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Journal Article

Additive Formulation Technology for Fuel Economy Passenger Car Motor Oil and Development of Sequence VID Screener

2011-08-30
2011-01-2111
Fuel economy is one of the most essential performance requirements for Passenger Car Motor Oil because of fuel economy regulations in many countries and increasing fuel prices. The ILSAC GF-5 specification was issued on December 22, 2009 and requires better fuel economy performance based on the Sequence VID (Seq. VID) Test and higher weighted piston deposit merits based on the Sequence IIIG Test, compared to the ILSAC GF-4 specification. Fuel economy performance is affected by viscosity, friction modification and the lubricant additive chemistries. However, fuel economy engine tests under combustion mode introduce high variability into a fuel economy measurement. Screening by bench testing is complicated by the difficulty to reproduce friction conditions of all of engine parts. A motored friction torque test using an engine is one of the better solutions for fuel economy screening.
Technical Paper

Field Test of Semi-permanent use of Engines and Lube Oil with Almost No Wear and with Constant Thermal Efficiency

2011-08-30
2011-01-2113
A new type of lube oil cleaning system is successfully developed for semi-permanent use of oil by always keeping oil clean with the result of no oil change and no waste oil. It is in practical use in many marine diesel engines and in some other fields. In recent years, possibility of semi-permanent use of engines themselves has been expected based on the field data. A ship test for 7 years has verified the expected semi-permanent use of engines with almost no wear and constant thermal efficiency during the test. We present the characteristics of the oil cleaning system and the result of the test. Also, a new type of fuel oil cleaning system is presented which is useful for cleaning low quality fuel oil. As a whole, this test is the beginning of the new stage of our work following the semi-permanent use of lube oil, which has been verified and established in many diesel engines since the 1980s.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wear in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines: Part I - Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology

2011-08-30
2011-01-2114
This paper is first in a series of papers designed to investigate wear processes in modern heavy duty diesel engines. The objective of the series is to discuss the effects that engine drive cycle, lubricant formulations and in-service ageing of lubricants have on wear of critical engine components. In this paper, the Radioactive Tracer Technology technique was used to study the steady state wear behavior of a number of contacting surfaces in a Caterpillar 1P engine, as a function of the drive cycle. A test protocol consisting of 7 modes or stages was used to simulate a variety of drive cycles. The results from this work provide useful insights into the wear behavior of these surfaces under a variety of speed and load conditions.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Estimation of the Service Life of a Precision Guiding Interface “Needle - Nozzle Body” of a Common-Rail-Injector for High Rail Pressures

2011-08-30
2011-01-2020
The analysis of type and form of the loading in the guidance between the needle and body of a CR-injector, as well as the transformation of friction energy on the contact surfaces which absorbs mechanical and thermal loads with deforming and heating the contact layer is presented. The dominant parameters of friction and wear for the investigated interface (radial force, mode of friction, relation for the nominal and real contact areas etc.) are shown in function of different values of rail pressures, varying from 500 to 3000 bar. A special coefficient of accumulation of energy is defined. With these coefficient the analysis of thermal- and stress-conditions for the precision tribosystem become possible. Furthermore this leads to the calculation of the intensity of wear for the mentioned components of the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of 5 to 20% Biodiesel Blend on Heavy-duty Common-rail Diesel Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1894
The higher portion of biodiesel blended fuel will result in lower power output since biodiesel itself has lower energy input (B20 gave about 3% lower torque output at peak torque speed). In the ELR (Engine Load Response) Test Cycle, biodiesel blended fuel emitted less smoke than diesel fuel, while CO and NOx emission of biodiesel blended fuel and diesel fuel are comparable. Biodiesel particulate matter (PM) seemed to be higher than diesel fuel. In addition, additized biodiesel blended fuels (B5, B10 and B20) proved qualitative in oxidation stability, acid value, etc. Biodiesel specific lubricant confirmed its functions by evaluating the viscosity increase, fuel dilution, TAN, TBN and wear metal content during engine durability test. The used oil analysis affirmed that the lubricant could effectively be used with particular biodiesel blended fuel in advanced, heavy-duty common-rail DI diesel engines.
Journal Article

4 Versus 8 Counterweights for an I4 Gasoline Engine Crankshaft - Measurements of Vibration and Bearing Wear

2009-06-15
2009-01-1938
The authors have published SAE paper 2008-01-0088 on the analytical comparison between 4 and 8 counterweight crankshafts for an I4 gasoline engine. This paper showed that for a particular design of a 4 counterweight crankshaft, the differences in bearing force and oil film thickness were very small and the only major difference in terms of bearing shaft tilt angle occurred at mains 2 and 4 (increase of ∼20% compared with 8 counterweight version). The 4 counterweight crankshaft has a significant mass advantage as it was 1.42kg lighter than the 8 counterweight crankshaft. This new paper addresses the testing performed to validate the analysis results in bearing durability by subjecting the engine to a mixture of high speed and general durability cycles. A comparison was made on the bearing conditions after running a total of 100 hours through prescribed durability cycles on a gasoline engine with both 4 and 8 counterweight crankshafts.
Technical Paper

