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Technical Paper

Electric Motor Noise in a Lightweight Steel Vehicle

2011-05-17
2011-01-1724
The present work attempts a complete noise and vibration analysis for an electric vehicle at concept stage. The candidate vehicle is the Future Steel Vehicle (FSV), a lightweight steel body with an electric motor developed by WorldAutoSteel [1,2,3]. Measurements were conducted on two small Mitsubishi vehicles that both share the same body, yet one is equipped with an internal combustion engine and the other with an electric motor. The outcome was used as a starting point to identify assets and pitfalls of electric motor noise and draw a set of Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) targets for FSV. Compared to a combustion engine, the electric motor shows significantly lower sound pressure levels, except for an isolated high frequency peak heard at high speeds (3500 Hz when the vehicle drives at top speed). The prominence of this peak is lowered by increased use of acoustic absorbent materials in the motor compartment.
Technical Paper

A Novel Concept for Combined Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1946
A novel concept of combined hydrogen production and power generation system based on the combustion of aluminum in water is explored. The energy conversion system proposed is potentially able to provide four different energy sources, such us pressurized hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat, and work at the crankshaft on demand, as well as to fully comply with the environment sustainability requirements. Once aluminum oxide layer is removed, the pure aluminum can react with water producing alumina and hydrogen while releasing a significant amount of energy. Thus, the hydrogen can be stored for further use and the steam can be employed for energy generation or work production in a supplementary power system. The process is proved to be self-sustained and to provide a remarkable amount of energy available as work or hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburized High Strength Crankshaft Through Controlling Vanadium Carbonitride Precipitation by Normalizing

2009-11-03
2009-32-0076
In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
Technical Paper

UV-Curable Primer-cum-Paint System for Mild Steels based on Sol-Gel Coating Technology

2009-12-13
2009-28-0052
Sol-based coatings derived from organically modified silanes and metal alkoxides have been investigated for the past two decades for their applicability as barrier coatings for corrosion protection of stainless steels and mild steels. Colored sol-gel coatings can also be generated by the addition of pigments. Recently, lot of attention has been given to use of radiation (UV or NIR) curing for densification of protective coatings on metals/steels. In this context, investigations were carried out on the mechanical and corrosion protection properties of UV-curable transparent and colored sol-gel coatings on mild steels for comparison with a painted substrate.
Technical Paper

LASER SURFACE HARDENING OF CRANKSHAFT

2009-12-13
2009-28-0053
The present work involves systematic study on identification of process parameters and processing conditions for effective laser surface-hardening of automotive crankshaft and its implementation in the industry, utilizing a diode laser integrated to a 6-axis robot and a turn/tilt table. The crankshaft chosen was made of low-alloyed 0.52% C steel and required hardening at two contact regions of bearing/flange seat areas and a pin area (on a different axis than the actual shaft). The subjected areas had features like oil holes, sharp corners and wide areas. The target was to develop laser hardening process resulting in hardened case-depth of above 200 µm with a hardness of 500 - 650 HV at different locations mentioned. Additionally, It was targeted to minimize the processing time and also eliminate any post process machining operations.
Technical Paper

Procedure to Realize the FEM Model of a Tubular Steel Frame for Motorcycles

2009-01-21
2009-26-0061
During the development of a tubular steel frame for motorcycles, it is very important to make FEM calculations in order to evaluate the stress level and the stiffness of the structure. The FEM models must be light in order to reduce calculation time and precise in order to obtain reliable results that can be checked in the following experimental tests. FEM models of tubular frame made using 1D elements (Pipe) have low precision results and are not advisable for this kind of work. It is suggested to use FEM models made using 2D elements (Shell) for sensitivity tests too. In order to obtain the best result using Shell elements, it is very important to choose the right criterion to model the welding parts: the model must represent the right inertia of the tubular welded joint and be both accurate and easy to be modeled.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Breaking and Loosening of Bolts Due to Change in Rust Preventive Coating through Online Breaking Tests (OBT) and Endurance Loosening Tests (ELT)

2009-01-21
2009-26-0082
The growing concern of elimination of harmful substances, from automobiles, which affects human health and environment adversely, has mandated certain regulations like ELV, RoHS, and REACH world wide. These regulations limit the usage of substances and chemicals which are hazardous in nature. Hexavalent chromium, a recognized carcinogen [1], which is used over zinc plated bolts for rust prevention, is also banned under ELV directive (2000/53/EC). One of the alternatives to hexavalent chromium is trivalent chromium. Both these passivations have different chemical properties hence have a varying effect on the coefficient of friction of the bolts. The breaking/ loosening of bolts has co-relation with the coefficient of friction of the bolt. While switching over from hexavalent to trivalent type of passivation, theoretical checking for torque values was done and the torque range was found within current operating limits.
Technical Paper

