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Journal Article

An Accurate Measurement of Rotation Velocity-Eliminating Measurement Errors Caused by Gear Tooth Shape Unevenness

2011-05-17
2011-01-1651
It is very important to accurately measure rotation frequencies and fluctuations of rotating systems since they cause vibrations and noises, and since they sometimes indicate system malfunctions. Most rotating systems are equipped with electro- or magneto-conductive gears as their components, and rotation pulses are very commonly obtained by installing electromagnetic or electrostatic type sensors closely to target gears, and time dependent (instantaneous) rotation frequencies are obtained from intervals between adjacent pulses. However, since the number of pulses per revolution is relatively small, a method of obtaining instantaneous frequencies from adjacent pulse intervals is not adequate. For these kinds of pulses, instantaneous rotation frequencies are typically derived using the analytic signal (or Hilbert transform) method. In either case, there is an inherent limitation in using rotation pulses obtained from gears.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Airflow Induced Whistle Noise by HVAC Control Doors Utilizing a ‘V-Shape’ Rubber Seal

2011-05-17
2011-01-1615
Doors inside an automotive HVAC module are essential components to ensure occupant comfort by controlling the cabin temperature and directing the air flow. For temperature control, the function of a door is not only to close/block the airflow path via the door seal that presses against HVAC wall, but also control the amount of hot and cold airflow to maintain cabin temperature. To meet the stringent OEM sealing requirement while maintaining a cost-effective product, a “V-Shape” soft rubber seal is commonly used. However, in certain conditions when the door is in the position other than closed which creates a small gap, this “V-Shape” seal is susceptible to the generation of objectionable whistle noise for the vehicle passengers. This nuisance can easily reduce end-customer satisfaction to the overall HVAC performance.
Journal Article

Pulley Optimization for Improved Steering Pump Airborne Noise Performance

2011-05-17
2011-01-1568
This paper discusses the optimization of an automotive hydraulic steering pump pulley design for improved in-vehicle pump NVH performance. Levels of steering pump whine noise heard inside a vehicle were deemed objectionable. Vehicle and component transfer path analyses indicated that the dominant noise path for the whine noise was airborne in nature. Subsequent experimental modal analysis indicated that the steering pump pulley was a major contributor to the amount of radiated noise produced by the pump/pulley system. CAE analysis was used to further analyze the dynamic behavior of the pulley and develop an optimized design with decreased noise radiation efficiency. The results predicted with the CAE analysis were verified in-vehicle, resulting in a vehicle with acceptable steering pump whine noise performance.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Approach to Quantifying Gear Rattle Noise Using Envelope Analysis

2011-05-17
2011-01-1584
The present work discusses an objective test and analysis method developed to quickly quantify steering gear rattle noise heard in a vehicle. Utilizing envelope analysis on the time history data of the rattle signal, the resulting method is simple, fast, practical and yields a single-valued metric which correlates well to subjective measures of rattle noise. In contrast to many other rattle analysis methods, the approach discussed here is completed in the time domain. As applied to rattle noise produced by automotive electric steering systems, the metric produced with this analysis method correlates well with subjective appraisals of vehicle-level rattle noise performance. Lastly, this method can also be extended to rattle measurements at the component and subcomponent level.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis of Light Vehicle Cab's Hydraulic Mount Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction Method

2011-05-17
2011-01-1604
Hyperelastic model constants of rubber material are predicted based on test date. The fluid-structure interaction model of light vehicle cab's hydraulic mount is established. Static characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed by quasi-static method. In dynamic characteristics analysis, the flow model of fluid is set to turbulent K-Epsilon RNG. The dynamic stiffness and loss angle of the hydraulic mount are presented via the finite element model. The simulations of static and dynamic characteristics agree well with corresponding test results. The effects of main structure parameters to the dynamic characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed based on the finite element model.
Technical Paper

Flow Noises Associated with Integrated Compressor Anti-Surge Valve

2011-05-17
2011-01-1532
Turbocharged gasoline engines are typically equipped with a compressor anti-surge valve or CBV (compressor by-pass valve). The purpose of this valve is to release pressurized air between the throttle and the compressor outlet during tip-out maneuvers. At normal operating conditions, the CBV is closed. There are two major CBV mounting configurations. One is to mount the CBV on the AIS system. The other is to mount the CBV directly on the compressor housing, which is called an integrated CBV. For an integrated CBV, at normal operating conditions, it is closed and the enclosed passageway between high pressure side and low pressure side forms a “side-branch” in the compressor inlet side (Figure 12). The cavity modes associated with this “side-branch” could be excited by shear layer flow and result in narrow band flow noises.
Technical Paper

