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Technical Paper

Microcellular Polyurethane (MCU) for NVH Solutions

2011-05-17
2011-01-1621
While the microcellular urethane is widely known in the automotive industry for its use in jounce bumpers, its use in Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) applications is often not as well recognized. Even though there are some NVH parts in the market, rubber still dominates it. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the material properties of MCU and their relevance for NVH applications in chassis and suspension components. It will also demonstrate the importance of package design to suit the use of the MCU material. This is especially important to not only achieve the best performance but also keep overall cost and weight under control. Several application types will be introduced with general design suggestions. A detailed design guideline for these applications is not part of this paper. Each application has a large variety of parameters to be considered in the design. They need to be selectively applied based on customer performance targets.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction Feasibility of Engine Components Concerning Noise and Vibration Characteristics

2009-05-19
2009-01-2049
We assessed the feasibility of weight reduction concerning noise and vibration characteristics for engine components. Three alternatives were plastic intake manifold, stamped steel oil pan, and no balance shaft. The assessment indices were engine noise level, engine mount bracket vibration, and engine block vibration. Reducing the reciprocating mass and applying design alternatives made the removal of balance shaft feasible. The lightweight plastic intake manifold was beneficial to the engine vibration with a little improvement to the engine noise. The stamped steel oil pan, with optimal structural ribs design and EMS calibration, offered all the benefits of weight, vibration, and noise improvements.
Technical Paper

Process Simulation Integration in Product Design

2009-01-21
2009-26-0089
The effect of processing parameters on the material properties is an important design consideration in plastic part design. The process may cause anisotropic properties due to matrix and fiber orientation, develop internal stresses during cooling, cause thickness variation etc. These effects if not considered in the product design and analysis, may result in premature product failure, reduced safety factor, fit and finish issues or higher costs and weight due to over design. Injection molded long glass polypropylene and blow molded PC/ABS have been used in automotive structural parts requiring to meet stringent static and dynamic loads as per the regulatory legislation. This paper demonstrates the use of injection molding and blow molding process simulation to incorporate the process effect on material and structure properties.
Technical Paper

Eco-Friendly Automotive Plastic Seat Design

2009-01-21
2009-26-0087
The performance and design criteria for seat systems require that the seat be lighter for reduced fuel consumption while still meeting the safety requirements specified by legislation. The safety requirements for seats include headrests, seat back static and dynamic structural performance, seat belt anchorage, luggage retention capability, child seat anchorage and top tether requirements as defined by pertinent regulation. The interior space constraints require that the seat be thinner. The seat design is expected to address the growing concern for environmental friendliness. In addition to these main criteria, various additional features such as adjustable and stow-able design are required for customer delight. All these design objectives should be met within a given cost target. Conventional seating systems include a steel frame, with springs attached to provide support and flexibility to foam cushions. The steel frame is made up of several parts welded together.
Journal Article

Role of Predictive Engineering in the Design Evolution of a Thermoplastic Fender for a Compact SUV

2011-04-12
2011-01-0768
Automotive fenders is one such example where specialized thermoplastic material Noryl GTX* (blend of Polyphenyleneoxide (PPO) + Polyamide (PA)) has successfully replaced metal by meeting functional requirements. The evolution of a fender design to fulfill these requirements is often obtained through a combination of unique material properties and predictive engineering backed design process that accounts for fender behavior during the various phases of its lifecycle. This paper gives an overview of the collaborative design process between Mitsubishi Motors Corporation and SABIC Innovative Plastics and the role of predictive engineering in the evolution of a thermoplastic fender design of Mitsubishi Motors Corporation's compact SUV RVR fender launched recently. While significant predictive work was done on manufacturing and use stage design aspects, the focus of this paper is the design work related to identifying support configuration during the paint bake cycle.
Technical Paper

Thermoplastic Roof Crush Countermeasure Design for Improved Roof Crush Resistant to Meet FMVSS-216

