Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Novel Concept for Combined Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1946
A novel concept of combined hydrogen production and power generation system based on the combustion of aluminum in water is explored. The energy conversion system proposed is potentially able to provide four different energy sources, such us pressurized hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat, and work at the crankshaft on demand, as well as to fully comply with the environment sustainability requirements. Once aluminum oxide layer is removed, the pure aluminum can react with water producing alumina and hydrogen while releasing a significant amount of energy. Thus, the hydrogen can be stored for further use and the steam can be employed for energy generation or work production in a supplementary power system. The process is proved to be self-sustained and to provide a remarkable amount of energy available as work or hydrogen.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Evaluating Body Architecture Concepts Using Technical Cost Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0767
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Crash and Steering Column Frequency Simulation of an Aluminum Instrument Panel Structure

2011-04-12
2011-01-0765
Recent changes to the U.S. CAFÉ (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) requirements have caused increased focus on alternative vehicle component designs that offer mass savings while maintaining overall vehicle design and performance targets. The instrument panel components comprise approximately 6% of the total vehicle interior mass and are thus a key component of interest in mass optimization efforts. Typically, instrument panel structures are constructed of low carbon tubular steel cross car members with welded stamped steel component brackets. In some cases, instrument panel structures have incorporated high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels to reduce mass by reducing gage. In this study, aluminum low mass instrument panel structure concept designs are developed. This paper illustrates the differences between a HSLA steel solution and four different aluminum instrument panel structure designs.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Air-Cooled Aluminum Die-Cast Cylinder Blocks with Various Cast Iron and Aluminum Liners

2011-04-12
2011-01-0316
In most air-cooled engines, aluminum cylinder blocks are lined with cast iron, which enjoys a higher wear resistance than aluminum. Recently, rather than a turned periphery, an increasing number of cast iron liners have employed as-cast periphery with projections, so the liner better adheres to the aluminum cylinder block, and improves heat transfer. This study attempts to maximize heat transfer while minimizing cylinder weight, by comparing four liners: (1) a cast iron liner with higher projections on its periphery, (2) a cast iron liner with lower projections, (3) a cast iron liner with lower projections, and aluminum-silicon coated on its periphery by thermal spraying, and (4) a high-silicon aluminum alloy liner with aluminum-silicon coated by thermal spraying. These four experimental liners were fitted in a die-cast low-silicon aluminum-alloy cylinder block, to investigate their joint and cooling characteristics.
Journal Article

Optimization of One-Dimensional Aluminum Foam Armor Model for Pressure Loading

2011-04-12
2011-01-1050
The primary objective of this investigation is the optimum design of lightweight foam material systems for controlled energy absorption under blast impact. The ultimate goal of these systems is to increase the safety and integrity of occupants and critical components in structural systems such as automotive vehicles, buildings, ships, and aircrafts. Although outstanding results have been achieved with the use of foams in blast protective systems, current design practices rely on trial and error as there is an absence of a systematic design method. While the governing equations are known for a variety of physical phenomena in appropriate length scales, there are no suitable methodologies to accomplish the aforementioned objectives. A promising approach to systematically design the material's microstructure is the use of structural optimization methods. This investigation presents an appropriate design methodology to optimally design foam material systems for blast mitigation.
Journal Article

Scanning Frequency Ranges of Harmonic Response for a Spot-Welded Copper-Aluminum Plate Using Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-1076
In this paper, a finite element methodology is given in which finite element models of a three-weld Al-Cu plate is created with support and loading conditions emulating those seen in an optical lab. Harmonic response is sought for the models under the presumption that various defective welds are present. The numerical results are carefully examined to determine the guideline frequency range so the actual optical experiment can be carried out more efficiently.
Technical Paper

Lightweighting of Passenger Cars: A Comparative Lifecycle Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions

