed emission and evaporation from tungsten surfaces immersed in pure cesium vapor and in pure oxygen vapor.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer in Oscillating Flows with Sudden Change in Cross Section

1992-08-03
929464
Oscillating fluid flow (zero mean) with heat transfer, between two parallel plates with a sudden change in cross section, was examined computationally. The flow was assumed to be laminar and incompressible with inflow velocity uniform over the channel cross section but varying sinusoidally with time. Over 30 different cases were examined; these cases cover wide ranges of Remax (187.5 to 30 000), Va (1 to 350), expansion ratio (1:2, 1:4, 1:8, and 1:12) and Ar (0.68 to 4). Three different geometric cases were considered (asymmetric expansion/contraction, symmetric expansion/contraction, and symmetric blunt body). The heat transfer cases were based on constant wall temperature at higher (heating) or lower (cooling) value than the inflow fluid temperature. As a result of the oscillating flow, the fluid undergoes sudden expansion in one-half of the cycle and sudden contraction in the other half.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of MPW Effect

1992-08-01
921588
There are two well known basic concepts for achieving magnetic levitation of vehicles: one is based on electromagnetic attraction (EMA); and the second method is based on electrodynamic repulsion (EDR). This paper presents a description of a lesser known third form of magnetic levitation which in the former USSR is called the dc circuit Magnetic Potential Well (MPW) effect, developed by Kozoriz. (1)1 This magnetic levitation effect is based on the fact that the energy of magnetic interaction between two magnets shows a null minimum, as a function of the separating interval between the magnets, before the distance approaches zero. The existence of this magnetic energy null minimum contradicts the classic Earnshaw principle and the Braunbeck theory by which the existence of such a magnetic energy minimum depends on the presence of a diamagnetic material. However, it should be emphasized that the MPW system in the following discussion does not contain diamagnetic material(2).
Technical Paper

Injection of CO2 for the Inhibition of Scaling in ATES Systems

1992-08-03
929154
A new water treatment method for the prevention of carbonate scaling is described. This method uses carbon dioxide for adjusting the water to fulfill Tillmans Equilibrium. The pH is lowered and therefore no scaling occurs. The experimental plant used in the experiments is sketched and results of a field test in a Swiss ATES system are presented. This water treatment method proved to be economical, effective and environmentally beneficial.
Technical Paper

SP-100 Controller Development Paradigm

1992-08-03
929232
To facilitate the development of the Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) controller, a rapid prototyping and multi-phased development methodology is being utilized. The rapid prototyping environment used in the development models both the controller and the system being controlled. Since the validation of the SRPS control strategies is a long lead activity to ensure the required safety and control features, the SRPS controller development is carried out in phases, starting with normal modes of operation and followed by transient and off-normal modes. In every phase, the rapid prototyping of the control strategies is used (1) to establish well-defined controller requirements, (2) to perform fast identification of changes and refinement of the strategies, and (3) to conduct in-phase correction and optimization of the strategy and component development.
Technical Paper

Constant Area Helium-Cesium MHD Generator One Dimensional Model

1992-08-03
929202
The processes and variation of the physical parameters, inside a constant area equilibrium MHD generator, are examined and modelled. A one dimensional model is derived, which assumes uniform properties over the generator cross sectional area and allows for variations of velocity, pressure, temperature, density, electric field, current density and electrical conductivity in the direction of the flow. The plasma composition is determined by particle balance equations which include collisional, radiative, diffusion and flow processes. This comprehensive model should result in an accurate description of the processes inside a MHD generator and allow for a better interpretation of experimental results. An example of a linear constant area segmented electrode generator operating in the Faraday mode with a gaseous mixture of Helium seeded with a few percent Cesium, is presented in this study.
Technical Paper

M-H Characteristics and Demagnetization Resistance of Samarium-Cobalt Permanent Magnets to 300 C

1992-08-03
929263
The influence of temperature on the M-H demagnetization characteristics of permanent magnets is important information for the full utilization of the capabilities of samarium-cobalt magnets at high temperatures in demagnetization-resistant permanent magnet devices. In high temperature space power converters, such as free-piston Stirling engine driven linear alternators, magnet demagnetization can occur as a long-term consequence of thermal agitation of domains and of metallurgical change, and also as an immediate consequence of too large an applied field. This paper investigates the short-term demagnetization resistance to applied fields derived from basic M-H data. This quasistatic demagnetization data was obtained for commercial, high-intrinsic-coercivity, Sm2Co17-type magnets, from 5 sources, in the temperature range 23 to 300 C. An electromagnet driven, electronic hysteresigraph was used to test the 1-cm cubic samples.
X