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Technical Paper

Investigations of the impact of 10% ethanol blended fuels on performances of sold gasoline vehicles in the Japanese market already on the road in Japan

2011-08-30
2011-01-1987
The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Implementing HIL Systems for ECU Validation and Verification for Commercial Vehicle Applications

2011-09-13
2011-01-2261
Currently, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing is the defacto standard for ECU verification and validation at the majority of the Commercial Vehicle OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. HIL Testing is used to shorten development and testing time for both engine and machine control systems. In order to use this process, many of these companies have to develop and maintain expertise in the area of Model-based development (MBD). This paper introduces an approach which allows for the effective use of HIL systems without having to directly work in a MBD environment. Many HIL tests can be done with stimulus and response analysis of the ECUs, given core knowledge of the expected behavior of its control software and I/O subsystems. For hardware interface and diagnostics validation, this open-loop testing of the controller may suffice. It is important to provide the tester with capabilities to easily modify these stimuli and evaluate the responses.
Technical Paper

New Exhaust Catalyst Emission Control Systems for Nonroad SI Class I Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1900
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has completed a program to demonstrate the feasibility of using integrated catalyst-muffler exhaust systems for nonroad spark ignition gasoline Class I engines (sub-19 kW, less than 225 cc). Integrated catalyst-muffler systems were developed for 4 different Class I engine families. Passive secondary air-injection systems were used with most of the systems to provide an exhaust feed-gas composition that was slightly rich of stoichiometry when used in conjunction with unmodified “Phase 2” carburetor A/F ratio calibrations. Catalyst sizing, PGM loading, and secondary-air venturi design were selected to limit CO oxidation and the typically resultant high heat rejection at high load operating points while still providing good NOx and HC emission control. Infrared thermal imaging was used to assess heat rejection at the EPA A-cycle operational points and during simulated hot soaks for selected configurations.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Advanced Emission Controls for Nonroad SI Class II Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1899
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has completed a program to demonstrate the feasibility of using low-cost engine management systems and modern, high-efficiency exhaust catalysts for nonroad spark ignition gasoline Class II engines (sub-19 kW, greater than 225 cc). Low-cost electronic engine management and fuel injection systems originally developed for motor-scooter and small motorcycle applications were installed on two 500cc single-cylinder spark-ignition lawn-and-garden engines. Integrated catalyst-muffler systems were developed for both engines and fuel control was calibrated to achieve emission control goals while maintaining or improving fuel consumption, engine durability and performance. NOx+HC emissions were reduced approximately 75% and brake-specific fuel-consumption improved by 6 to 12%. .
Journal Article

Development of a Direct Injection High Efficiency Liquid Phase LPG Spark Ignition Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1881
Direct Injection (DI) is believed to be one of the key strategies for maximizing the thermal efficiency of Spark Ignition (SI) engines and meet the ever-tightening emissions regulations. This paper explores the use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) liquid phase fuel in a 1.5 liter SI four cylinder gasoline engine with double over head camshafts, four valves per cylinder, and centrally located DI injector. The DI injector is a high pressure, fast actuating injector enabling precise multiple injections of the finely atomized fuel sprays. With DI technology, the injection timing can be set to avoid fuel bypassing the engine during valve overlap into the exhaust system prior to combustion. The fuel vaporization associated with DI reduces combustion chamber and charge temperatures, thereby reducing the tendency for knocking. Fuel atomization quality supports an efficient combustion process.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology

2009-06-15
2009-01-1885
We have converted a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine to HCCI mode and used it as a test bed for demonstrating advanced control methodologies. Converting the engine required modification of most engine systems: piston geometry, starting, fueling, boosting, and (most importantly) controls. We implemented a thermal management system consisting of a recuperator that transfers heat from exhaust to intake gases and a dual intake manifold that permits precise cylinder-by-cylinder ignition control. Advanced control methodologies are used for (1) minimizing cylinder-to-cylinder combustion timing differences caused by small variations in temperature or compression ratio; (2) finding the combustion timing that minimizes fuel consumption; and (3) tuning the controller parameters to improve transient response.
Technical Paper

Extending the Load Range of a Natural Gas HCCI Engine using Direct Injected Pilot Charge and External EGR

2009-06-15
2009-01-1884
Natural gas is a challenging fuel for HCCI engines because its single-stage ignition and rapid combustion make it difficult to optimize combustion timing over a significant load range. This study investigates direct injection of a pilot quantity of high-cetane fuel near TDC as a range extension and combustion control mechanism for natural gas HCCI engines. The EGR and load range is studied in a supercharged natural gas HCCI engine equipped with external EGR, intake heating and a direct injection system for n-heptane pilot fuel. The operating range and emissions are of primary interest and are compared between both the baseline HCCI engine with variable intake temperature and the direct injected HCCI (DI-HCCI) engine with constant intake temperature. Test results show the EGR and load range at fixed intake temperature can be extended using pilot direct injection.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Engines: Advantages on the Use of Radiotracer Techniques for the Development of Modern Engines and Lubricants