Belt Wet Friction and Noise Study

2009-06-15
2009-01-1979
Serpentine belt system has been widely used to drive automotive accessories like power steering pump, alternator, and A/C compressor from a crankshaft pulley. Overload under severe conditions can lead to excessive slippage in the belt pulley interface in poorly designed accessory systems. This can lead to undesirable noise that increases warranty cost substantially. The mechanisms and data of these tribology performance, noise features and system response are of utmost interest to the accessory drive designers. As accessories belt systems are usually used in ambient condition, the presence of water on belt is unavoidable under the raining weather conditions. The presence of water in interface induces larger slippage as the water film in interface changes the friction mechanisms in rubber belt-pulley interface from coulomb friction to friction with mixed lubrication that has negative slope of coefficient of friction (cof) - velocity.
Technical Paper

Potential for Reduced Wear Rates in Diesel Engines Running on Fischer-Tropsch Diesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1959
In three recent engine testing research projects involving comparisons of Low Temperature Fischer Tropsch (LTFT) synthetic diesel with conventional crude derived diesel, findings have included indications of significantly lower engine cylinder wear rates in engines running on Fischer Tropsch (FT) diesel. Close examination of the engine oil analysis from the second comparative study has strongly indicated that the differences in cylinder wear rate can be ascribed to the choice of fuel. None of the three studies were originally formulated for this aspect of comparison and only the second study is able to prove that this is in fact a fuel specific advantage attributed to FT diesel fuel. This paper reports on the details of the three projects in respect to this issue, presents analysis of the experimental data and preliminary investigations attempted in an effort to understand this phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Development of a Procedure for Multi-Axial Road Load Reproductions on an Exhaust Test Rig

2009-05-19
2009-01-2030
OEM's increase the pressure on their suppliers to design, develop and test their products within a short time period. This requires design ‘first-time-right’ philosophy and advanced numerical and experimental methods. Four steps are required to experimentally asses the durability of exhaust systems. Environmental loads and strain references are acquired on the test track. This data is analyzed and damaging are sections retained. These sections are then reproduced on a test rig. During this reproduction, strain is measured at the reference locations and the damage is calculated and compared with the test track data.
Technical Paper

Testing and Evaluation of Fuel Properties Effect on High Speed Engine Performance

2009-11-03
2009-32-0068
In the past, the performance of motorcycle engines has improved quite rapidly through intensive competition in racing and marketplace. In today's very competitive market environment, fuel producers also have to continuously develop and renew their products performance and capability in order to improve their business competitive edge and market share. With more consumer awareness on environment concerns, fuel producers require a better mean of assessing their product performance for internal combustion engine market including motorcycle for improve fuel economy and exhaust emission pollutants. Fossil fuel resources depletion and uncertainty in oil prices further worsen the situation. Advancement in internal combustion engine measurement technology allows engineers to have access to improve evaluation tools in enhancing their understanding and knowledge on the effect of fuel properties on engine performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Catalyst-Friendly FC-W® Certified Marine Oils Utilizing Novel ZDP Technology

2009-11-03
2009-32-0075
Phosphorus is known to reduce the effectiveness of the three-way catalysts commonly used by automobile manufacturers by deactivating the catalyst. This process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP) decomposes in the engine oil, creating many phosphorus species, which provide excellent wear protection of the engine but can also interact with the active sites of the three-way catalyst. This reactivity has led to API specifications for engine oils with lower concentrations of phosphorus. In order to further minimize catalyst deactivation without compromising wear protection, a novel ZDP technology was designed for engine oil applications. This novel ZDP was designed to minimize the amount of phosphorus produced via volatilization during engine operation while maintaining engine wear protection.
Technical Paper

Development of High Fatigue Strength Valve Spring Using Control of White Layer by Nitriding

2009-11-03
2009-32-0082
For the requirements of high power output, lightweight and improved fuel consumption of motorcycles to respond to global environmental needs, high fatigue strength to cope with high stress is becoming more important than ever for valve springs. To satisfy such needs, a new alloy steel that softens less in tempering (1),(2) and nitriding that increases surface hardness of valve springs has been developed using oil-tempered silicone-chrome steel wire as the base material. Also, with regards to shot-peening to create compression residual stress on the surface, studies are being performed for multi-stage and high-hardness peening. The research reported in this paper is aimed at an increase of internal hardness after nitriding while maintaining the cold-coiling-ability by adding elements that reduce softening from tempering while reducing non-dissolved carbide in the material.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effect in Exhaust System Fatigue Life Prediction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0783
Automotive exhaust system experiences vibratory and thermal loads. Bogey test had been the major validation method until recent years when the strain-life approach was adopted to evaluate component's fatigue life. In practice, when using the strain-life model to evaluate a component subjected to elevated temperature, temperature effect on component fatigue life is considered by introducing a temperature scale factor KC that is used to scale up the measured nominal strain, hence the mechanical load. This paper intends to propose a method to estimate KC by designing component bench tests at room temperature and at elevated temperature, respectively. Two major failure modes in the exhaust system are investigated and different temperature effects on the base metal fatigue and on the weld or heat-affected zone are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Path-Length Based Statistical Analysis of Random Multi-Axial Fatigue Loading Histories