2013-01-09
2013-26-0072
The automotive industry has to accommodate regulatory norms as well as customer demands in its vehicle design. These include better crash safety, new subsystems (for comfort) and high performance powertrains, all of which lead to increase in vehicle mass. Heavy vehicles consume more fuel and produce more emissions. While there are several ways to increase fuel efficiency (i.e. improving engine and transmission efficiency, reducing aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance), the most effective means of achieving improved fuel efficiency is by reducing the overall weight of the vehicle. Hence, materials selection plays a significant role in the fuel economy, emissions as well as economics of transportation. If mass of a component is reduced there will be secondary mass reductions in other components, thus resulting in further reduction of final vehicle mass (‘mass decompounding’). The paper highlights potential benefits of using lightweight materials for vehicle body applications.
Journal Article

Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0791
A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.
Technical Paper

Rapid Residual Stress and Distortion Prediction in Cast Aluminum Components Using Artificial Neural Network and Part Geometry Characteristics

2014-04-01
2014-01-0755
Abstract Heat treated cast aluminum components like engine blocks and cylinder heads can develop significant amount of residual stress and distortion particularly with water quench. To incorporate the influence of residual stress and distortion in cast aluminum product design, a rapid simulation approach has been developed based on artificial neural network and component geometry characteristics. Multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) models were trained and verified using FEA residual stress and distortion predictions together with part geometry information such as curvature, maximum dihedral angle, topologic features including node's neighbors, as well as quench parameters like quench temperature and quench media.
Journal Article

Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-1004
Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production (“Baseline”), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design (“LWSV”), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Hypereutectic Aluminum Cylinder Liner for HPDC Cylinder Block

2014-04-01
2014-01-0998
Abstract High power gasoline engines require improved heat transfer between the cylinder block and water jacket because the heat load is increased when GDI, turbo charger, etc. are used. The use of a hypereutectic aluminum alloy cylinder liner has the advantage of thermal conductivity. In addition, the aluminum liner has the effect of low bore distortion and weight reduction compared with the gray cast iron liner. Use of an aluminum liner is a good solution for high power gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Energy Finite Element Analysis of the NASA Aluminum Testbed Cylinder

2005-05-16
2005-01-2372
An energy finite element analysis (EFEA) formulation is developed for predicting high frequency vibration response of cylindrical shells with periodically axial and circumferential stiffeners. In this method, the structure is modeled using EFEA method. The power transfer coefficients, employed in the joint matrices of the EFEA formulation at the location of the periodic stiffeners are computed based on Periodic Structure (PS) theory. Results from the new simulation method are compared to experimental data for the vibration response of a periodically circumferentially and axially stiffened cylinder (NASA aluminum testbed cylinder). The observed good correlation indicates that the new EFEA formulation captures properly the periodic characteristics for both the axial stringers and ring stiffeners.
Technical Paper

Effect of Alcohol Fuels on Fuel-Line Materials of Gasoline Vehicles

2005-10-24
2005-01-3708
In 1999, some Japanese fuel suppliers sold highly concentrated alcohol fuels, which are mixtures of gasoline and oxygenates, such as alcohol or ether, in amounts of 50% or more. In August 2001, it was reported that some vehicle models using the highly concentrated alcohol fuels encountered fuel leakage and vehicle fires due to corrosion of the aluminum used for the fuel-system parts. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Government of Japan (MLIT) jointly established the committee on safety for highly concentrated alcohol fuels in September 2001. The committee consisted of automotive technology and metal corrosion experts knowledgeable about preventing such accidents and ensuring user safety. Immersion tests were conducted on metals and other materials used for the fuel-supply system parts to determine the corrosion resistance to each alcohol component contained in the highly concentrated alcohol fuels.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Model for Fatigue Life Prediction of Highly Loaded Cylinder Heads

2006-04-03
2006-01-0542
Modern automobile diesel engines make use of aluminium cylinder heads that experience both high pressure and thermal loads. Maximum temperatures are above 250°C in the valve bridge area, generating microstructural transformations in the material and thus local evolution of the mechanical properties. To be able to predict the life time of this component with a reasonable amount of confidence, it is therefore necessary to describe these changes in the material. This has been done on a variety of casting materials, with various amount of silicon and copper. Two of them have been taken as references, namely the A356 and 319 type of alloys, making extensive use of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) associated with Automatic Image Analysis for quantitative analysis of the precipitation stages during different heat treatments, from the as-received state to saturated aging state.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Material and Processes for VVT Sprocket Manufacturing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0601
For the purpose of this paper the author will use VVT (Variable Valve Timing) to describe the function of these components. Other common names are VCT (Variable Camshaft Timing), cam phasers, VVT's were introduced in Japan in the late 1990,s in series production. The benefit to the end user is improved fuel economy, an increase in the power output and a reduction in emissions. Globally there are 8 major suppliers of VVT assemblies. The purpose of this paper is to compare the various systems from the selection of PM materials and the subsequent post operation processes specifically related to sprockets.
Technical Paper