2009-06-15
2009-01-1873
New environmental regulations require significant reduction of fuel consumption and engine emissions. This implies improvement of the internal combustion (I.C.) process, reduction of friction, development of complex after-treatment systems, and a reduction of oil consumption. New technical challenges are related to fuel dilution problems in diesel and super-ethanol engines; new wear problems are due to fuel dilution and soot loading in the lubricant; clogging and poisoning problems of after-treatment systems are related to oil consumption, etc. Therefore, researchers and engineers need appropriate tools to better understand and solve these new problems. The paper focuses on the combination of modern engine test beds equipped with innovative radionuclide techniques for real-time oil consumption, oil aeration, fuel dilution, and for on-line wear measurement.
Journal Article

Research on the Influence of Bench Installation Conditions on Simulation of Engine Main Bearing Load

2009-06-15
2009-01-1978
The simulation of main bearing load plays an important role in engine multi-body dynamics simulation, seemingly influencing the simulation of strength, vibration and acoustics. It is necessary to conduct engine bench test to validate the result of simulation. More attention has been paid to the flexibility of engine blocks and crankshafts, but not on the installing conditions of engine test bench, such as the stiffness of mounts, the presence of the connecting flange and the elasticity of shaft coupling, which are easy to ignore. The work presented here focuses on the influence of bench installation conditions on the multi-body dynamics simulation of an engine. A flexible multi-body dynamics model of a 4100QB diesel engine is built by employing the modal synthesis technique in the software ADAMS. By comparing the simulation results of different models, the effects of the connecting flange, the stiffness of mounts and the elasticity of shaft coupling are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Forced Cool Down on Cold Start Test Repeatability

2009-06-15
2009-01-1976
Increasing the number of cold-start engine cycles which could be run in any one day would greatly improve the productivity of an engine test facility. However with the introduction of forced cooling procedures there is the inherent risk that test-to-test repeatability will be affected. Therefore an investigation into the effects caused by forced cooling on fuel consumption and the temperature distribution through the engine and fluids is essential. Testing was completed on a 2.4 litre diesel engine running a cold NEDC. The test facility utilises a basic ventilation system, which draws in external ambient air, which is forced past the engine and then drawn out of the cell. This can be supplemented with the use of a spot cooling fan. The forced cool down resulted in a much quicker cool down which was further reduced with spot cooling, in the region of 25% reduction.
Technical Paper

Load Limits with Fuel Effects of a Premixed Diesel Combustion Mode

2009-06-15
2009-01-1972
Premixed diesel combustion is intended to supplant conventional combustion in the light to mid load range. This paper demonstrates the operating load limits, limiting criteria, and load-based emissions behavior of a direct-injection, diesel-fueled, premixed combustion mode across a range of test fuels. Testing was conducted on a modern single-cylinder engine fueled with a range of ultra-low sulfur fuels with cetane number ranging from 42 to 53. Operating limits were defined on the basis of emissions, noise, and combustion stability. The emissions behavior and operating limits of the tested premixed combustion mode are independent of fuel cetane number. Combustion stability, along with CO and HC emissions levels, dictate the light load limit. The high load limit is solely dictated by equivalence ratio: high PM, CO, and HC emissions result as overall equivalence ratio approaches stoichiometric.
Journal Article

Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Startup Experiments with Fast Cycle Resolved In-cylinder and Exhaust Sampling

2009-06-15
2009-01-1973
Single cylinder diesel engine cycle resolved startup experiments were performed at two different Compression Ratios. At CR18 (CR = 18) conventional engine starting resulted in a broad range of acceptable startup equivalence ratios (φ). However, reducing the CR to 16 resulted in problematic engine starting regardless of fuel level. In an effect to produce robust engine starting at lower CRs the engine was motored first. This allowed for strong starting performance coupled with high load fueling levels. For both CRs, IMEPg and exhaust CO2% increased as fueling level increased. However, while in-cylinder CO2% exceeded exhaust CO2% for moderate φ, this trend was reversed as fueling was reduced. Exhaust CO% was minimal except for stoichiometric fueling at CR18. Peak NOx production occurred at CR18 and φ = 0.55. Exhaust UHCs were maximized for higher fueling cases but dropped quickly after start. Similarly, ignition delay increased with φ but decreased during warm-up.
Technical Paper

Experimental Test of a New Compressed Natural Gas Engine with Direct Injection

2009-06-15
2009-01-1967
This paper presents experimental test results of a new compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI) engine that has been developed from modification of a multi cylinder gasoline port injection (PI) engine. The major modifications done are (1) the injection system has been modified to gas direct injection using new high pressure gas injectors, (2) compression ratio has been changed from 10 to 14 through modification of piston and cylinder head, and (3) new spark plugs with long edge were used to ignite the CNG fuel. The CNG pressure at common rail was kept at 20 bar to be injected into engine cylinder. The engine has been operated with full throttle conditions to compare all the results with original base engine such as gasoline port injection engine and the CNG bi-fuel engine where the base engine has been converted to bi-fuel injection system to be operated with gasoline and CNG fuels.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions Behaviour in Optical and Metal Single-Cylinder Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1963
Single cylinder optical engines are used for internal combustion (IC) engine research as they allow for the application of qualitative and quantitative non-intrusive, diagnostic techniques to study in-cylinder flow, mixing, combustion and emissions phenomena. Such experimental data is not only important for the validation of computational models but can also provide a detailed insight into the physical processes occurring in-cylinder which is useful for the further development of new combustion strategies such as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and Diesel low temperature combustion (LTC). In this context, it is therefore important to ensure that the performance of optical engines is comparable to standard all-metal engines. A comparison of optical and all-metal engine combustion and emissions performance was performed within the present study.
Technical Paper