Derivation of the Force Interaction within Strongly Coupled Systems - Application to Diesel Engine Oil Pumps

2011-05-17
2011-01-1531
Due to the increasing focus on noise and vibration for future vehicles, there is a need for a clear definition of the requirements between vehicle manufacturers and auxiliary suppliers. Auxiliary characterisations are also needed as input for structure-borne numerical prediction models. Strongly coupled systems are amongst the most difficult structure-borne noise issues, as the transmitted forces and powers are strongly dependent upon the mobilities of both the vibration source and receiver. The so-called “blocked forces” can be used as intrinsic source descriptions. The challenge is then to design auxiliary test benches perfectly rigid in the frequency range of interest. The current paper is based on the French research program MACOVAM dedicated to the vibro-acoustic characterisation of oil pumps for truck engines. An original test bench was designed to measure quasi-blocked forces over the [150 Hz-2800 Hz] frequency range.
Technical Paper

Two-stage Gear Driveline Vibration and Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1542
Gear meshing noise is a common noise issue in manual transmission, its noise generation mechanism has been studied extensively [1, 2]. But most of time we have situations where multiple gear sets are connected in series and the noise and vibration behavior for a multi-stage gear can be quite different due to vibration inter-actions or interferences among multiple gear sets. In this paper, a two-stage gear driveline model was built using MSC ADAMS. Vibration order contents of a two-stage gear driveline were analyzed by both CAE simulation and theoretical calculations. In addition to gear meshing vibration orders of each gear set, the orders resulted from modulations between individual gear meshing and their harmonics were evident in the results. These special order contents were verified by experimental results, and also evidenced on transmission end of line tester results at transmission supplier GJT in Ganzhou, China.
Journal Article

Dynamics of Coupled Nonlinear Hypoid Gear Mesh and Time-varying Bearing Stiffness Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1548
A new capability to analyze the dynamic interaction of nonlinear hypoid gear mesh characteristics and time-varying bearing stiffness is proposed. Both backlash nonlinearity and time-varying mesh parameters, such as mesh stiffness, mesh point and line-of-action, are included in the nonlinear hypoid gear mesh model. The time-varying bearing stiffness behavior due to the changing orbital position of rolling elements is also modeled. A practical application is studied to reveal the dynamic characteristics of the complex interactions. Dynamic simulation results show that dynamic mesh force is relatively insensitive to the temporal variation in the bearing stiffness. On the other hand, the dynamic bearing loads are affected significantly by the time-varying bearing stiffness, especially in the case of heavy drive torque load without the occurrence of jump response phenomenon.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1382
Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Use of Exhaust Valve Timing Advance for High Natural Gas Utilization in Low-Load Diesel Dual Fuel Operation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1767
The current study examined diesel dual fuel (DDF) operations in a four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine under low load conditions. Experiments were performed to investigate effects of diesel injection timings and exhaust valve timing advance for DDF operations under high levels of natural gas utilization. Results showed that diesel injection timings played an important role in DDF combustion. Increasing the ratio of natural gas to total fuel resulted in greater amounts of HC and CO emissions. Advancing the exhaust valve timing increased the internal EGR, raised the in-cylinder temperature at IVC, and improved the combustion efficiency. To maximize the ratio of natural gas to total fuel, a combination of proper exhaust valve timing advance and a tuned timing of diesel injection should be employed to avoid excessive HC and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Structural Acoustic Radiation for Compressor Considering Airflow Pulsed Load

2011-05-17
2011-01-1722
A coupled vibro-acoustic of a compressor modeling process was demonstrated for predicting the acoustic radiation from a vibrating compressor structure based on dynamic response data. FEM based modal analysis of the compressor was performed and the result was compared with experimental data, for the purpose of validating the FE model. Modal based force response analysis was conducted to calculate the compressor's surface vibration velocity on radiating structure, using the load which caused by mechanical excitation as input data. In addition, due to the coolant had oscillating gas pressure, the gas pulsed load was also considered during the dynamic response analysis. The surface vibration velocity solution of the compressor provided the necessary boundary condition input into a finite element/boundary element acoustic code for predicting acoustic radiation.
Technical Paper

A new Approach in AdBlue Dosing to Improve Performance and Durability of SCR Systems for the Use in Passenger Cars up to Heavy Duty Vehicles

2011-08-30
2011-01-2095
SCR technology is becoming more and more important for the segment of diesel-driven passenger cars. Due to space and functional demands the dependency of SCR performance on a uniform supply of ammonia into the catalytic substrates is highly increased. Both an even distribution of the AdBlue® spray and a completed evaporation and decomposition of the droplets are the key to achieve the desired ammonia spread. Evaluation of the influence of spray quality on the AdBlue® decomposition and catalyst performance are leading to a new approach in dosing, using a special nozzle and air-supply strategy. The resulting new technology is evaluated and compared to the state of the art.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Deposit Analysis: Combustion Chamber and Intake Valve Deposits

