Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Investing Factors Affecting Door Slam Noise of SUV and Improved Performance by DFSS Approach

2011-05-17
2011-01-1595
Recent development in automobile industries has seen increased customer attention for good door slamming noise. One of the constituent which plays major role in building brand image of vehicle in terms of NVH performance is door slam noise quality. Hence it is very desirable to understand how different door elements radiate sound during a door-closing event and how to optimize a door structure to achieve specific sound target in order to ensure the door closing noise quality, NVH engineers needed to look at contributions from different door subsystems. The use of statistical tools like Six Sigma can further help them to ensure the consistency in results. This paper explains the systematic approach used to characterize different element of door which contributes to the overall door slam noise quality through QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and contribution analysis. The different mechanisms contributing to door slam noise were studied.
Technical Paper

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA): A Comparison Between VDA-Approach Versus QS-9000

2011-09-13
2011-01-2280
The Failure Mode and Effects Analysis is a quality method used by the automotive industry to ensure perfect quality of products before an introduction into mass production. Two industry standards are established on the market: on the one hand the approach by VDA (in German: Verband der Automobilindustrie) on the other hand the method according to QS-9000. If somebody is familiar with one method, working with the other one will result in misunderstanding and communication problems. Both standards do have the same principal ambition but the execution is totally different as common word definitions like “Function, Failure Modes, Effects and Causes” are interpreted differently. As a consequence information can be found in different columns of the chosen format sheet. For a better understanding of the two approaches the existing case study shown by VDA will be taken as an example to describe the equivalent steps according to QS-9000.
Technical Paper

Braking Systems Creep Groan Noise: Detection and Evaluation

2009-05-19
2009-01-2103
“Creep groan” is a braking systems noise that is observed when a vehicle is starting to move from a stopped condition with brake pressure applied. Motion takes place when brake pressure is reduced while a motive force, such as an idling engine through an automatic transmission, or gravity due to the vehicle being on a slope, is present. The vibration causing the sound is commonly thought to result from friction force variation in stick-slip mode. Detection and evaluation of “creep groan” noise has been a challenge for NVH test groups. First, this sound typically is not purely tonal like the more common brake squeal, although ultimately it may produce a tonal subjective impression. In this work the authors study different methods that may be applied to “creep groan” detection and evaluation.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Mode Switching - A Substantial NVH Challenge

2009-05-19
2009-01-2080
Tier 2, bin 5 diesel engines may use multiple combustion modes to achieve stringent emissions requirements. Unfortunately, switching between different combustion modes can cause step changes in noise that will be unacceptable to consumers. In this paper, several sound quality metrics are evaluated for their ability to quantify the NVH issues that arise during a rich pulse event. In addition, techniques are presented that allow an engine developer to reduce the NVH effects caused by changing combustion modes. Careful calibration tuning in close cooperation with performance and emissions development engineers is required to solve noise problems that arise from combustion mode switching events, since an NVH improvement may often come at the expense of a performance or emissions issue.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimization of Body Structure for Rattle Noise by Exciting Woofer Speakers

2009-05-19
2009-01-2110
With the recent development of technologies for interpreting vibration and noise of vehicles, it has become possible for carmakers to reduce idle vibration and driving noise in the phase of preceding development. Thus, the issue of noise generation is drawing keen attention from production of prototype car through mass-production development. J. D. Power has surveyed the levels of customer satisfaction with all vehicles sold in the U.S. market and released the Initial Quality Study (IQS) index. As a growing number of emotional quality-related items are added to the IQS evaluation index, it is necessary to secure a sufficiently high quality level of low-frequency speaker sound against rattle noise. It is required to make a preceding review on the package tray panel, which is located at the bottom of the rear glass where the woofer speakers of a passenger sedan are installed, the door module panel in which the door speakers are built.
Technical Paper

Simple Test Method for Squeak & Rattle Evaluation of Door Trim by Using Statically Repeated Loading Robot Arm

2009-05-19
2009-01-2112
Recently, major car maker is specified squeak and rattle test method for subsystems or components by objective method. Generally these test method is focused on vibration environmental conditions. Especially, door trim which is located close to occupant is required additional test for squeak and rattle which is produced by occupant's interaction with door trim. To evaluate this condition, generally it can be tested by subjective method such as striking or pushing and twisting several positions of door trim. Dosing so is very time consuming and including variation results as different decisions. So, this paper suggest a new approach for evaluating squeak and rattle which is relating occupant contacting conditions to interior part, especially interior door trim. Multi-axis robot arm is examined to push automatically several points of door trim.
Technical Paper

A Design for Six Sigma Approach to Optimize a Front-Wheel-Drive Transmission for Improved Efficiency and Robustness

2011-04-12
2011-01-0720
Environmental concerns and government regulations are factors that have led to an increased focus on fuel economy in the automotive industry. This paper identifies a method used to improve the efficiency of a front-wheel-drive (FWD) automatic transmission. In order to create improvements in large complex systems, it is key to have a large scope, to include as much of the system as possible. The approach taken in this work was to use Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. This was done to optimize as many of the front-wheel-drive transmission components as possible to increase robustness and efficiency. A focus of robustness, or consistency in torque transformation, is as important as the value of efficiency itself, because of the huge range of usage conditions. Therefore, it was necessary to find a solution of the best transmission component settings that would not depend on specific usage conditions such as temperatures, system pressures, or gear ratio.
Technical Paper

