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Journal Article

Signal Processing Parameters for Estimation of the Diesel Engine Combustion Signature

2011-05-17
2011-01-1649
Research into the estimation of diesel engine combustion metrics via non-intrusive means, typically referred to as “remote combustion sensing” has become an increasingly active area of combustion research. Success in accurately estimating combustion metrics with low-cost non-intrusive transducers has been proven and documented by multiple sources on small scale diesel engines (2-4 cylinders, maximum outputs of 67 Kw, 210 N-m). This paper investigates the application of remote combustion sensing technology to a larger displacement inline 6-cylinder diesel with substantially higher power output (280 kW, 1645 N-m) than previously explored. An in-depth frequency analysis has been performed with the goal of optimizing the estimated combustion signature which has been computed based upon the direct relationship between the combustion event measured via a pressure transducer, and block vibration measured via accelerometers.
Technical Paper

Application of the Frequency and JTFA Analyses of the Accompanying Processes for OBD Combustion Process Monitor Design in Turbocharged CI Direct Injection Engines of HDV Non-Road Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1412
The paper describes the problem of the combustion process diagnostics dedicated for CI engines with direct injection of HDV vehicles in the aspect of misfire detection monitor application for OBD and EOBD systems. The monitor is based on the vibroacoustic signal utilization. Because of that, frequency method and the method of time-frequency parameterization map a(t,f) of vibration accelerations generated by combustion engine were used. The above article is directed to get a diagnostic monitor that would detect faults and incorrect runs in the combustion process (including also its lack) in the real time with the help of vibration accelerations estimators. Point estimators of the process and research stages and conditions are presented. The signal analyses and limits of a method use, criteria of the process qualification and its accuracy were also write down.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Source-Path-Receiver approach to Identifying and Troubleshooting in an Agricultural Tractor Mode Coupling Issue

2011-05-17
2011-01-1730
As an agricultural tractor OEM was moving a new tractor model from development into production, an objectionable cab “boom” was identified that was not present in the preproduction pilot -level tractors. The cab boom was identified as a low frequency tone causing an increase of 7 (dBA) over the level in the pilot tractors, which was deemed unacceptable. The process used by the tractor OEM engineering team to address this problem has been widely used and refined in the automotive industry, but it is relatively new in the agricultural/off-road vehicle industry. This paper describes the source-path-receiver approach that led to identifying the exhaust tip as the source and the vibro-acoustic coupling of a windshield structural mode with an acoustic cab cavity mode as the path of the boom event.
Technical Paper

Identification and Reduction of Booming Noise on a Motor Grader

2011-05-17
2011-01-1729
NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machines' performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in a motor grader when it is used under certain operating conditions that cause low frequency excitations to the machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, both simulation and testing techniques were leveraged to reduce the booming noise of a motor grader. Simultaneous structural/acoustics simulations and experimental modal tests were performed to evaluate this phenomenon. The simulation models were validated using test results and then used to evaluate solutions to this noise problem. Further field tests confirmed the validity of these recommended solutions.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Roof Deflector and Cab Side Extenders for Truck-Trailer Combinations

2011-09-13
2011-01-2284
Today there are a large variety of drag-reducing devices for heavy trucks that are commonly used, for example, roof deflectors, cab side extenders and chassis fairings. These devices are often proven to be efficient, reducing the total aerodynamic resistance for the vehicle. However, the drag-reducing devices are usually identical for a specific pulling vehicle, independent of the layout of the vehicle combination. In this study, three vehicle combinations were analyzed. The total length of the vehicles varied between 10.10 m and 25.25 m. The combinations consisted of a rigid truck in combination with one or two cargo units. The size of the gap between the cargo units differed between the vehicle combinations. There were also three configurations of each vehicle combination with different combinations of roof deflector and cab side extenders, yielding a total number of nine configurations.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Power Management Strategies for a Multi-Actuator Hydraulic Hybrid Machine System

2011-09-13
2011-01-2273
This paper compares two different rule-based power management (PM) strategies, in terms of their resultant fuel consumptions, through a simulation study as applied to a hybrid hydraulic multi-actuator displacement controlled (DC) system. Specifically, the system analyzed is a mini-excavator, wherein the digging functions are powered using four variable displacement pump/motors - these units are also shared by the auxiliary functions. In addition, the on-board hydraulic energy storage device, or accumulator, is charged or discharged using an additional pump/motor, called the storage unit. A parallel architecture is used for the hybrid system wherein the additional pump/motor is on the engine shaft, running at the same speed as the engine (and the other four pumps). An aggressive and fast, digging cycle was used to size the storage unit and accumulator, as well as to compare the performance of the two different strategies.
Journal Article