Potential for Reduced Wear Rates in Diesel Engines Running on Fischer-Tropsch Diesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1959
In three recent engine testing research projects involving comparisons of Low Temperature Fischer Tropsch (LTFT) synthetic diesel with conventional crude derived diesel, findings have included indications of significantly lower engine cylinder wear rates in engines running on Fischer Tropsch (FT) diesel. Close examination of the engine oil analysis from the second comparative study has strongly indicated that the differences in cylinder wear rate can be ascribed to the choice of fuel. None of the three studies were originally formulated for this aspect of comparison and only the second study is able to prove that this is in fact a fuel specific advantage attributed to FT diesel fuel. This paper reports on the details of the three projects in respect to this issue, presents analysis of the experimental data and preliminary investigations attempted in an effort to understand this phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Shearplate – A New Innovative Approach to Reduce Powertrain Noise

2009-05-19
2009-01-2065
This Paper is evaluating the development and effectiveness of using a Shearplate, a new and innovative approach to reduce powertrain noise and vibrations. The results show that the approach is offering monumental improvements in terms of reduced noise and vibrations. Sound quality evaluations also show very clearly that the approach is an effective countermeasure to the targeted problems. With the knowledge gathered during the development and with what is partly presented in this paper we now have an additional tool that car manufacturers can deploy in their efforts to design more fuel efficient and cleaner burning engines without sacrificing NVH performance.
Technical Paper

NVH Development of Lightweight Polymer Engines Oil Pans for Gasoline

2009-05-19
2009-01-2060
The increased demand to reduce cost and weight is forcing engine manufacturers to replace some metal under hood components with high performance polymers. The use of these materials has often been avoided in this type of applications due to concerns around their long-term strength and temperature performance. In particular, the materials of choice for the oil pans in the gasoline engines, at the present time, are aluminum and stamped steel. This paper presents a case study to evaluate the NVH performance of a plastic oil pan designed to replace a stamped steel pan in a gasoline engine. Emphasis is given to the design features and material characteristics that were considered to achieve the required NVH performance.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Simulation of Diesel Injection Ducts

2009-05-19
2009-01-2057
High pressure pipes of the diesel injection system seem to represent a weak point in terms of vibration and acoustic radiation of the whole injection system. Investigations have highlighted this phenomenon. The injectors induce acoustic waves which propagate in the viscous diesel contained in the injection pipes. A strong coupling can occur sometimes between these acoustic waves and the duct structural modes leading to intensive mechanical vibration and acoustic radiation; and sometimes to a possible failure of the pipe. Numerical simulations offer a good platform to predict such vibration and can be used in order to prevent any structural component failure and to decrease the resulting acoustic radiation. This paper presents a vibro-acoustic study performed with the finite element code ACTRAN to estimate which parameters play a role in this process and to provide some guidelines for avoiding problems.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction Feasibility of Engine Components Concerning Noise and Vibration Characteristics

2009-05-19
2009-01-2049
We assessed the feasibility of weight reduction concerning noise and vibration characteristics for engine components. Three alternatives were plastic intake manifold, stamped steel oil pan, and no balance shaft. The assessment indices were engine noise level, engine mount bracket vibration, and engine block vibration. Reducing the reciprocating mass and applying design alternatives made the removal of balance shaft feasible. The lightweight plastic intake manifold was beneficial to the engine vibration with a little improvement to the engine noise. The stamped steel oil pan, with optimal structural ribs design and EMS calibration, offered all the benefits of weight, vibration, and noise improvements.
Journal Article

Prediction of Muffler Insertion Loss by a Hybrid FE Acoustic-SEA Model

2009-05-19
2009-01-2042
A reactive aftermarket automotive style muffler was considered for development and validation of a procedure to numerically predict and experimentally validate acoustic performance. A CAD model of the silencer was created and meshed. The silencer interior included two sections of perforated pipe, which were included in the cavity mesh. A hybrid FE-SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) numerical model consisting of a finite element acoustic cavity excited by a diffuse acoustic field at the inlet and coupled via hybrid junctions to SEA semi-infinite fluids on both the inlet and outlet. The hybrid FE-SEA model solves very rapidly on a desktop PC making iterative numerical design a realistic option. To validate the predictions, an experimental setup was created to directly measure the muffler insertion loss. This was done by using a broadband acoustic source piped into a hemi-anechoic chamber.
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