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Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Spark Ignition System for Reducing Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of a High Performance GDI Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1419
The paper presents the development and real-time implementation of a combustion control system based on optimal management of multiple spark discharge events, in order to increase combustion stability, reduce pollutant emissions and fuel consumption, and avoid partial or missing combustion cycles. The proposed approach has been developed as a cost-effective solution to several combustion-related issues that affect Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines during cold start and part load operation. The problem of optimizing combustion efficiency and improving its stability during such operating modes is even more critical for high performance engines, which are designed to maximize charge efficiency especially at medium-high engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection Model for Spark Ignited Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1421
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on HCCI Operation in a Spark Assisted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1763
The fuel effects on HCCI operation in a spark assisted direct injection gasoline engine are assessed. The low load limit has been extended with a pilot fuel injection during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. The fuel matrix consists of hydrocarbon fuels and various ethanol blends and a butanol blend, plus fuels with added ignition improvers. The hydrocarbon fuels and the butanol blend do not significantly alter the high or the low limits of operation. The HCCI operation appears to be controlled more by the thermal environment than by the fuel properties. For E85, the engine behavior depends on the extent that the heat release from the pilot injected fuel in the NVO period compensates for the evaporative cooling of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Modelling of the Warm-up of a Spark Ignition Engine: Application to Hybrid Vehicles

2011-08-30
2011-01-1747
One of the main advantage of a hybrid thermal-electric vehicle is that the internal combustion engine (ICE) can be shut down when not needed anymore (Stop&Start system, propulsion with full-electric mode), thus reducing fuel consumption. But this use of the ICE impacts its thermal behavior because of a lack of heat source and thermal losses. Furthermore, the ICE is sometimes used with higher load in order to charge the batteries that increases the total heating power produced by the combustion. Therefore, the simulation of hybrid vehicles becomes really interesting to evaluate the effect of different control strategies (energy repartition between the engine and the electric motor) on the fuel consumption. However, in most of actual hybrid vehicles simulation tools, for calculation speed reasons, the thermal phenomena are either not taken into account, or their calculation is not based on physical equations (empirical formulas). Their predictive capability is then limited.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Emissions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2100
More stringent emissions regulations are continually being proposed to mitigate adverse human health and environmental impacts of internal combustion engines. With that in mind, it has been proposed that vehicular particulate matter (PM) emissions should be regulated based on particle number in addition to particle mass. One aspect of this project is to study different sample handling methods for number-based aerosol measurements, specifically, two different methods for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One method is a thermodenuder (TD) and the other is an evaporative chamber/diluter (EvCh). These sample-handling methods have been implemented in an engine test cell with a spark-ignited direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was designed for stoichiometric, homogeneous combustion.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Deposit Analysis: Combustion Chamber and Intake Valve Deposits

2011-08-30
2011-01-2110
The delicate balance between global supply and demand for energy, in conjunction with environmental concerns related to burning fossil fuels, have resulted in vehicle designs that stress higher fuel economy. Among new engine designs is Direct Injection Spark Ignition, or DISI, which employs a more precise fuel metering system and is designed for combustion at higher compression ratios than Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. As a result, the performance of DISI engines can easily be altered by the presence of carbonaceous deposits on intake valves and in the combustion chamber. In this study, the characteristics of these deposits have been investigated using elemental and thermal analytical techniques. Deposits from intake valves and combustion chambers have been collected from various DISI engines (both older and more modern ones).
Technical Paper

A Novel Two-Stroke SI Design for NOx Reduction in Natural Gas RI Species Enhanced Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2025
This study examines the novel use of a strong presence of radical ignition (RI) species to augment flame front propagation in a two-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine. Periphery mounted secondary chambers enable the generation of these RI species in one cycle for use in the next cycle. These chambers are outfitted to enable fuel-insertion and rapid heat addition. The new technology examined in the study employs the chemistry of homogeneous combustion radical ignition (HCRI) for the RI species enhancement of pre-mixed charge (PC) SI. The aim is to see if this chemistry can increase the lean burn threshold of this 2-stroke engine with natural gas (NG). The analysis uses experimental data together with a full chemical-kinetics simulation formulation that also accounts for thermo-chemical and hydro-dynamic exchanges that are both between the chambers and with the environment. The mechanism for the chemical kinetics consists of 97 chemical reactions involving 33 species.
Technical Paper

Development of In-cylinder Mixture and Flame Propagation Distribution Measurement Device with Spark Plug Type Sensor

2011-08-30
2011-01-2045
A new method to measure in-cylinder flame propagation and mixture distribution has been developed. The distribution is derived from analyzing the temporal history of flame spectra of CH* and C2*, which are detected by a spark plug type sensor with multi-optical fibers. The validity of this method was confirmed by verifying that the measurement results corresponded with the results of high speed flame visualization and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement. This method was also applied to analysis of cyclic combustion fluctuation on start-up in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, and its applicability was confirmed.
Technical Paper