Vanadia-Based SCR Systems to Achieve EUIV HDD legislation

2009-01-21
2009-26-0013
This paper describes the development and characterization of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst system for EUIV (HDD) engines. The performance of the SCR catalyst and the impact of catalyst volume are described. The effect of using an ammonia slip catalyst behind the SCR catalyst is investigated. The durability of the SCR catalyst is described. Finally, examples of the use of computer modelling to refine the optimum volume and urea injection strategy are given. The results demonstrate how a combination of practical experiments and computer modelling can be used to refine the system and provide a cost-effective exhaust aftertreatment solution.
Technical Paper

Ultimate Load Capacity of Spot Welds Made of Ultra High Strength Steels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0788
Spot welds have two separation modes: interfacial and button pullout. Most of existing publications [8,9,10,11,12] focused on button pullout. This is because for the same sheet metal and gage combination, button pullout leads to higher separation load than interfacial separation. With the push for lighter vehicles, high strength and ultra high strength steels are used. To further reduce mass, welding flanges are getting narrower. The welding tips are getting smaller. The weld nugget diameters are smaller as a result. The separation mode for certain load cases is no longer nugget pullout, but interfacial instead. This lowers the weld's maximum load capacity. In order for CAE simulated prediction to correlate to physical behaviors of vehicle structures, it is important to define and reconfirm separation criteria. New tests and analyses are necessary.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Evaluating Body Architecture Concepts Using Technical Cost Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0767
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Crash and Steering Column Frequency Simulation of an Aluminum Instrument Panel Structure

2011-04-12
2011-01-0765
Recent changes to the U.S. CAFÉ (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) requirements have caused increased focus on alternative vehicle component designs that offer mass savings while maintaining overall vehicle design and performance targets. The instrument panel components comprise approximately 6% of the total vehicle interior mass and are thus a key component of interest in mass optimization efforts. Typically, instrument panel structures are constructed of low carbon tubular steel cross car members with welded stamped steel component brackets. In some cases, instrument panel structures have incorporated high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels to reduce mass by reducing gage. In this study, aluminum low mass instrument panel structure concept designs are developed. This paper illustrates the differences between a HSLA steel solution and four different aluminum instrument panel structure designs.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Strain on Stainless Steel Surface Finish

2011-04-12
2011-01-0774
The bright surface finish of exterior automotive moldings made from stainless steel can become hazed and reflections distorted as a result of forming done during the manufacturing processes. Bright moldings are frequently used to give styling differentiation accents to vehicle exteriors. Stainless steel provides cost effective differentiation with a material that is durable and relatively easy to form to shapes desired by the stylist. Because of the desirable attributes of stainless steel, an understanding of the threshold of unacceptable surface appearance is necessary to maximize showroom appeal and avoid customer complaints that result in warranty claims. This paper quantifies the effect that manufacturing strain and strain rate have on the surface finish of 436M2 stainless steel. Controlled experiments were conducted on production grade stainless steel strips subjected to a variety of strain and strain rates typical of manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Air-Cooled Aluminum Die-Cast Cylinder Blocks with Various Cast Iron and Aluminum Liners

2011-04-12
2011-01-0316
In most air-cooled engines, aluminum cylinder blocks are lined with cast iron, which enjoys a higher wear resistance than aluminum. Recently, rather than a turned periphery, an increasing number of cast iron liners have employed as-cast periphery with projections, so the liner better adheres to the aluminum cylinder block, and improves heat transfer. This study attempts to maximize heat transfer while minimizing cylinder weight, by comparing four liners: (1) a cast iron liner with higher projections on its periphery, (2) a cast iron liner with lower projections, (3) a cast iron liner with lower projections, and aluminum-silicon coated on its periphery by thermal spraying, and (4) a high-silicon aluminum alloy liner with aluminum-silicon coated by thermal spraying. These four experimental liners were fitted in a die-cast low-silicon aluminum-alloy cylinder block, to investigate their joint and cooling characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Procedure for Integrating Titanium Alloys as a Lightweight Automotive Material Alternative