Optimum Constraint Strategy for Liftgates

2011-04-12
2011-01-0766
The present study defines the functional requirements for a liftgate and the body in order to avoid rattle, squeak, and other objectionable noises. A Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology was used to study the impact of various constraint components such as bumpers, wedges, and isolated strikers on functional requirements. These functional requirements include liftgate frequency, acoustic cavity frequency, and the stiffness of the liftgate body opening. It has been determined that the method of constraining the gate relative to the body opening has a strong correlation to the noise generated. The recommended functional performance targets and constraint component selection have been confirmed by actual testing on a vehicle. Recommendations for future liftgate design will be presented.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Methodology for Improving IQS Score for Door Opening/Closing Effort

2011-04-12
2011-01-0777
IQS score (hard to open/close) is a major factor in determining automotive door closing performance. There are several functions that automotive side doors must fulfill: isolation from snow/ rain/ noise/ dust/ high temperature, wind noise, and opening/closing functions. This paper focuses on side door Opening/Closing, which is not only the primary function but also the first operation that all customers experience when car shopping. As the subjective demands of customers have increased and their level of sophistication has grown, the ergonomics of automotive side door functions has become a critical issue for both designer and customer. The side door area does not generally have specifications because door operability totally relies on each customer's senses and there are no parameters to be measured by test/experimental devices. So the IQS score could become the standard for evaluating a door's difficulty of opening and closing.
Technical Paper

Dimensional Quality Control of Repeated Molded Polymer Battery Cell Housings in Automotive Energy Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0244
Current manufacture of alternative energy sources for automobiles, such as fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries, uses repeating energy modules to achieve targeted balances of power and weight for varying types of vehicles. Specifically for lithium-ion batteries, tens to hundreds of identical plastic parts are assembled in a repeating fashion; this assembly of parts requires complex dimensional planning and high degrees of quality control. This paper will address the aspects of dimensional quality for repeated, injection molded thermoplastic battery components and will include the following: First, dimensional variation associated with thermoplastic components is considered. Sources of variation include the injection molding process, tooling or mold, lot-to-lot material differences, and varying types of environmental exposure. Second, mold tuning and cavity matching between molds for multi-cavity production will be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust CAE Modeling Technique for Decklid Slam Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0242
Engineering has continuously strived to improve the vehicle development process to achieve high quality designs and quick to launch products. The design process has to have the tools and capabilities to help ensure both quick to the market product and a flawless launch. To achieve high fidelity and robust design, mistakes and other quality issues must be addressed early in the engineering process. One way to detect problems early is to use the math based modeling and simulation techniques of the analysis group. The correlation of the actual vehicle performance to the predictive model is crucial to obtain. Without high correlation, the change management process begins to get complicated and costs start to increase exponentially. It is critical to reduce and eliminate the risk in a design up front before tooling begins to kick off. The push to help achieve a high rate of correlation has been initiated by engineering management, seeing this as an asset to the business.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Cost Vehicle Concept for United States Using Systems Engineering Principles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1019
The paper presents a development strategy for a Low Cost Vehicle (LCV) concept set at a target MSRP of $8000 (USD) for the U.S. market. Tata Nano, currently the world's cheapest car in production, is developed on similar principles of the Ford's Model T concept. This paper adopts a similar methodology behind the development of the Tata Nano and is considered as the starting point for the LCV development. It gives an overview of the unique product development process of the ‘Tata Nano’ and shows the possibility of applying similar methodologies, based on systems engineering principles, for future low cost vehicles which will be suitable for the American market. The major automotive systems were assigned specific cost targets based on the set target cost of $8000 (USD) for the LCV. The specifications of the systems were derived based on customer needs and the U.S.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of a Light Weight Flush Mount Roof Rack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1274
Roof racks are designed for carrying luggage during customers' travels. These rails need to be strong enough to be able to carry the luggage weight as well as be able to withstand aerodynamic loads that are generated when the vehicle is travelling at high speeds on highways. Traditionally, roof rail gage thickness is increased to account for these load cases (since these are manufactured by extrusion), but doing so leads to increased mass which adversely affects fuel efficiency. The current study focuses on providing the guidelines for strategically placing lightening holes and optimizing gage thickness so that the final design is robust to noise parameters and saves the most mass without adversely impacting wind noise performance while minimizing stress. The project applied Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) techniques to optimize roof rail parameters in order to improve the load carrying capacity while minimizing mass.
Technical Paper