High Compression Ratio Engine Operation on Biomass Producer Gas

2011-08-30
2011-01-2000
Experimental investigations have been conducted with two identical small scale SI gas engines gen-sets operating on biomass producer gas from thermal gasification of wood. The engines where operated with two different compression ratios, one with the original compression ratio for natural gas operation 9.5:1, and the second with a compression ratio of 18.5:1. It was shown that high compression ratio SI engine operation was possible when operating on biomass producer gas from a TwoStage gasifier. The results showed an increase in the electrical efficiency from 31% to 35% when the compression ratio was increased. The influence of ignition timing on emissions was investigated during high compression ratio operation. It was shown that for λ=1.4 the NOx emission decreases by almost a factor 3, when the timing is retarded from 13° to 7° before top dead center.
Technical Paper

Potential of Concomitant Injection of CNG and Gasoline on a 1.6L Gasoline Direct Injection Turbocharged Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1995
The use of CNG in modern spark ignition turbocharged engine offers many advantages such as high knocking resistance, low CO₂ emissions and high specific power outputs. On the other hand, compared to gasoline, the volumetric efficiency is significantly decreased when CNG is port-injected due to its low energy density. In order to address this issue, recent studies have successfully highlighted the advantages on port-injection engines of the CIGAL™ concept (Concomitant Injection of Gas And Liquid fuels) from IFP Energies Nouvelles. However, the combination of port-injection of CNG with direct injection of gasoline remains unexplored. This paper investigates this novel injection concept on the four-cylinder 1.6L turbocharged GDI engine with inlet variable valve timing resulting from the cooperation between PSA Peugeot-Citroen and the BMW Group.
Journal Article

A Single Fuel Pre-Chamber Jet Ignition Powertrain Achieving High Load, High Efficiency and Near Zero NOx Emissions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2023
Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced spark initiated pre-chamber combustion system for otherwise standard spark ignition engines found in current passenger vehicles. This next generation pre-chamber design simply replaces the spark plug in a conventional spark ignition engine. Turbulent Jet Ignition enables very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, widely distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly. This high energy ignition results from the partially combusted (reacting) pre-chamber products initiating combustion in the main chamber. The distributed ignition sites enable relatively small flame travel distances enabling short combustion durations and high burn rates. Multiple benefits include extending the knock limit and initiating combustion in very dilute mixtures (excess air and/or EGR), with dilution levels being comparable to other low temperature combustion technologies (HCCI), without the complex control drawbacks.
Technical Paper

Reducing Throttle Losses Using Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) in a Heavy-Duty Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2022
Abstract Stoichiometric operation of Spark Ignited (SI) Heavy Duty Natural Gas (HDNG) engines with a three way catalyst results in very low emissions however they suffer from bad gas-exchange efficiency due to use of throttle which results in high throttling losses. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is a good practice to reduce throttling losses in a certain operating region of the engine. VTG technology is extensively used in diesel engines; it is very much ignored in gasoline engines however it is possible and advantageous to be used on HDNG engine due to their relatively low exhaust gas temperature. Exhaust gas temperatures in HDNG engines are low enough (lower than 760 degree Celsius) and tolerable for VGT material. Traditionally HDNG are equipped with a turbocharger with waste-gate but it is easy and simple to replace the by-pass turbocharger with a well-matched VGT.
Technical Paper

Auto-ignition Characteristics of Biofuel Blends for SI Engines

2011-08-30
2011-01-1989
Furans such as 2-Methylfuran (2-MF) and 2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) can be produced from biomass sugars and offer superior properties for use in SI engines. This paper describes the study of the auto-ignition characteristics of furans and other biofuels using a rapid compression machine. Blending with PRF90 and RG, the auto-ignition suppression of 2-MF was almost equal to that of ethanol and larger than toluene, although the auto-ignition delay of pure 2-MF was shorter than that of ethanol and toluene. This was because 2-MF suppresses the cool flame reaction. Knock evaluation using a single-cylinder research engine also indicated that the addition of 2-MF improved the anti-knock properties as well as ethanol.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of SI Engine Fueled by Ethanol Steam Reforming Products