2011-04-12
2011-01-1119
An automobile is designed to meet numerous impact events, including frontal impact, side impact, rear impact, and roll over. Roof crush resistance is a test defined by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 216. The intent of this test is to evaluate the strength of the roof and supporting body structure during a vehicle rollover. Steel countermeasures are typically used as structural-reinforcing elements to the body structure to improve the crush strength of a vehicle roof. This paper presents a thermoplastic countermeasure (CM) design as a light-weight solution to replace traditional steel countermeasures. Two concepts are discussed in the paper: an all-plastic countermeasure and a plastic/metal hybrid countermeasure consisting of stamped steel with a thermoplastic reinforcing rib structure. Finite Element (FE) methods using LS-DYNA are used to evaluate the performance of these countermeasure concepts.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Fuel Hose with Pressure Pulsation Reduction

2013-10-15
2013-32-9047
Recently, the electronic fuel injection systems have been widely applied to small motorcycles including scooters. In the high pressure fuel lines, plastic hoses have been increasingly used instead of conventional rubber hoses. As the plastic hose is less elastic than the rubber hose, the fuel pressure pulsates more in the plastic hose. To cope with this issue, we have conducted researches on how the fuel pressure pulsation in the plastic hose affects the accuracy of fuel injection. Keeping our eyes on the pulsation damping effects derived from the changes of volume due to the expansion and contraction of hose when the pressure changes, we have established the analysis method for optimization of the inner diameter and the thickness of the hose utilizing CAE analysis. The newly-developed plastic hose is applicable to motorcycles having a single cylinder 250 cm3 engine using an injector of a high static flow rate.
Technical Paper

Study of the Submarine Injection Gate with the Aid of Computer Injection Simulation

2013-10-07
2013-36-0646
Injection is one of the most used methods on plastic molding. The development of the mold is a very important procedure and requires time before the product is injected. An injection mold has a main runner, a secondary runner and the injection gate. The submarine gate is widely used, for allowing the automatic parting of the injected product from the runner system at the time the mold is opened. By literature reviewing, it can be noticed that the authors do not have accordance relative to the diameter dimensions of the secondary runner and the injection gate. This research's objective is to analyze and compile the best indicated values, with the aid of CAE tool, to submarine gates, for them to be used as reference for future studies.
Technical Paper

Tensile and Fatigue Behaviors of Two Thermoplastics Including Strain Rate, Temperature, and Mean Stress Effects

2014-04-01
2014-01-0901
Abstract An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate tensile and fatigue behaviors of two thermoplastics, a neat impact polypropylene and a mineral and elastomer reinforced polyolefin. Tensile tests were performed at various strain rates at room, −40°C, and 85°C temperatures with specimens cut parallel and perpendicular to the mold flow direction. Tensile properties were determined from these tests and mathematical relations were developed to represent tensile properties as a function of strain rate and temperature. For fatigue behavior, the effects considered include mold flow direction, mean stress, and temperature. Tension-compression as well as tension-tension load-controlled fatigue tests were performed at room temperature, −40°C and 85°C. The effect of mean stress was modeled using the Walker mean stress model and a simple model with a mean stress sensitivity factor.
Technical Paper

Design for NVH Performance and Weight Reduction in Plastic Timing Chain Cover Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1043
Abstract Light weighting is a critical objective in the automotive industry to improve fuel efficiency. But when redesigning parts for light weight, by changing from metal to plastic, the resulting design gives NVH issues due to differences in part mass and material stiffness. Many parts were not converted from metal to plastic because of NVH issues that could not be solved. Many engine parts such as cylinder head cover, air intake manifold, oil pan and etc. previously made of metal have since long been replaced with plastic. But timing chain cover has not been replaced because of the aforementioned issue. Sealing performance due to the dynamic characteristics of the application is another challenging factor. In this paper, the key aspects of the plastic timing chain cover as well as its advantage are presented.
Technical Paper