Modeling of an Excavator System - Semi Empirical Hydraulic Pump Model

2011-09-13
2011-01-2278
This paper describes the preliminary results of a study focused on the semi empirical modeling of an excavator's hydraulic pump. From the viewpoint of designing and tuning an efficient control system, the excavator is a very complex nonlinear plant. To design and tune such a complex control system an extremely good nonlinear model of the plant is necessary. The problem of modeling an excavator is considered in this paper; a nonlinear mathematical model of an excavator has been developed using the bond graph methodology realized in the AMESim® simulation software to replicate actual operating conditions. The excavator model is described by two models: a hydraulic model and a kinematic model. At this stage of research the hydraulic model deals solely with the model of the main hydraulic pump, which has been conceived as a semi empirical model.
Journal Article

Flexible Real-Time Simulation of Truck and Trailer Configurations

2011-09-13
2011-01-2264
Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Implementing Telematics Solutions in Heavy, Mobile Equipment Markets

2011-09-13
2011-01-2258
This paper will examine factors that should be considered by a vehicle OEM when implementing a telematics solution in heavy on-and off-road mobile equipment markets. For the purposes of this paper, heavy mobile equipment will be inclusive of agricultural, construction, industrial, forestry, and on-road truck vehicles. Telematics will be defined as two-way, wireless communication between a vehicle and its external environment. Although many of the concepts discussed will be relevant to consumer, light automotive, or fixed industrial applications, the scope of this paper is directed toward heavy, mobile equipment OEMs.
Technical Paper

Lateral Vibration Prediction of Drivelines Having a Flexible Coupling

2011-09-13
2011-01-2238
This work provides a theoretical analysis of the natural and forced lateral vibration in a driveline having a flexible coupling and universal joints. The analysis is specific to the front driveline common in many off-highway vehicles which usually consists of a flexible coupling at the engine flywheel, the driveshaft, and one or two universal joints. A torsionally flexible coupling is often needed in a front driveline to suppress torsional vibration. The problem is that most torsionally flexible couplings are also inherently flexible in their radial and cocking directions. These additional directions of flexibility, compounded by the presence of universal joints, can result in unexpectedly low lateral natural frequencies of the driveline. With a few axial dimensions, mass properties of the driveline, and stiffness properties of the flexible coupling, this work provides simple, closed-form calculations for the lowest lateral natural frequencies.
Technical Paper

Steering Wheel Vibration Reduction for Agricultural Tractors

2009-01-21
2009-26-0046
Over the past 20 years automobile quality and consumer perceptions and demands thereof, have been an increasing part of the vehicle engineering process. In automotive systems, System-induced Steering wheel vibration is a significant source of consumer annoyance. When dealing with vibration related issues, the design and analysis plays a major role for determining the root cause for the problem. Once the problem is well defined, the solution for addressing the problem will be made simple. In this paper, the author demonstrates the systematic approach in reducing the steering wheel vibration through Design for Six Sigma (DFSS).
Technical Paper

Implementation of Virtual Instrumentation Concept on Tests Rigs

2009-01-21
2009-26-0078
Tractor is used as a farm machine for various agricultural applications and non-agricultural applications. These are like land and soil preparation, harvesting, goods transport vehicle for short distances and also as low cost construction equipment. The usage pattern is scattered and largely depends on type of operation, region, and operator driving habits. Due to larger range of usage pattern, there are many challenges for tractor testing and evaluation. The evaluation process starts with field load data acquisition, followed by development of test load cycles and test facilities to simulate the field load conditions in lab with adequate acceleration. Traditionally for testing of transmission, hydraulics, brake, clutch, gear shifting mechanism, engine test beds are mechatronics (mechanical and electronics) system. These systems having fix specifications so it's not possible to change the configuration.
Technical Paper

Obtaining Structure-Borne Input Power for a SEA Model of an Earthmoving Machine Cab

2011-05-17
2011-01-1732
Properly characterizing input forces is an important part of simulating structure-borne noise problems. The purpose of this work was to apply a known force reconstruction technique to an earthmoving machinery cab to obtain input functions for modeling purposes. The technique was performed on a cab under controlled laboratory conditions to gain confidence in the method prior to use on actual machines. Forces were measured directly using force transducers and compared to results from the force reconstruction technique. The measured forces and vibrations were used as input power to an SEA model with favorable results.
Journal Article

An Improved Finite Element-Based Model for Reliability Assessment of a Profile-Type Automotive Body Experiencing Uncertain Loading Conditions and Material Properties

2011-04-12
2011-01-0731
Beam-type structural elements are generally utilized in construction of majority of the automotive structures, e.g. the buses, trailers, and solid axles. These components are usually subjected to spatially-random or uncertain load conditions during their service lives. Moreover, material properties of the beams-type structural elements may vary from a sample to another in a random manner. The situation will be more complex when both material properties and load conditions exhibit random natures in the spatial domain. In the present paper, an algorithm is presented to assess the probabilistic behavior of the beam-type vehicle's components in relation with the strength and deflection requirements. A consistent finite element reliability model that may be employed for beams with arbitrary inclinations under simultaneous spatially-random loading conditions and random material properties is introduced.
Technical Paper