2011-08-30
2011-01-1992
The goal of the present work was to analyze the performance of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol steam reforming products. The highest reformer-ICE system efficiency and the lowest CO emissions were achieved with the ethanol steam reforming products obtained at reaction temperature of 1000K and water/ethanol ratio of 1.8. Fueling the SI engine with reformate gas made it possible to achieve the reformer-ICE system efficiency of 40% for the engine fed by SRE products compared with 34% for gasoline and 36% for ethanol. CO emissions were reduced by 3.5 and 10 times compared with ethanol and gasoline, respectively. NO emissions were decreased by about 4 times compared with the gasoline-fed engine.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Effect of Bio-Fuels on the Combustion in a Downsized DI SI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1991
In this study the fuel influence of several bio-fuel candidates on homogeneous engine combustion systems with direct injection is investigated. The results reveal Ethanol and 2-Butanol as the two most knock-resistant fuels. Hence these two fuels enable the highest efficiency improvements versus RON95 fuel ranging from 3.6% - 12.7% for Ethanol as a result of a compression ratio increase of 5 units. Tetrahydro-2-methylfuran has a worse knock resistance and a decreased thermal efficiency due to the required reduction in compression ratio by 1.5 units. The enleanment capability is similar among all fuels thus they pose no improvements for homogeneous lean burn combustion systems despite a significant reduction in NOX emissions for the alcohol fuels as a consequence of lower combustion temperatures.
Technical Paper

New Exhaust Catalyst Emission Control Systems for Nonroad SI Class I Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1900
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has completed a program to demonstrate the feasibility of using integrated catalyst-muffler exhaust systems for nonroad spark ignition gasoline Class I engines (sub-19 kW, less than 225 cc). Integrated catalyst-muffler systems were developed for 4 different Class I engine families. Passive secondary air-injection systems were used with most of the systems to provide an exhaust feed-gas composition that was slightly rich of stoichiometry when used in conjunction with unmodified “Phase 2” carburetor A/F ratio calibrations. Catalyst sizing, PGM loading, and secondary-air venturi design were selected to limit CO oxidation and the typically resultant high heat rejection at high load operating points while still providing good NOx and HC emission control. Infrared thermal imaging was used to assess heat rejection at the EPA A-cycle operational points and during simulated hot soaks for selected configurations.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Advanced Emission Controls for Nonroad SI Class II Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1899
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has completed a program to demonstrate the feasibility of using low-cost engine management systems and modern, high-efficiency exhaust catalysts for nonroad spark ignition gasoline Class II engines (sub-19 kW, greater than 225 cc). Low-cost electronic engine management and fuel injection systems originally developed for motor-scooter and small motorcycle applications were installed on two 500cc single-cylinder spark-ignition lawn-and-garden engines. Integrated catalyst-muffler systems were developed for both engines and fuel control was calibrated to achieve emission control goals while maintaining or improving fuel consumption, engine durability and performance. NOx+HC emissions were reduced approximately 75% and brake-specific fuel-consumption improved by 6 to 12%. .
Journal Article

Effects of Ethanol Content on Gasohol PFI Engine Wide-Open-Throttle Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1907
The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with λ =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due to fuel evaporation. The decrease in NOx emission and exhaust temperature could be explained by the change in adiabatic flame temperature of the mixture. The fuel knock resistance improved significantly with the gasohol so that ignition could be timed at a value much closer or at MBT timing. Changing from 0% to 100% ethanol in the fuel, this combustion phasing improvement led to a 20% increase in NIMEP and 8 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency at 1500 rpm. At 2000 rpm, where knocking was less severe, the improvement was about half (10% increase in NIMEP and 4 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency).
Journal Article

Trends in Performance Characteristics of Modern Automobile SI and Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1892
A prior study (Chon and Heywood, [1]) examined how the design and performance of spark-ignition engines evolved in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. This paper carries out a similar analysis of trends in basic engine design and performance characteristics over the past decade. Available databases on engine specifications in the U.S., Europe, and Japan were used as the sources of information. Parameters analyzed were maximum torque, power, and speed; number of cylinders and engine configuration, cylinder displacement, bore, stroke, compression ratio; valvetrain configuration, number of valves and their control; port or direct fuel injection; naturally-aspirated or turbocharged engine concepts; spark-ignition and diesel engines. Design features are correlated with these engine’s performance parameters, normalized by engine and cylinder displacement.
Technical Paper

Dyno Test Investigations of Gasoline Engine Fueled with Butanol-Gasoline Blends

2009-06-15
2009-01-1891
As the issue of oil shortage and air pollution caused by automotive engine emissions become more and more serious day by day, researchers and engineers from all over the world are seeking for alternative fuels of lower pollution and renewable nature. This paper discusses in detail the feasibility of fueling gasoline engines with Butanol-gasoline blends. Besides the production, transportation, storage, physical and chemical properties of Butanol-gasoline blends, the combustion characteristics were analyzed as well. As the result Butanol was considered an excellent alternative fuel for gasoline engines, with many unique advantages superior to Natural Gas, LPG, Carbinol and Ethanol, the latter are widely studied at present time. In order to validate the above conclusions in engine application, engine dyno tests were conducted for a gasoline engine fueled with different concentrations of Butanol blend ranging from 10% to up to 35%.
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