Next Generation in Hydrolysis Resistance Polyester (PBT) for Electrical Connectors and Components

2014-04-01
2014-01-1042
Abstract Thermoplastic polyesters are widely used in the automotive industry and are the material of choice for many types of electrical and electronic components due to their excellent balance of mechanical and electrical properties. Under certain conditions including elevated temperatures and the presence of high humidity, thermoplastic polyesters such as polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) have the potential to suffer hydrolytic attack. Recognizing the need for standardization, USCAR USCAR (The United States Council for Automotive Research) established component level testing guidelines specific to connectors. In response, many companies developed HR (hydrolysis resistant) PBT resins to help manufactures meet these requirements. As with many additive technologies in plastics, there are trade-offs. In this case, hydrolysis resistance was often improved at the expense of melt viscosity stability and high flow during the injection molding process.
Technical Paper

Development of High Impact, High MFR and Lightweight Polypropylene for Automotive Interiors Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1039
Abstract Plastics nowadays are playing a vital role in the ongoing innovation that is driving the automotive industry to higher performance, safety and sustainability levels. Plastics have allowed automotive designers to meet stringent carbon emission targets and fulfill consumer demands for highly fuel efficient vehicles by reducing vehicle weight while also reducing cost. The next step in weight reduction is to decrease the plastic part thickness further to the minimum possible. But with such reduction in part thickness, it becomes very difficult to meet the side impact crash regulations, and thus it becomes imperative to increase the Impact properties of such light weight materials. Keeping in line with the above, this paper describes the development of a new blend of Polypropylene which has high impact characteristics to meet crash compliance, high MFR to reduce cycle time and allow for easy filling of low thickness parts and keeping specific gravity in check to reduce weight.
Technical Paper

Material NVH Convergence Technology for a Plastic Intercooler Pipe

2014-04-01
2014-01-1040
Abstract The main contribution of this paper is to employ a sound and vibration theory in order to develop a light and cost effective plastic intercooler pipe. The intercooler pipe was composed of two rubber hoses and one aluminum pipe mounted between an ACV (Air Control Valve) and an intercooler outlet. The engineering design concept is to incorporate low-vibration type bellows and an impedance-mismatched center pipe, which replaces the rubber hoses and aluminum pipe respectively. The bellows were designed to adapt powertrain movement for high vibration transmission loss to the intercooler outlet. Also, the impedance-mismatched center pipe was implemented to increase reflected wave by using relatively higher modulus than bellows part and applying a SeCo (Sequential Coextrusion) processing method.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Plastic Fuel Rail and Its Benefits

2014-04-01
2014-01-1041
Abstract Global automobile market is very sensitive to vehicle fuel economy. Gross vehicle weight has substantial effects on FE. Hence, for designers it becomes utmost important to work on the weight reduction ideas up to single component level. Fuel delivery pipe (Fuel Rail) is one such component where there is a big potential. Fuel rail is an integral part of the vehicle fuel system and is mounted on the engine. Primarily it serves as a channel of fuel supply from fuel tank through fuel lines to the multiple fuel injectors, which further sprays the fuel into intake ports at high pressure. Due to opening and closing of injectors, pulsations are generated in fuel lines, so fuel rail also acts as a surge tank as well as a pulsation damper. All these factors make the design of a fuel rail very critical and unique for a particular engine. Materials like aluminum, plastic and sheet metal are generally used for fuel rail manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Effect of CO2 Content on Foaming Behavior of Recyclable High-Melt-Strength PP

2006-04-03
2006-01-0336
This paper presents an experimental study on the foaming behavior of recyclable high-melt-strength (HMS) branched polypropylene (PP) with CO2 as a blowing agent. The foamability of branched HMS PP has been evaluated using a tandem foaming extruder system. The effects of CO2 and nucleating agent contents on the final foam morphology have been thoroughly investigated. The low density (i.e., 12~14 fold), fine-celled (i.e., 107–109 cells/cm3) PP foams were successfully produced using a small amount of talc (i.e., 0.8 wt%) and 5 wt% CO2.
Technical Paper