Robust Engineering with Symptomatic Responses

2011-04-12
2011-01-1272
Great work has been done already in developing robust engineering techniques to improve ideal functions for systems and sub systems. Characterizing an ideal function as a dynamic response type is most preferred way to build quality into a product over a range of input signal values. However, when it is difficult to measure ideal functions, symptomatic outputs such as oil leaks, vibrations, and squeaks, are selected and treated as “Smaller-the-Better” response in non-dynamic response manner. A better approach is to reduce the symptomatic responses over the entire usage range. In order to accomplish this goal, engineers often switch output response and signal axes and apply dynamic response formulation for making the design robust. In this paper, a new and better formulation is proposed and compared with the other formulation. These two formulations were applied on a real automotive case study of decklid bobble and inaccuracies associated with the other formulation were discussed.
Technical Paper

Robust and Reliable Teamwork within Engineering Projects

2011-04-12
2011-01-1273
The quality of the output generated by a team is directly influenced by how well the team works together. Despite the complexity of the team system, within a typical Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project the consideration given to the team process is often disproportionately small in comparison to that paid to the technical aspects of the project. This paper presents an efficient approach to teamwork within an engineering design context such as a DFSS project, in which team skills are modelled on DFSS technical processes allowing team members to learn both technical and teamwork skills within the common context of the technical process. DFSS engineering tools used within the framework of Failure Mode Avoidance are used to identify key potential failure modes in the team process and their effects and causes. A series of effective and efficient countermeasures to the team process failure modes are introduced as straight forward and easy to use interlinking teamwork tools.
Technical Paper

Critical Success Factors of Six-Sigma Implementation in Automotive Industry in Egypt

2011-04-12
2011-01-1270
Purpose - This research aimed to investigate the process of six-sigma implementation in automotive industry in Egypt in order to identify the critical success factors. Research design and methodology - A review of relevant literature is used to identify potential critical success factors for six-sigma implementations. The research had targeted six-sigma management, practitioners, process users, and consultants working in automotive industry in Egypt. Data were collected with an electronic survey which included 20 close ended questions, each measured by using five-point scale, Out of total 600 questionnaire distributed, 240 useable responses were received resulting in 40 % response rate. A judgmental sampling technique had been selected. Both descriptive and inferential statistics had been used to analyze this data.
Journal Article

A Structured Approach for Function Analysis of Complex Automotive Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-1268
Function analysis provides the backbone of systems engineering design and underpins the use of Design for Six Sigma and Failure Mode Avoidance tools. Identification and management of interfaces is a key task in systems engineering design, in ensuring that the system achieves its functions in a robust and reliable way. The aim of the work presented in this paper was to develop and implement a structured approach for function analysis of a complex system, which focuses on the identification and characterization of interfaces. The proposed approach is based on the principle of separation of the functional and physical domains and development of function decomposition through iteration between functional and physical domains. This is achieved by integrating some existing / known engineering tools such as Boundary Diagram, State Flow Diagram, Function Tree and an enhanced interface analysis within a coherent flow of information.
Technical Paper

Innovative Robust Solutions for Lean Manufacturing in Automotive Assembly Processes

2011-04-12
2011-01-1254
The article presents an innovative approach to the implementation of a robust design optimization solution in an automobiles assembly process. The approach of the entire project is specific to the 6 Sigma optimization process, by applying the DMAIC cycle integrated in a robust engineering approach for rendering lean the final product assembly process. According to the improvement cycle, the aspects specific for such a process are presented sequentially starting with the “Define” phase for presenting the encountered problem and continuing with the presentation of the scope of the project and its objectives. The “Improvement” cycle phase is applied by the analysis of the monitored 6 Sigma metrics (defined during the previous “Measure” phase and the cause and effect analysis, done during a brainstorming meeting developed during the “Analyze” phase). There follows a proposal for the innovative robust solution by which the assembly process is optimized.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Supply Chain for the Emerging Economies: Overriding Local Constraints to Optimize Inventories

2011-04-12
2011-01-1251
Automotive manufacturers across the world have experienced the saturation of demand in the mature markets. Foraying into the emerging markets of India and China brings a mix of opportunities and challenges. These economies with 15%+ rising consumer demand, 7%+ rise in per-capita income and a passenger car density less than 1/8 of mature markets, hold promise of sustaining double-digit growth of vehicle sales. But the challenges are immense. Ultra-low margins of OEMs, lack of transportation infrastructure, Low level of maturity of funding operations, fragmented demand, import restrictions and mandatory export obligations pose serious constraints to non-linear growth. HONDA (Honda Siel Cars India Limited), a subsidiary of Honda Motor Corporation, Japan has developed the next generation supply chain with a strategy cognizant of the global opportunities and the local limitations which such emerging economies present.
Technical Paper

Quality Control and Improvement Based on Design of Experiments and Statistical Data Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0774
Abstract A modern definition of quality control and improvement is the reduction of variability in processes and products. The reduced variability can be directly translated into lower costs, better functions and fewer repairs. However, the final quality of processes and products is sometimes derived from other measured variables through some implicit or explicit functional relationships. Sometimes, a tiny uncertainty in a variable can produce a huge uncertainty in a derived quantity. Therefore, the propagation of uncertainty needs to be understood and the individual variables need to be well controlled. More importantly, the critical factors that affect quality the most should be identified and thoroughly investigated. Design of experiments and statistical control plays central roles in finding root cause of failure, reduction of variability and quality improvement.
X