2011-04-12
2011-01-0429
For incorporating titanium components onto a vehicle in place of existing iron/steel components, there is a need for a methodical procedure to ensure successful and efficient integration. This involves a refinement over standard lightweight engineering procedures. In this paper, a suitable procedure is developed for replacing a structural component with titanium and the method realized. Design and manufacturing issues associated with integrating titanium are identified and addressed. The importance of justifying component replacement in terms of life-cycle costs rather than purely by the manufacturing cost alone is also emphasized.
Technical Paper

Automotive Mass Reduction with Martensitic Stainless Steel

2011-04-12
2011-01-0427
Martensitic stainless steels are ideally suited for structural components and assemblies, satisfying the requirements of high strength, toughness and corrosion resistance with ease of forming in the annealed state. New developments in welding and thermal processing, coupled with increased demands for high strength lightweight structures, are positioning martensitic stainless as a cost effective alternative to conventional lightweighting materials. Several examples are shown, including the development of fully martensitic (UNS S41000) automotive subframes, door beams, B-pillars, seat rails, tow hooks and fuel rail assemblies. The excellent mechanical properties of hardened martensitic stainless allow for notable weight savings, achieving 35% or greater weight reduction relative to baseline designs.
Technical Paper

Achieving a Lightweight and Steel-Intensive Body Structure for Alternative Powertrains

2011-04-12
2011-01-0425
FutureSteelVehicle’s (FSV) objective is to develop detailed design concepts for a radically different steel body structure for a compact Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). It also will identify structure changes to accommodate larger Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) and Fuel Cell (FCEV) vehicle variants. The paper will demonstrate seven optimised structural sub-systems that contribute to the programme's 35 percent mass reduction goals and meet its safety and life cycle emissions targets. It will explain the advanced design optimisation process used and the resulting aggressive steel concepts.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction Using Massive Carbide Free Thin Walled Ductile Iron Produced via Lost Foam Casting

2011-04-12
2011-01-0426
Significant research has been conducted with the goal of obtaining thin walled ductile iron for use in lighter weight designs. A review is made of the past efforts to achieve thin walled ductile iron. Most past efforts resorted to costly processes or non-standard production practices. Lost Foam Casting (LFC) is an alternate foundry process which used in conjunction with standard melt shop practices results in a massive carbide free structure when used with thin section size. Chemistry, hardness tests, microstructures, and design improvements of a case study are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Programmable Diesel Injector Transducer Test Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0381
In order to approach the Carnot efficiency in modern diesel engines that see variable loads and high speeds, programmable electrically controlled fuel injections are required. Traditional solenoid based transducers are binary and cannot achieve this programmability while newer piezoelectric transducers are susceptible to performance degradation due to high pressures and temperatures. This paper presents the experimental characterization of a programmable diesel fuel injector transducer designed by Great Plains Diesel Technologies, L.C. to address the limitations of existing technology. This transducer employs a little-known magnetostrictive alloy to position its needle. In contrast to piezoelectric ceramics, quantum mechanics endows this alloy with the indestructible property of magnetostriction, the ability to strain proportional to a magnetic field. This allows it to be fast and infinitely adjustable (or, “programmable”) without degradation.
Journal Article

A Study of Anisotropy and Post-Necking Local Fracture Strain of Advanced High Strength Steel with the Utilization of Digital Image Correlation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0992
The automotive industry has a strong need for lightweight materials capable of withstanding large mechanical loads. Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), which have high tensile strength and formability, show great promise for automotive applications, yet if they are to be more widely used, it's important to understand their deformation behavior; this is particularly important for the development of forming limit diagrams (FLD) used in stamping processes. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which anisotropy introduced by the rolling direction affects the local fracture strain. Three grades of dual-phase AHSS and one high-strength low-alloy (HSL A) 50ksi grade steel were tested under plane strain conditions. Half of the samples were loaded along their rolling direction and the other half transverse to it. In order to achieve plane strain conditions, non-standard dogbone samples were loaded on a wide-grip MTS tensile test machine.
Technical Paper

Suitable Stainless Steel Selection for Exhaust Line Containing a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System

2011-04-12
2011-01-1323
Due to the evolution of emission control standards, new pollution control systems will be necessarily used for off-road vehicles and trucks exhaust systems and in the near future for passenger cars. Indeed, the will to reduce NOx emission through Euro 5 (2009) and then to Euro 6 (2014) and American EPA Tier 4 (2008-2015) imposes the implementation of a new after-treatment system within the exhaust line. One of the most promising technologies takes advantage of the reduction feature of ammonia (NH₃) on NOx. This system called Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) couldn't be developed by storing directly ammonia as a reduction agent on the vehicle due to its high toxicity and flammability. It is why urea is used as an ammonia generator through thermolysis reaction.
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