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Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburized High Strength Crankshaft Through Controlling Vanadium Carbonitride Precipitation by Normalizing

2009-11-03
2009-32-0076
In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
Technical Paper

Vanadia-Based SCR Systems to Achieve EUIV HDD legislation

2009-01-21
2009-26-0013
This paper describes the development and characterization of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst system for EUIV (HDD) engines. The performance of the SCR catalyst and the impact of catalyst volume are described. The effect of using an ammonia slip catalyst behind the SCR catalyst is investigated. The durability of the SCR catalyst is described. Finally, examples of the use of computer modelling to refine the optimum volume and urea injection strategy are given. The results demonstrate how a combination of practical experiments and computer modelling can be used to refine the system and provide a cost-effective exhaust aftertreatment solution.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Procedure for Integrating Titanium Alloys as a Lightweight Automotive Material Alternative

2011-04-12
2011-01-0429
For incorporating titanium components onto a vehicle in place of existing iron/steel components, there is a need for a methodical procedure to ensure successful and efficient integration. This involves a refinement over standard lightweight engineering procedures. In this paper, a suitable procedure is developed for replacing a structural component with titanium and the method realized. Design and manufacturing issues associated with integrating titanium are identified and addressed. The importance of justifying component replacement in terms of life-cycle costs rather than purely by the manufacturing cost alone is also emphasized.
Technical Paper

Programmable Diesel Injector Transducer Test Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0381
In order to approach the Carnot efficiency in modern diesel engines that see variable loads and high speeds, programmable electrically controlled fuel injections are required. Traditional solenoid based transducers are binary and cannot achieve this programmability while newer piezoelectric transducers are susceptible to performance degradation due to high pressures and temperatures. This paper presents the experimental characterization of a programmable diesel fuel injector transducer designed by Great Plains Diesel Technologies, L.C. to address the limitations of existing technology. This transducer employs a little-known magnetostrictive alloy to position its needle. In contrast to piezoelectric ceramics, quantum mechanics endows this alloy with the indestructible property of magnetostriction, the ability to strain proportional to a magnetic field. This allows it to be fast and infinitely adjustable (or, “programmable”) without degradation.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Performance of “Green” Finishes on Zinc Die Castings

2011-04-12
2011-01-1085
Many new surface finishes have been proposed for zinc die casting. In many cases these are intended to replace the traditional processes of solvent-based painting, electroplating and hexavalent chromium. Twenty new coatings were offered by suppliers and were subjected to cyclic corrosion testing (CCT). A wide variation in results was seen, suggesting the need for further development in come cases. However, several of the new environmentally friendly finishes are of interest for current application.
Technical Paper

A New High Fluidity Zinc Die Cast Alloy

2011-04-12
2011-01-1086
A new high fluidity zinc die cast alloy was developed at Teck Metals' Product Technology Centre. This hot chamber die cast alloy is based on the commonly used ZAMAK alloys but possesses up to 40% better fluidity. Industrial trials and evaluations have confirmed the excellent fluidity of the alloy as well as the easy use and adoption of the alloy. Tests have shown the alloy has comparable physical, mechanical and corrosion properties as Alloy 3 and 7. The alloy is best suited to be used for casting parts with section thickness less than 0.45 mm. It can also be used for casting parts that are difficult to fill or have high surface finish requirement.
Technical Paper

EZAC™ - A Novel High Strength, Creep Resistant, Hot Chamber Zinc Die Casting Alloy

2011-04-12
2011-01-1084
Progress in recent alloy development work has resulted in the commercialization of a high strength, creep resistant, hot chamber zinc based die casting alloy. The work was based upon earlier research conducted under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy Cast Materials Consortium (CMC). Refinement of alloy chemistry produced significant improvements in tensile strength, hardness and creep performance. Because the composition of this new alloy is near that of the Aluminum/Copper/Zinc ternary eutectic, the low melting temperature enables the alloy to be cast in a hot chamber die casting machine without excessive wear of shot end components typically experienced with other high-copper zinc die casting alloys contents such as ACuZinc 5.
Journal Article

Improving the Relationship between Processing and Properties of Zinc Die Casting: Developments in Creep and Ageing Correlations