Design of Experiment for Improvement of an Aluminum Tub Production Process

2005-11-22
2005-01-4131
In this ever-changing world the Total Quality Management (TQM) is an important way to manage the organization. It involves management, engineering system and empowerment of all people of the company. This paper has the objective of improving the solution of problems that exists in the production environment and must be solved to get better process or products. Everything is done quickly and the root cause must be eliminated as soon as possible. There are a lot of decisions based on common sense, feeling, and old experience or just based on reasons. By the way we cannot forget that the interaction between factors in a study is usual. The decisions based on a small sample during a test in the middle of the production line can be done, but some effects not expected must be avoided. The not expected effects are caused by one or another factor not considered at the beginning.
Technical Paper

Innovative Electrode Design and FEA Validation of Aluminum Resistance Spot Welding

2006-04-03
2006-01-0091
In the new design, the electrode employs composite electrode face construction with dissimilar materials. A cylindrical insert located in the electrode face center is made of low thermal and electrical conductivity material, such as stainless steel, and an annular outer sleeve is made of stainless steel and located at periphery of the electrode. Base material of the electrode is still made of copper alloys. With this electrode design, the electrical-thermal-mechanical conditions can be improved by confining the current flow path to reduce current level required for the weld nugget formation, and optimizing electrode pressure distribution, and minimizing electrode face heating and plastic deformation.
Technical Paper

BMW's Magnesium-Aluminium Composite Crankcase, State-of-the-Art Light Metal Casting and Manufacturing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0069
This paper presents new aspects of the casting and manufacturing of BMWs inline six-cylinder engine. This new spark-ignition engine is the realization of the BMW concept of efficient dynamics at high technological level. For the first time in the history of modern engine design, a water-cooled crankcase is manufactured by magnesium casting for mass production. This extraordinary combination of magnesium and aluminium is a milestone in engine construction and took place at the light-metal foundry at BMW's Landshut plant. This paper gives a close summary about process development, the constructive structure, and the manufacturing and testing processes.
Technical Paper

Performance Driven Advances in Casting Impregnation for the Advancement of Lightweight Material

2005-04-11
2005-01-1685
Until recently, little change has been seen in the manufacturing systems employed in casting impregnation. Originally developed as a batch process to recover porous metal castings, advancements in casting impregnation manufacturing systems have been limited to increasing throughput by increasing the size of the batch process vessels. Manual valves and sight glasses were replaced with automatic valves and level sensors. Bolt down pressure vessels were replaced with locking ring technology. Systems remained highly labor intensive. Similarly, little attention was paid to the process and science of impregnation, which therefore remained stagnant. A fresh look and research into the process and science of casting impregnation has brought about new technology enabling single piece flow and greater process effectiveness. These advancements have translated into reduced hours per unit and therefore, reduced manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper

New Automotive Aluminium Harness Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1700
The Aluminium wires, already being used for decades in the power supply industry, are now also present inside new Automotive harness systems. The motivation for using aluminium wires is: Weight reduction means improved fuel economy with reduced emissions. Cost reduction because of less use of raw material. For a new automotive harness system we have tested the possible use of aluminium wires for the substitution of conventional copper wires specially for signal cables and power cables (like battery cable, see [1]). Some new interconnection technologies for aluminium wires have been developed with respect to the special properties of aluminium strands. In this paper an overview about the possibilities of using aluminium cables for the next carlines is given. Especially the aluminium conductor can be used in power wiring systems to reach an optimized weight reduction (like for battery cables in some today carlines).
X