2011-04-12
2011-01-0784
A statistic fatigue life assessment procedure is presented in this paper for estimating fatigue damage under stationary Gaussian multi-axial loadings with narrow-band frequency. The fatigue damage is determined by using the Miner-Palmgren rule in connection with a recently developed path-length based multi-axial cycle counting and fatigue life assessment method. In this procedure, the path length is determined by averaging sinusoidal waves with uniformly distributed phase angles while the cycles are estimated from the observation of peak counting results of stress components. Numerically simulated random loading paths with different degrees of non-proportionality are used here to compare the proposed statistical method with its time domain counterpart. Possible further improvement in this research direction is also indicated.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization and Cost Effective Methodology for Column Mounted Single Stalk Combination Switch.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0775
As the automobile industry in India is growing fast and competitive, there is a need to design the vehicle and its parts at most cost effective. This paper gives the details of design optimization and cost effective methodology followed to develop a Single Stalk Combination Switch, without degrading the end user delight. This paper describes various design criteria affecting the combination switch design.
Technical Paper

Parabolic Leaf Spring Optimization and Fatigue Strength Evaluation on the Base of Road Load Data, Endurance Rig Tests and Non Linear Finite Element Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0438
The parabolic leaf spring plays a vital role in suspension systems, since it has an effect on ride comfort and vehicle dynamics. Primarily, leaf spring endurance must be ensured. Presently, there are two approaches to designing a leaf spring. In the traditional method, fatigue tests should be repeated for each case, considering different material, geometry and suspension hard points. However, it takes a long time and requires a heavy budget to get the optimized solution. In the contemporary method, a numerical approach is used to obtain the fatigue life and the leaf geometry against the environmental condition on the basis of material properties. This paper presents a more precise method based on non-linear finite element solutions by evaluating the effects of the production parameters, the geometrical tolerances and the variations in the characteristics of the material.
Technical Paper

Piston Ring Solutions on Side Wear to the Next Generation of Truck Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0399
Changing emission legislation limits are challenging the engine developers in many aspects. Requirement to improve combustion and engine efficiency have resulted in increased loads and higher levels of abrasive particles within the engine environment. Concerning piston rings and piston ring grooves, such engine modifications are leading to critical tribological conditions and side wear is becoming a key issue in the design of these components. Historically one of the most common forms of side wear protection on piston rings has been chromium plate. This solution has limitations on durability (low thickness) and on topography (rough surfaces). In response to these limitations, nitrided stainless steel top rings have been used to improve the side protection; it is harder and typically has a smoother surface finish when compared to chromium coating.
Journal Article

A Study on Wear Progress of Plain Bearing under Mixed Lubrication Condition

2011-04-12
2011-01-0609
Recently, automotive engines have been operating under harsh conditions of high-power, low viscosity oil and increase of start-stop (e.g. idling stop). In plain bearing used within engine, as oil film thickness decreases, the frequency of direct contacts on the sliding surfaces between the shaft and the bearing are gradually increasing. In fact, the plain bearings for engines would tend to be used under mixed lubrication and the contacts of the surface roughness asperities sometimes occur between the shaft and the bearing. As a result, the bearing wear on the sliding surfaces is accelerated by the contacts of the roughness asperities. In order to predict the bearing performance exactly, it is very important to understand the change progress of the geometric shape of sliding surfaces caused by the wear.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Strain Distribution for Hole Expansion with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0993
Abstract Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in automotive industry. A major issue for AHSS stamping is edge cracking. This failure mode is difficult to predict by conventional forming limit curve (FLC). The material edge stretchability is mainly evaluated using the hole expansion test. In this study, digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied for strain measurement. DIC is a non-contact, full field, high accuracy and direct measurement technique that provides more detailed information for the evolution of strains on the sheet surface. Tests were conducted for five AHSS and nine cases. This paper will explain in detail the DIC technique and its results.
Journal Article

Shape and Strain Measurement of Rotating Tire by Sampling Moiré Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0995
Recently, sampling moire method was developed to analyze the phase of a one-dimensional or two-dimensional grating on an object with high accuracy. In the method, several phase-shifted moire patterns are generated from one image of the grating. In order to analyze a shape by a stereoscopic method, it is necessary to find the corresponding points between the two images of the object recorded from different two cameras. It is possible to analyze the phase of the grating using the sampling moiré method and find the corresponding points as points with the same phase. It is also possible to analyze the displacement and strain from the corresponding point before and after deformation. This method is, therefore, suitable for shape and strain distribution measurement of a moving object. In this paper, a dynamic shape and strain measurement method using the sampling moiré method is proposed and a system for the measurement is developed.
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