2011-04-12
2011-01-1082
Most creep studies are conducted to determine steady state creep rate and time to failure. However, the priority for the designer is to predict the amount of total creep, being the sum of primary and secondary creep elongations, for a given service life under given loads and temperatures, for example 0.5% elongation after 3000h. An assessment of total creep behavior of industrially important zinc alloys has been conducted, and correlation/prediction curves produced. Another important property, related to creep, is stability after ageing, both for unloaded and also loaded castings. Recently developed relationships between natural and artificial ageing, and the correlation of mechanical property changes for different periods of artificial ageing with natural ageing will be presented.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Microstructure on Scuffing Behavior of Ferrous Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-1091
Scuffing is one of the major problems that influence the life cycle and reliability of several auto components, including engine cylinder kits, flywheels, camshafts, crankshafts, and gears. Ferrous casting materials, such as gray cast iron, ductile cast iron and austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) are widely applied in these components due to their self-lubricating characteristics. The purpose of this research is to determine the scuffing behavior of these three types of cast iron materials and compare them with 1050 steel. Rotational ball-on-disc tests were conducted with white mineral oil as the lubricant under variable sliding speeds and loads. The results indicate that the scuffing initiation is due to either crack propagation or plastic deformation. It is found that ADI exhibits the highest scuffing resistance among these materials.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Property Behaviour of Rheocast 319 Alloys with and without Iron Additions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1089
Cast aluminum-silicon alloys have witnessed a notable increase in use in the automotive and transport industry. The ability of these alloys to be easily cast into complex shapes coupled with a favorable strength-to-weight ratio has given them an edge over cast irons. One particular area of casting which has received further and further attention is the area of semi-solid casting, where an alloy casting is prepared as slurry with flow properties that resemble both solid and liquid. In the present work, the effects of iron additions on the mechanical properties of a 319 semi-solid alloy were studied. This alloy was prepared using the SEED process, as developed by Rio Tinto Alcan in collaboration with the Aluminum Technology Centre of NRC Canada. The SEED (Swirled Enthalpy Equilibration Device) process is a novel rheocasting method which yields a semi-solid slurry from the mechanical stirring and cooling of the molten aluminum.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Impact, Flexural and Fatigue Data for Zinc Die Casting Anti-Theft Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1088
Alloy 3, Alloy 5, ACuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were tested at five temperatures between −40 C and room temperature to determine impact properties. Izod impact energy data was obtained in accordance with ASTM D256. Unlike ASTM E23, these samples were tested with a milled notch in order to compare with plastic samples. In addition, flexural data was obtained for design use. Fatigue stress-life (S-N) curves and fatigue limits of die cast zinc Alloy 2, Alloy 3, Alloy 5, ACuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined using the rotating bend test. Fatigue limits for Alloy 3, Alloy 5, and ACuZinc 5 appeared to be higher and the fatigue limit for ZA-8 appeared to be lower than the values reported in the literature. The improvement in properties for Alloy 3, Alloy 5 and ACuZinc 5 is related to the presence of the die cast skin.
Technical Paper

Zinc Die Castings for Automotive Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1087
Zinc die casting products and metal casting processes continue to evolve for the benefit of end users. Through cooperative global research programs continuous improvements are still being made to the broad range of excellent mechanical properties, easy castability and the wide choice of finishes available for zinc die castings. Recent advances will be highlighted with case histories specific to automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Design of Durable Vanadium - SCR Catalyst Systems for Heavy - Duty Diesel Applications

2013-01-09
2013-26-0049
The emission regulations for mobile applications become stricter in Euro-IV to Euro-VI levels. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon can be removed by efficient Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) but Particulate Matter (PM) and NOx are more demanding requiring the use of active methods (urea-SCR and DPF) which will be world-wide implemented in the 2010's. Durable, coated V-SCR catalysts are based on stabilized raw materials and tailored preparation methods. Coated V2O5/TiO2-WO3 catalysts (ceramic 300/400 cpsi and metallic 500/600 cpsi) were evaluated by laboratory and engine bench experiments. Traditional V-SCR catalysts are durable up to about 600°C and have a high efficiency at 300°C-500°C. SCR activities were tailored to be higher also at 200°C-300°C or 500°C-600°C. The use of thermal stabilizers or the vanadium loading variation enabled the changes in operation window and stability.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Cu with Addition of CNT for its Electro Thermal Properties Using Electro Plating Techniques

2013-01-09
2013-26-0075
As we all know the price of Cu alloy keep on increasing trend and in few products like motors, generators and power electronics. Cu price plays a vital role in determining the cost. Particularly in power electronics products for the hybrid electric vehicles the electrical/thermal conductivity property of Cu alloy needs to be enhanced since of high voltage requirement within a small space. Many research activities are ongoing to enhance the properties of Cu metal by addition of various alloys compositions. In addition to that the extra-ordinary properties of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) in Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) were main focus for science and technology. Few successful attempts have been made for Copper-Carbon nanotube (Cu-CNT) composites by powder metallurgy techniques, also it was reported the issues on the detoriation of the CNT's properties due to mechanical working.
Technical Paper

Compression Behavior and Energy Absorption of Aluminum Alloys and Steel for Automotive Application