Performance Improvement of Eco Plastics/Poly Lactic Acid

2006-04-03
2006-01-0335
We are studying Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) based materials for injection molding in order to spread Eco Plastics widely. A compatibilizer which has an appropriate compatibility with PLA and never disturbs crystallization of PLA was selected. The compatibilizer was kneaded with various kinds of PLA and heat resistance (Heat distortion Temperature) and impact performance (IZOD impact) were measured. As a result, impact performance was considerably improved; however, heat resistance was not enough. We found poor heat resistance was caused by poor crystallinity of PLA. In the future work, we are looking for crystallization promotion method of PLA to improve heat resistance.
Technical Paper

Resistive Implant Welding of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Compounds

2006-04-03
2006-01-0332
Resistive Implant Welding (RIW) is a technology that has the potential to join large thermoplastic automotive components. It involves placing an electrically conductive implant between two parts that are mated under pressure. Heat, dissipated at the interface by direct current, causes melting, flow and ultimately welding to occur. This research examines the RIW of long-glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene (LGF-PP) to continuous-glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene (CGF-PP) using a stainless steel mesh-implant. The effects of welding time, applied current, and weld pressure on the temperature near the mesh, meltdown and the compression-shear strength of the welds were assessed. The results show that it is possible to attain shear strengths of the order of 20 MPa under optimized welding conditions. The meltdown and strength correlate well with a semi-empirical lumped parameter dependent on weld-time, current squared and pressure.
Technical Paper

Mechanical, Thermal and Rheological Properties of Polymers Used in Plastic Fuel Tanks

2006-04-03
2006-01-0333
The materials used for making plastic fuel tanks are: virgin high-density polyethylene; fuel tank regrind; ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) fuel barrier; and maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene adhesive. Impact strength measurements were conducted per ASTM D256 using Izod & Charpy machine configurations. All polymers were found to have superior impact resistance at room temperature. The polyethylene and fuel tank regrind maintain superior impact at −40 °C; however, a sharp drop in impact resistance is noted for EVOH. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of EVOH showed that in addition to the glass transition at about 70 °C, the polymer undergoes a second order transition around −35 °C, which is responsible for embrittlement. All materials are sensitive to the presence of notches or sharp discontinuities. Notched Izod impact resistance is five to ten times lower for polyethylene matrices; and forty times lower for EVOH than unnotched samples.
Technical Paper

A New Design Principle of Active Receiving Antennas Applied with a High Impedance Amplifier-Diversity-Module in a Compact Multi-Band-Antenna-System on a Plastic Trunk Lid

2006-04-03
2006-01-0480
In vehicles such as e.g. cabriolets, parts of the skin are made of plastics as e.g. the trunk lid. This enables the integration of a 4-antenna-FM-diversity system with an excellent quality of reception. As antenna elements for mobile FM- and TV-reception a novel ring wire structure with 2 switching elements is used. An advanced concept of high input impedance amplifiers leads to a satisfying effective antenna height. Since the antenna structure is only placed along the rim of the dielectric trunk lid there is space left inside the given area for additional low profile antennas for example for AM, GPS, SDARS, GSM and PCS.
Technical Paper

Measurement of N2 Solubility in Polypropylene and Ethene/Octene Copolymer

2006-04-03
2006-01-0504
Determination of the solubility of a blowing agent, i.e. supercritical N2, in polypropylene (PP) and elastomer material is crucial for achieving high-quality thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) foams in automotive industry. A magnetic suspension balance (MSB) was employed in the experiments to measure the apparent solubility, while the swollen volume predicted by the Sanchez-Lacombe (SL) equation of state (EOS) was used to account for the buoyancy effect. The volume swelling of the polymer/gas mixture and the gas solubilities for both PP and polyolefin elastomer were discussed.
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