2011-08-30
2011-01-2110
The delicate balance between global supply and demand for energy, in conjunction with environmental concerns related to burning fossil fuels, have resulted in vehicle designs that stress higher fuel economy. Among new engine designs is Direct Injection Spark Ignition, or DISI, which employs a more precise fuel metering system and is designed for combustion at higher compression ratios than Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. As a result, the performance of DISI engines can easily be altered by the presence of carbonaceous deposits on intake valves and in the combustion chamber. In this study, the characteristics of these deposits have been investigated using elemental and thermal analytical techniques. Deposits from intake valves and combustion chambers have been collected from various DISI engines (both older and more modern ones).
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

2011-08-30
2011-01-2062
In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Hydrogen Jet Configuration by Single Hole Nozzle and High Speed Laser Shadowgraphy in High Pressure Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

2011-08-30
2011-01-2002
A new ignition-combustion concept named PCC (Plume Ignition Combustion Concept), which ignite rich mixture plume in the middle of injection period or right after injection of hydrogen is completed, is proposed by the authors in order to reduce NOx emissions in high engine load conditions with minimizing trade-offs on thermal efficiency. In this study fundamental requirements of hydrogen jet to optimize PCC are investigated by using single and multi-hole nozzle with a combination of high speed laser shadowgraphy to visualize propagating flame. As a result, it was infered that igniting the mixture plume in the middle of injection period with minimizing jet penetration to chamber wall is effective reducing NOx formation even further.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Estimation of the Service Life of a Precision Guiding Interface “Needle - Nozzle Body” of a Common-Rail-Injector for High Rail Pressures

2011-08-30
2011-01-2020
The analysis of type and form of the loading in the guidance between the needle and body of a CR-injector, as well as the transformation of friction energy on the contact surfaces which absorbs mechanical and thermal loads with deforming and heating the contact layer is presented. The dominant parameters of friction and wear for the investigated interface (radial force, mode of friction, relation for the nominal and real contact areas etc.) are shown in function of different values of rail pressures, varying from 500 to 3000 bar. A special coefficient of accumulation of energy is defined. With these coefficient the analysis of thermal- and stress-conditions for the precision tribosystem become possible. Furthermore this leads to the calculation of the intensity of wear for the mentioned components of the nozzle.
Journal Article

Modeling of an Excavator System - Semi Empirical Hydraulic Pump Model

2011-09-13
2011-01-2278
This paper describes the preliminary results of a study focused on the semi empirical modeling of an excavator's hydraulic pump. From the viewpoint of designing and tuning an efficient control system, the excavator is a very complex nonlinear plant. To design and tune such a complex control system an extremely good nonlinear model of the plant is necessary. The problem of modeling an excavator is considered in this paper; a nonlinear mathematical model of an excavator has been developed using the bond graph methodology realized in the AMESim® simulation software to replicate actual operating conditions. The excavator model is described by two models: a hydraulic model and a kinematic model. At this stage of research the hydraulic model deals solely with the model of the main hydraulic pump, which has been conceived as a semi empirical model.
Journal Article

Gerotor Pumps for Automotive Drivetrain Applications: A Multi Domain Simulation Approach

2011-09-13
2011-01-2272
This paper presents a simulation model for the analysis of internal gear ring pumps. The model follows a multi domain simulation approach comprising sub-models for parametric geometry generation, fluid dynamic simulation, numerical calculation of characteristic geometry data and CAD/FEM integration. The sub-models are interacting in different domains and relevant design and simulation parameters are accessible in a central, easy to handle graphical user interface. The potentials of the described tool are represented by simulation results for both steady state and transient pump operating conditions and by their correlation with measured data. Although the presented approach is suitable to all applications of gear ring pumps, a particular focus is given to hydraulic actuation systems used in automotive drivetrain applications.
Technical Paper

Gear Shift Fork Stiffness Optimisation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2235
This paper presents a simulation of the stiffness of the shift fork of a manual transmission using contact pattern analysis and optistrut. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A-5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the simulation, co-relation and validation of the optimization of the gear shift fork stiffness. The shift system was modeled in the software to collate the synchronization force, shift system gap etc with the constraint on the shift fork. It is constrained by the synchronizer sleeve and the fork mounting on the gear shift rail. The synchronizer force is then applied on the gear shift fork pads which are translated to the synchronizer sleeve. It has a number of pads which come into contact at different occasion of the synchronization because of the varying stiffness of the fork.
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