2013-01-09
2013-26-0080
In this paper, energy absorption behavior of Aluminum Alloy AA 7003 and high strength steel tubes is investigated for automotive crash application both experimentally and numerically. The compression test results are compared with the static analysis results obtained from LS-Dyna Software. Tube thickness is varied in the LS-Dyna Finite Element Simulation Software to understand its effect on energy absorption behavior. The peak loads and energy absorption between experimental results and Numeral simulation are found to be in good agreement. The specific energy absorption between high strength steel and Aluminum Alloy AA 7003 is compared.
Technical Paper

Development of Torque Sensor with Nickel-Iron Alloy Plating for Pedal-Equipped Electric Vehicles

2013-10-15
2013-32-9045
This paper describes the development of non-contacting detection type torque sensor that realizes a small lost motion with light weight and low cost. Pedal-equipped electric vehicles are becoming popular in recent years. In those vehicles, torque sensors are usually necessary for measuring the pedaling force to determine the motor torque. We applied an integrated sensing structure and a non-contacting scheme utilizing inverse-magnetostrictive material to minimize the lost motions. As for the sensing material, nickel-iron alloy plating was used to obtain a wide dynamic range. In the tests using the actual structure, the output linearity deterioration occurred because of the strain distribution dispersion produced by the ratchet drive structure. Therefore, the effect of this strain distribution was examined. The inverse-magnetostrictive sensing material of nickel-iron alloy plating has an extremum on its output curve.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Resistance Improvement Technology of Anodic Oxide Films on Aluminum Alloy that uses a Lithium Hydroxide Solution

2013-10-15
2013-32-9049
The anodic oxide films are formed to improve the corrosion resistance on aluminum alloy that used as the parts of engines and car bodies. Because these films are porous structure, it is necessary to seal the pores to further improve the corrosion resistance. The pores are sealed with hydrated alumina by treating the films in boiling water or solution that added sealing additives. These hydration sealing has a problem that energy consumption is large because of long sealing time and high temperature of solution. In this study, the authors have developed a new sealing treatment (Lithium sealing) using a lithium hydroxide solution to solve above problem. Lithium sealing mainly sealed the pores with lithium aluminate double salt (LiH(AlO2)2·5H2O). This salt was rapidly formed in strong alkaline solution at room temperature, so that the sealing time was reduced to about 1/10 compared with the conventional sealing.
Technical Paper

Development of Production Techniques for Aerospace Titanium Alloys

2013-10-07
2013-36-0370
Titanium alloys parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high specific strength and superior resistance to many corrosive environments, in addition to excellent composite compatibility. Despite these features, use of titanium alloys in engines and airframes is limited by cost. Therefore, the improvement of processing techniques for titanium alloys production became a trend of the modern metallurgic technology. This work presents results of the microstructural development of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo alloy produced by arc melting and powder metallurgy processes. This alloy has important applications in aerospace area, in sections exposed to high temperatures. Samples of this alloy were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), Vickers microhardness measurements and density.
Journal Article

Effect of Chill Parameters on the Residual Strain in Cast 319 Aluminum Alloy: A Neutron Diffraction Study

2014-04-01
2014-01-0836
The demand for light weight vehicles continues to stimulate extensive research into the development of light weight casting alloys and optimization of their manufacturing processes. Of primary relevance are Aluminum (Al) and Magnesium (Mg) based alloys, which have successfully replaced selected iron based castings in automobiles. However, optimization of as-cast microstructure, processing and performance remains a challenge for some Al-based alloys. In this context, placement of chills in castings has been frequently used to locally manipulate the solidification conditions and microstructure of a casting. In this work, the effect of using an active copper chill on the residual strain profile of a sand-cast B319 aluminum alloy was investigated. Wedge-shaped castings were produced with three different cooling conditions: copper plate chill, copper pipe with cooling water and no chill (baseline).
Journal Article

Residual Stress Mapping along the Cylinder Bores of Al Alloy Engine Blocks Subjected to Production Solution Heat Treatment Schedule

2014-04-01
2014-01-0837
The development of an optimized heat treatment schedule, with the aim of maximizing strength and relieving tensile residual stress, is important to prevent in-service cylinder distortion in Al alloy engine blocks containing cast-in gray iron liners. However, to effectively optimize the engine block heat treatment schedule, the current solutionizing parameters must be analyzed and compared to the as-cast condition to establish a baseline for residual stress relief. In this study, neutron diffraction was carried out to measure the residual stress along the aluminum cylinder bridge following solution heat treatment. The stresses were measured in the hoop, radial and axial orientations and compared to a previous measured as-cast (TSR) engine block. The results suggest that solution heat treatment using the current production parameters partially relieved tensile residual stress in the Al cylinder bridge, with stress relief being more effective near the bottom of the cylinder.
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