Parametric Evaluation of Design and Operating Conditions of a Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine through 3-D Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0825
A low temperature combustion (LTC) diesel engine has been under investigation for reduction of NOx and soot with acceptable compromise in the efficiency through modification of the combustion process. In this paper computational simulation is performed as a preliminary step for development of an LTC diesel engine for off-highway construction vehicles. Validation is performed for major physical models against measurements in LTC conditions. The conditional moment closure (CMC) is employed to address coupling between chemistry and turbulence in KIVA-CMC. The Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) model is employed for spray breakup and a skeletal n-heptane mechanism for both low and high temperature chemistry. Parametric evaluation is performed for design and operating conditions including EGR rate and injection timing. Results are obtained for efficiency, IMEP, CO, NOx and PM emissions at intake boost pressures of 1, 2 and 3 bar.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Active Control Strategies for Improving Lateral Stability of Car-Trailer Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0959
This paper examines the performance of different active control strategies for improving lateral stability of car-trailer systems using numerical simulations. For car-trailer systems, three typical unstable motion modes, including trailer swing, jack-knifing and roll-over, have been identified. These unstable motion modes represent potentially hazardous situations. The effects of passive mechanical vehicle parameters on the stability of car-trailer systems have been well addressed. For a given car-trailer system, some of these passive parameters, e.g., the center of gravity of the trailer, are greatly varied under different operating conditions. Thus, lateral stability cannot be guaranteed by selecting a specific passive parameter set. To address this problem, various active control techniques have been proposed to improve handling and stability of car-trailer systems. Feasible control methods involve active trailer steering control (ATSC) and active trailer braking (ATB).
Technical Paper

Improving Vehicle-Trailer System Dynamic Stability through Damper Tuning

2011-04-12
2011-01-0978
There are generally two types of directional instability that are associated with a vehicle/trailer combination system. The first is typically referred to as static or divergent instability (jack-knifing), which is a common cause of highway accidents. The second can be called dynamic or oscillatory instability (“snaking” or “fish-tailing”). This type of oscillation occurs due to inherently low system damping at higher speeds [1]. It is sensitive to system parameters and operating conditions and may be excited by various disturbances, such as side wind or abrupt steering inputs. Controlling trailer yaw oscillation can be challenging, especially in markets where small passenger cars are commonly used to tow relatively massive trailers at highway speeds with low hitch loads. This study focuses on the second of the two aforementioned types of instability - dynamic or oscillatory instability.
Technical Paper

An Optimal Preview Controller for Active Trailer Steering Systems of Articulated Heavy Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0983
An optimal preview controller is designed for active trailer steering (ATS) systems to improve high-speed stability of articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs). AHVs' unstable motion modes, including jack-knifing and rollover, are the leading course of highway accidents. To prevent these unstable motion modes, the optimal controller, namely the compound lateral position deviation preview (CLPDP) controller, is proposed to control the steering of the front and rear axle wheels of the trailing unit of a truck/full-trailer combination. The corrective steering angle of the trailer front axle wheels is determined using the preview information of the lateral position deviation of the trajectory of the axle center from that of the truck front axle center. In turn, the steering angle of the trailer rear axle wheels is calculated considering the lateral position deviation of the trajectory of the axle center from that of the trailer front axle.
Journal Article

Investigation of Trailer Yaw Motion Control Using Active Front Steer and Differential Brake

2011-04-12
2011-01-0985
This paper presents a control system development for a yaw motion control of a vehicle-trailer combination using the integrated control of active front steer (AFS) and differential brake (DB). A 21 degree of freedom (dof) vehicle-trailer combination model that represents a large SUV and a medium one-axle trailer has been developed for this study. A model reference sliding mode controller (MRSMC) has been developed to generate the desired yaw moment. Based on the understanding of advantages and limitations of AFS and DB, a new integrated control algorithm was proposed. The simulation result shows that integrated control of AFS and DB can restrain the trailer's oscillation effectively and shows less longitudinal speed drop and higher stable margin compared to the DB activated only case while maintaining the yaw stability.
Technical Paper

Design and Durability of Vanadium-SCR Catalyst Systems in Mobile Off-Road Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1316
The emission regulations for mobile off-road applications are following on-road trends by a short delay. The latest Stage 3B and 4 emission limits mean a gradual implementation of oxidation and SCR catalysts as well as particulate filters with off-road machines/vehicles in the 2010s. The driving conditions and test cycles differ from on-road truck applications which have been the first design base for off-road aftertreatment technologies. Aftertreatment systems for Stage 4 were first analyzed and they will include oxidation catalysts, a NOx reduction catalyst (SCR or LNT), a particulate filter and possibly units for urea hydrolysis and ammonia slip removal. The design and durability of V₂O₅/TiO₂-WO₃ catalysts based on metallic substrates were investigated by engine bench and field experiments. NOx emissions were measured with 6.6 and 8.4 liters engines designed for agricultural and industrial machinery.
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